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Elwin Bruno Christoffel
Elwin Bruno Christoffel
Elwin Bruno Christoffel
(German: [kʀɪˈstɔfəl]; November 10, 1829 – March 15, 1900) was a German mathematician and physicist. He introduced fundamental concepts of differential geometry, opening the way for the development of tensor calculus, which would later provide the mathematical basis for general relativity.Contents1 Life 2 Work2.1 Differential geometry 2.2 Complex analysis 2.3 Numerical analysis 2.4 Other research3 Honours 4 Selected publications 5 Notes 6 References 7 External linksLife[edit] Christoffel was born on 10 November 1829 in Montjoie (now Monschau) in Prussia
Prussia
in a family of cloth merchants. He was initially educated at home in languages and mathematics, then attended the Jesuit Gymnasium and the Friedrich-Wilhelms Gymnasium in Cologne
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Technical University Of Berlin
The Technical University of Berlin
Berlin
(German: Technische Universität Berlin, known as TU Berlin) is a research university located in Berlin, Germany. It was founded in 1879 and became one of the most prestigious education institutions in Europe. It has one of the highest proportions of international students in Germany, almost 20% were enrolled in 2016. The TU Berlin
Berlin
is a member of TU9, an incorporated society of the largest and most notable German institutes of technology and of the Top Industrial Managers for Europe network,[4] which allows for student exchanges between leading engineering schools
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Cologne
Cologne
Cologne
(English: /kəˈloʊn/; German: Köln, pronounced [kœln] ( listen), Ripuarian: Kölle [ˈkœɫə] ( listen)) is the largest city in the German federal State of North Rhine-Westphalia
North Rhine-Westphalia
and the fourth most populated city in Germany
Germany
(after Berlin, Hamburg, and Munich). It is located within the Rhine-Ruhr
Rhine-Ruhr
metropolitan region which is Germany's largest and one of Europe's major metropolitan areas. Cologne
Cologne
is about 45 kilometres (28 mi) southwest of North Rhine-Westphalia's capital of Dusseldorf
Dusseldorf
and 25 kilometres (16 mi) northwest of Bonn. Cologne
Cologne
is located on both sides of the Rhine, near Germany's borders with Belgium
Belgium
and the Netherlands
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Mathematician
A mathematician is someone who uses an extensive knowledge of mathematics in his or her work, typically to solve mathematical problems. Mathematics
Mathematics
is concerned with numbers, data, quantity, structure, space, models, and change.Contents1 History 2 Required education 3 Activities3.1 Applied mathematics 3.2 Abstract mathematics 3.3 Mathematics
Mathematics
teaching 3.4 Consulting4 Occupations 5 Quotations about mathematicians 6 Prizes in mathematics 7 Mathematical autobiographies 8 See also 9 Notes 10 References 11 Further reading 12 External linksHistory This section is on the history of mathematicians
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Physicist
A physicist is a scientist who has specialized knowledge in the field of physics, which encompasses the interactions of matter and energy at all length and time scales in the physical universe. [1][2] Physicists generally are interested in the root or ultimate causes of phenomena, and usually frame their understanding in mathematical terms. Physicists work across a wide range of research fields, spanning all length scales: from sub-atomic and particle physics, to molecular length scales of chemical and biological interest, to cosmological length scales encompassing the Universe
Universe
as a whole
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Franco-Prussian War
Baden  Bavaria Württemberg Hesse-Darmstadt French Empirea German Empired French RepublicbCommanders and leaders William I Otto von Bismarck Helmuth von Moltke Crown Prince Friedrich Prince Friedrich Karl Karl F. von Steinmetz Albrecht von Roon Napoleon
Napoleon
III (POW) F. A
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Prussia
Prussia
Prussia
(/ˈprʌʃə/; German:  Preußen (help·info) [ˈpʁɔʏ̯sən]) was a historically prominent German state that originated in 1525 with a duchy centred on the region of Prussia. It was de facto dissolved by an emergency decree transferring powers of the Prussian government to German Chancellor
German Chancellor
Franz von Papen
Franz von Papen
in 1932 and de jure by an Allied decree in 1947. For centuries, the House of Hohenzollern ruled Prussia, successfully expanding its size by way of an unusually well-organised and effective army. Prussia, with its capital in Königsberg
Königsberg
and from 1701 in Berlin, decisively shaped the history of Germany. In 1871, German states united to create the German Empire
German Empire
under Prussian leadership
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Alsace-Loraine
The Imperial Territory of Alsace- Lorraine
Lorraine
(German: Reichsland Elsaß-Lothringen or Elsass-Lothringen, French: Terre d'Empire d'Alsace- Lorraine
Lorraine
or Alsace-Moselle) was a territory created by the German Empire
German Empire
in 1871, after it annexed most of Alsace
Alsace
and the Moselle department of Lorraine
Lorraine
following its victory in the Franco-Prussian War. The Alsatian part lay in the Rhine
Rhine
Valley on the west bank of the Rhine River
Rhine River
and east of the Vosges Mountains
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Kingdom Of Prussia
The Kingdom of Prussia
Prussia
(German: Königreich Preußen) was a German kingdom that constituted the state of Prussia
Prussia
between 1701 and 1918 and included parts of present-day Germany, Poland, Russia, Lithuania, Denmark, Belgium
Belgium
and the Czech Republic.[3] It was the driving force behind the unification of Germany
Germany
in 1871 and was the leading state of the German Empire
