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Ellis Peters
EDITH MARY PARGETER, OBE , BEM (28 September 1913 – 14 October 1995), also known by her nom de plume ELLIS PETERS, was an English author of works in many categories, especially history and historical fiction , and was also honoured for her translations of Czech classics; she is probably best known for her murder mysteries, both historical and modern. She is well known for her medieval-detective series The Cadfael Chronicles . CONTENTS * 1 Personal * 2 Writing career * 3 Death * 4 Recognition * 5 Bibliography * 5.1 As Edith Pargeter * 5.1.1 The Heaven Tree Trilogy * 5.1.2 The Brothers of Gwynedd Quartet * 5.1.3 Jim Benison a.k.a
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Czechoslovakia
CZECHOSLOVAKIA, or CZECHO-SLOVAKIA (/ˌtʃɛkoʊsloʊˈvækiə, -kə-, -slə-, -ˈvɑː-/ ; Czech and Slovak : Československo, Česko-Slovensko ), was a sovereign state in Central Europe that existed from October 1918, when it declared its independence from the Austro-Hungarian Empire , until its peaceful dissolution into the Czech Republic
Czech Republic
and Slovakia
Slovakia
on 1 January 1993. From 1939 to 1945, following its forced division and partial incorporation into Nazi Germany
Nazi Germany
, the state did not de facto exist but its government-in-exile continued to operate. From 1948 to 1990, Czechoslovakia
Czechoslovakia
was part of the Soviet bloc with a command economy . Its economic status was formalized in membership of Comecon from 1949 and its defense status in the Warsaw Pact of May 1955
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Birmingham University
The University College scarves * College of Arts and Law College of Social Sciences College of Life and Environmental Sciences College of Engineering and Physical Sciences College of Medical and Dental Sciences AFFILIATIONS Universitas 21 Universities UK
Universities UK
EUA ACU Sutton 13 Russell Group
Russell Group
WEBSITE birmingham.ac.ukThe UNIVERSITY OF BIRMINGHAM (informally BIRMINGHAM UNIVERSITY) is a public research university located in Edgbaston
Edgbaston
, Birmingham
Birmingham
, United Kingdom
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New Year Honours
The NEW YEAR HONOURS is a part of the British honours system , with New Year's Day, 1 January, being marked by naming new members of orders of chivalry and recipients of other official honours. A number of other Commonwealth realms also mark this day in this way. The awards are presented by or in the name of the reigning monarch, currently Queen Elizabeth II
Elizabeth II
or her vice-regal representative. British honours are published in supplements to the London Gazette
London Gazette
. Honours have been awarded at New Year since at least 1890, in which year a list of Queen Victoria
Queen Victoria
's awards was published by the London Gazette on 2 January
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Petty Officer
A PETTY OFFICER (PO) is a non-commissioned officer in many navies and is given the NATO
NATO
rank denotion OR-6 . In many nations, they are typically equal to a corporal or sergeant in comparison to other military branches. Often they may be superior to a seaman , generally the (or one of the) lowest ranks in a navy, and subordinate to a more senior non-commissioned officer, such as a chief petty officer . CONTENTS * 1 Origin * 2 Usage in Navies * 2.1 Canada * 2.2 India * 2.3 United Kingdom * 2.4 United States * 2.5 Non English-speaking countries * 3 See also * 4 References ORIGINThe modern petty officer dates back to the Age of Sail . Petty officers rank between naval officers (both commissioned and warrant ) and most enlisted sailors . These were men with some claim to officer rank, sufficient to distinguish them from ordinary ratings , without raising them so high as the sea officers
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World War II
Allied victory * Collapse of Nazi Germany
Nazi Germany
* Fall of Japanese and Italian Empires * Dissolution of the League of Nations
League of Nations
* Creation of the United Nations
United Nations
* Emergence of the United States
United States
and the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
as superpowers * Beginning of the Cold War
Cold War
(more... ) PARTICIPANTS ALLIED POWERS AXIS POWERS COMMANDERS AND LEADERS MAIN ALLIED LEADERS * Joseph Stalin
Joseph Stalin
* Franklin D
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Women's Royal Naval Service
The WOMEN\'S ROYAL NAVAL SERVICE (WRNS; popularly and officially known as the WRENS) was the women's branch of the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
's Royal Navy
Royal Navy
. First formed in 1917 for the First World War , it was disbanded in 1919, then revived in 1939 at the beginning of the Second World War , remaining active until integrated into the Royal Navy
Royal Navy
in 1993. WRNs included cooks , clerks , wireless telegraphists , radar plotters , weapons analysts, range assessors , electricians and air mechanics. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Ranks and uniform * 3 List of Directors * 4 See also * 5 Notes * 6 Further reading * 7 External links HISTORYWrens were formed in 1917 during the First World War . On 10 October 1918, nineteen-year-old Josephine Carr from Cork , became the first Wren to die on active service, when her ship, the RMS Leinster was torpedoed
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Mystery Writers Of America
MYSTERY WRITERS OF AMERICA (MWA) is an organization of mystery and crime writers, based in New York City . The organization was founded in 1945 by Clayton Rawson , Anthony Boucher , Lawrence Treat , and Brett Halliday . It presents the Edgar Award , a small bust of Edgar Allan Poe , to mystery or crime writers every year. It presents the Raven Award to non-writers, who contribute to the mystery genre. The category of Best Juvenile Mystery is also part of the Edgar Award, with such notable recipients as Barbara Brooks Wallace having won the honor twice, for The Twin in the Tavern in 1994 and Sparrows in the Scullery in 1998, and Tony Abbott for his novel The Postcard, which received critical accolades in 2009
