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Emergy
Emergy
Emergy
is a type of energy (exergy) that is consumed in direct and indirect transformations needed to make a product or service.[1] Emergy
Emergy
is a measure of quality differences between different forms of energy. Emergy
Emergy
is an expression of all the energy used in the work processes that generate a product or service in units of one type of energy. Emergy
Emergy
is measured in units of emjoules, a unit referring to the available energy consumed in transformations. Emergy
Emergy
accounts for different forms of energy and resources (e.g. sunlight, water, fossil fuels, minerals, etc.) Each form is generated by transformation processes in nature and each has a different ability to support work in natural and in human systems
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Journal Of Cleaner Production
The Journal of Cleaner Production is a peer-reviewed academic journal covering transdisciplinary research on cleaner production. It is published by Elsevier. The editor-in-chief is Donald Huisingh, University of Tennessee. According to the Journal Citation Reports, the journal has a 2016 impact factor of 5.715.[1] References[edit]^ "Journal of Cleaner Production". 2013 Journal Citation Reports. Web of Science (Science ed.). Thomson Reuters. 2014. External links[edit]Official websiteThis article about an engineering journal is a stub. You can help by expanding it.v t eSee tips for writing articles about academic journals
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Industrial Metabolism
Industrial metabolism is a concept to describe the material and energy turnover of industrial systems. It was proposed by Robert Ayres in analogy to the biological metabolism as "the whole integrated collection of physical processes that convert raw materials and energy, plus labour, into finished products and wastes..."[1] In analogy to the biological concept of metabolism, which is used to describe the whole of chemical reactions in, for example, a cell to maintain its functions and reproduce itself, the concept of industrial metabolism describes the chemical reactions, transport processes, and manufacturing activities in industry. Industrial metabolism presupposes a connection between different industrial activities by seeing them as part of a larger system, such as a material cycle or the supply chain of a commodity
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Thermodynamics
Thermodynamics
Thermodynamics
is a branch of physics concerned with heat and temperature and their relation to other forms of energy and work. The behavior of these quantities is governed by the four laws of thermodynamics, irrespective of the composition or specific properties of the material or system in question. The laws of thermodynamics are explained in terms of microscopic constituents by statistical mechanics
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Complex Systems
Collective intelligence Collective action Self-organized criticality Herd mentality Phase transition Agent-based modelling Synchronization Ant
Ant
colony optimization Particle swarm optimization Swarm behaviourNetworks Scale-free networks Social network analysis Small-world networks Community
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Labor Theory Of Value
The labor theory of value (LTV) is a theory of value that argues that the economic value of a good or service is determined by the total amount of "socially necessary labor" required to produce it, rather than by the use or pleasure its owner gets from it. It does not say that the value of a commodity is determined by the actual amount of labor contained in it, but the average amount needed to produce it. This is called "socially necessary labor". LTV is usually associated with Marxian economics, although it is also used in the theories of earlier liberal economists such as Adam Smith
Adam Smith
and David Ricardo
David Ricardo
and later also in anarchist economics. Smith saw the price of a commodity in terms of the labor that the purchaser must expend to buy it, which embodies the concept of how much labor a commodity, a tool for example, can save the purchaser
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Calorie
A calorie is a unit of energy. Various definitions exist but fall into two broad categories. The first, the small calorie, or gram calorie (symbol: cal), is defined as the approximate amount of energy needed to raise the temperature of one gram of water by one degree Celsius
Celsius
at a pressure of one atmosphere.[1] The second is the large calorie or kilogram calorie (symbol: Cal), also known as the food calorie and similar names,[2] is defined in terms of the kilogram rather than the gram. It is equal to 7003100000000000000♠1000 small calories or 1 kilocalorie (symbol: kcal).[1] Although these units relate to the metric system, all of them have been considered obsolete in science since the adoption of the SI system.[3] The unit of energy in the International System of Units
International System of Units
is the joule. One small calorie is approximately 4.2 joules (so one large calorie is about 4.2 kilojoules)
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Newton's Laws Of Motion
Newton's laws of motion
Newton's laws of motion
are three physical laws that, together, laid the foundation for classical mechanics. They describe the relationship between a body and the forces acting upon it, and its motion in response to those forces. More precisely, the first law defines the force qualitatively, the second law offers a quantitative measure of the force, and the third asserts that a single isolated force doesn't exist. These three laws have been expressed in several ways, over nearly three centuries,[1] and can be summarised as follows:First law: In an inertial frame of reference, an object either remains at rest or continues to move at a constant velocity, unless acted upon by a force.[2][3]Second law: In an inertial reference frame, the vector sum of the forces F on an object is equal to the mass m of that object multiplied by the acceleration a of the object: F = ma
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Anthropogenic Metabolism