German Empire
until its dissolution in 1918.[3] Although it took its name from the region called Prussia, it was based in the Margraviate of Brandenburg, where its capital was Berlin. The kings of Prussia
Prussia
were from the House of Hohenzollern
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Gymnasium (Germany)
Gymnasium (German pronunciation: [ɡʏmˈnaːzi̯ʊm]; German plural: Gymnasien), in the German education system, is the most advanced of the three types of German secondary schools, the others being Realschule
Realschule
and Hauptschule. Gymnasium strongly emphasizes academic learning, comparable to the British grammar school system or with prep schools in the United States. A student attending gymnasium is called a "Gymnasiast" (German plural: Gymnasiasten). In 2009/10 there were 3,094 gymnasia in Germany, with c. 2,475,000 students (about 28 percent of all precollegiate students during that period), resulting in an average student number of 800 students per school.[1] Gymnasia are generally public, state-funded schools, but a number of parochial and private gymnasia also exist. In 2009/10, 11.1 percent of gymnasium students attended a private gymnasium.[1] These often charge tuition fees, though many also offer scholarships
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Electricity
Electricity
Electricity
is the set of physical phenomena associated with the presence and motion of electric charge. Although initially considered a phenomenon separate from magnetism, since the development of Maxwell's equations, both are recognized as part of a single phenomenon: electromagnetism. Various common phenomena are related to electricity, including lightning, static electricity, electric heating, electric discharges and many others. The presence of an electric charge, which can be either positive or negative, produces an electric field. The movement of electric charges is an electric current and produces a magnetic field. When a charge is placed in a location with a non-zero electric field, a force will act on it. The magnitude of this force is given by Coulomb's law. Thus, if that charge were to move, the electric field would be doing work on the electric charge
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Theodor Reye
Karl Theodor Reye (born 20 June 1838 in Ritzebüttel, Germany and died 2 July 1919 in Würzburg, Germany) was a German mathematician. He contributed to geometry, particularly projective geometry and synthetic geometry. He is best known for his introduction of configurations in the second edition of his book, Geometrie der Lage (Geometry of Position, 1876).[1] The Reye configuration of 12 points, 12 planes, and 16 lines is named after him. Reye also developed a novel solution to the following three-dimensional extension of the problem of Apollonius: Construct all possible spheres that are simultaneously tangent to four given spheres.[2]Contents1 Life 2 Mathematical work 3 References 4 External linksLife[edit] Reye obtained his Ph.D. from the University of Göttingen in 1861
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Bernhard Riemann
Georg Friedrich Bernhard Riemann
Bernhard Riemann
(German: [ˈʀiːman] ( listen); 17 September 1826 – 20 July 1866) was a German mathematician who made contributions to analysis, number theory, and differential geometry. In the field of real analysis, he is mostly known for the first rigorous formulation of the integral, the Riemann integral, and his work on Fourier series. His contributions to complex analysis include most notably the introduction of Riemann surfaces, breaking new ground in a natural, geometric treatment of complex analysis. His famous 1859 paper on the prime-counting function, containing the original statement of the Riemann hypothesis, is regarded as one of the most influential papers in analytic number theory
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Augustin-Louis Cauchy
Baron
Baron
Augustin-Louis Cauchy
Augustin-Louis Cauchy
FRS FRSE
FRSE
(/koʊˈʃiː/;[1] French: [oɡystɛ̃ lwi koʃi]; 21 August 1789 – 23 May 1857) was a French mathematician and physicist who made pioneering contributions to mathematical analysis
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Habilitation
Habilitation defines the qualification to conduct self-contained university teaching and is the key for access to a professorship in many European countries. Despite all changes implemented in the European higher education systems during the Bologna Process, it is the highest qualification level issued through the process of a university examination and remains a core concept of scientific careers in these countries.[1] The degree is conferred for a habilitation thesis based on independent scholarship, which was reviewed by and successfully defended before an academic committee in a process similar to that of a doctoral dissertation
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Privatdozent
Privatdozent (for men) or Privatdozentin (for women), abbreviated PD, P.D. or Priv.-Doz., is an academic title conferred at some European universities, especially in German-speaking countries, to someone who holds certain formal qualifications that denote an ability to teach (venia legendi ) a designated subject at university level. In its current usage, the title indicates that the holder has permission to teach and examine independently without being a professor. The title is not necessarily connected to a salaried position, but may entail a nominal obligation to teach. Conferment and roles[edit] A university faculty can confer the title to an academic who has a higher doctoral degree - usually in the form of a habilitation.[1] The title, Privatdozent, as such does not imply a salaried appointment; it merely denotes permission to teach and examine independently at the conferring faculty without a professorial appointment
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