Anthropogenic metabolism, also referred to as 'metabolism of the anthroposphere', is a term used in industrial ecology, material flow analysis, and waste management to describe the material and energy turnover of human society. It emerges from the application of systems thinking to the industrial and other man-made activities and it is a central concept of sustainable development
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Ecological Energetics
Left: Energy
Energy
flow diagram of a frog. The frog represents a node in an extended food web. The energy ingested is utilized for metabolic processes and transformed into biomass. The energy flow continues on its path if the frog is ingested by predators, parasites, or as a decaying carcass in soil. This energy flow diagram illustrates how energy is lost as it fuels the metabolic process that transform the energy and nutrients into biomass. Right: An expanded three link energy food chain (1. plants, 2. herbivores, 3. carnivores) illustrating the relationship between food flow diagrams and energy transformity. The transformity of energy becomes degraded, dispersed, and diminished from higher quality to lesser quantity as the energy within a food chain flows from one trophic species into another
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Energy Accounting
Energy accounting
Energy accounting
is a system used to measure, analyze and report the energy consumption of different activities on a regular basis.[1] This is done to improve energy efficiency,[2] and to monitor the environment impact of energy consumption.Contents1 Energy management 2 Energy balance 3 See also 4 References 5 External linksEnergy management[edit]Thermal energy is the amount of random molecular kinetic energy. Energy accounting
Energy accounting
is a system used in energy management systems to measure and analyze energy consumption to improve energy efficiency within an organization.[2] Organisations such as Intel corporation use these systems to track energy usage.[3] Various energy transformations are possible. An energy balance can be used to track energy through a system. This becomes a useful tool for determining resource use and environmental impacts
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Material Flow Analysis
Material flow analysis
Material flow analysis
(MFA) (also referred to as substance flow analysis (SFA)) is an analytical method to quantify flows and stocks of materials or substances in a well-defined system. MFA is an important tool to study the bio-physical aspects of human activity on different spatial and temporal scales. It is considered a core method of industrial ecology or anthropogenic, urban, social and industrial metabolism. MFA is used to study material, substance, or product flows across different industrial sectors or within ecosystems. MFA can also be applied to a single industrial installation, for example, for tracking nutrient flows through a waste water treatment plant. When combined with an assessment of the costs associated with material flows this business-oriented application of MFA is called material flow cost accounting. MFA is an important tool to study the circular economy and to devise material flow management
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Tide
Tides are the rise and fall of sea levels caused by the combined effects of the gravitational forces exerted by the Moon
Moon
and the Sun and the rotation of Earth. Tide
Tide
tables can be used to find the predicted times and amplitude (or "tidal range") of tides at any given locale. The predictions are influenced by many factors including the alignment of the Sun
Sun
and Moon, the phase and amplitude of the tide (pattern of tides in the deep ocean), the amphidromic systems of the oceans, and the shape of the coastline and near-shore bathymetry (see Timing). They are however only predictions, the actual time and height of the tide is affected by wind and atmospheric pressure. Some shorelines experience a semi-diurnal tide—two nearly equal high and low tides each day. Other locations experience a diurnal tide—only one high and low tide each day
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Social Metabolism
Social metabolism or socioeconomic metabolism is the set of flows of materials and energy that occur between Nature
Nature
and society, between different societies, and within societies. These human-controlled material and energy flows are a basic feature of all societies but their magnitude and diversity largely depend on specific cultures, or sociometabolic regimes.[1][2] Social or socioeconomic metabolism is also described as "the self-reproduction and evolution of the biophysical structures of human society. It comprises those biophysical transformation processes, distribution processes, and flows, which are controlled by humans for their purposes. The biophysical structures of society (‘in use stocks’) and socioeconomic metabolism together form the biophysical basis of society." [3] Social metabolic processes begin with the human appropriation of materials and energy from nature
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International Standard Book Number
"ISBN" redirects here. For other uses, see ISBN (other).International Standard Book
Book
NumberA 13-digit ISBN, 978-3-16-148410-0, as represented by an EAN-13 bar codeAcronym ISBNIntroduced 1970; 48 years ago (1970)Managing organisation International ISBN AgencyNo. of digits 13 (formerly 10)Check digit Weighted sumExample 978-3-16-148410-0Website www.isbn-international.orgThe International Standard Book
Book
Number (ISBN) is a unique[a][b] numeric commercial book identifier. Publishers purchase ISBNs from an affiliate of the International ISBN Agency.[1] An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation (except reprintings) of a book. For example, an e-book, a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, and 10 digits long if assigned before 2007
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Special
Special
Special
or specials may refer to:Contents1 Music 2 Film and television 3 Other uses 4 See alsoMusic[edit] Special
Special
(album), a 1992 album by Vesta Williams "Special" (Garbage song), 1998 "Special
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