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Llewelyn The Last
LLYWELYN AP GRUFFUDD (c. 1223 – 11 December 1282), sometimes written as LLYWELYN AP GRUFFYDD, also known as LLYWELYN THE LAST, or, in Welsh , LLYWELYN EIN LLYW OLAF ("Llywelyn, Our Last Leader"), was Prince of Wales (Latin: Princeps Wallie; Welsh: Tywysog Cymru) from 1258 until his death at Cilmeri in 1282. The son of Gruffudd ap Llywelyn Fawr and grandson of Llywelyn the Great , he was the last sovereign prince of Wales before its conquest by Edward I of England . CONTENTS * 1 Genealogy and early life * 2 Early reign * 3 Supremacy in Wales * 4 Treaty of Aberconwy * 5 Last campaign and death * 6 Annexation * 7 Family tree * 8 Historical fiction * 9 Ancestry * 10 See also * 11 Notes * 12 References * 13 External links GENEALOGY AND EARLY LIFELlywelyn was the second of the four sons of Gruffudd , the eldest son of Llywelyn the Great , and Senana ferch Caradog , the daughter of Caradoc ap Thomas ap Rhodri, Lord of Anglesey
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Arthur I, Duke Of Brittany
ARTHUR I (Breton : Arzhur Iañ; French : Arthur Ier de Bretagne) (29 March 1187 – probably 1203) was 4th Earl of Richmond and Duke of Brittany
Brittany
between 1196 and 1203. He was the posthumous son of Geoffrey II, Duke of Brittany
Brittany
and Constance, Duchess of Brittany
Constance, Duchess of Brittany
. Geoffrey was a son of Henry II, King of England , younger than Richard the Lionheart but older than John Lackland . In 1190 Arthur was designated heir to the throne of England and its French territory by his uncle, Richard I, the intent being that Arthur would succeed Richard in preference to Richard's younger brother John. Nothing is recorded of Arthur after his incarceration in Rouen Castle in 1203, and while his precise fate is unknown, it is generally believed he was killed by John
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John I Of England
JOHN (24 December 1166 – 19 October 1216), also known as JOHN LACKLAND (Norman French : Johan sanz Terre), was King of England from 6 April 1199 until his death in 1216. John lost the Duchy of Normandy to King Philip II of France , resulting in the collapse of most of the Angevin Empire and contributing to the subsequent growth in power of the Capetian dynasty during the 13th century. The baronial revolt at the end of John's reign led to the sealing of Magna Carta , a document sometimes considered to be an early step in the evolution of the constitution of the United Kingdom . John, the youngest of five sons of King Henry II of England and Duchess Eleanor of Aquitaine , was at first not expected to inherit significant lands. Following the failed rebellion of his elder brothers between 1173 and 1174, however, John became Henry's favourite child. He was appointed the Lord of Ireland in 1177 and given lands in England and on the continent
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Kent
KENT /kɛnt/ is a county in South East England
England
and one of the home counties . It borders Greater London
Greater London
to the north west, Surrey
Surrey
to the west and East Sussex
East Sussex
to the south west. The county also shares borders with Essex
Essex
along the estuary of the River Thames
River Thames
, and with the French department of Pas-de-Calais along the English Channel
English Channel
. The county town is Maidstone
Maidstone

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Hubert De Burgh
HUBERT DE BURGH, 1ST EARL OF KENT (c. 1170 – before 5 May 1243) was Justiciar of England and Ireland and one of the most influential men in England during the reigns of King John (1199–1216) and of his infant son and successor King Henry III (1216–1272). CONTENTS * 1 Origins * 2 Appointments by King John * 3 Chief Justiciar * 4 Regent to Henry III * 5 Trouble with the King * 6 Lands acquired * 7 Marriages * 8 Death * 9 Fictional portrayals * 10 References * 11 Bibliography ORIGINSDe Burgh's family were minor landholders in Norfolk and Suffolk , from whom he inherited at least four manors. His mother was named Alice, and his father may have been named Walter. He was the younger brother of William de Burgh (d. 1206), the founder of the de Burgh /Burke /Bourke dynasty in Ireland . His younger brother Geoffrey was Archdeacon of Norwich and then Bishop of Ely , and his younger brother Thomas was castellan of Norwich
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Margaret De Burgh
HUBERT DE BURGH, 1ST EARL OF KENT (c. 1170 – before 5 May 1243) was Justiciar of England
England
and Ireland
Ireland
and one of the most influential men in England
England
during the reigns of King John (1199–1216) and of his infant son and successor King Henry III (1216–1272). CONTENTS * 1 Origins * 2 Appointments by King John * 3 Chief Justiciar * 4 Regent to Henry III * 5 Trouble with the King * 6 Lands acquired * 7 Marriages * 8 Death * 9 Fictional portrayals * 10 References * 11 Bibliography ORIGINSDe Burgh's family were minor landholders in Norfolk
Norfolk
and Suffolk
Suffolk
, from whom he inherited at least four manors. His mother was named Alice, and his father may have been named Walter. He was the younger brother of William de Burgh
William de Burgh
(d
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Coalbrookdale
COALBROOKDALE is a village in the Ironbridge Gorge in Shropshire
Shropshire
, England, containing a settlement of great significance in the history of iron ore smelting. It lies within the civil parish called the Gorge . This is where iron ore was first smelted by Abraham Darby using easily mined "coking coal". The coal was drawn from drift mines in the sides of the valley. As it contained far fewer impurities than normal coal, the iron it produced was of a superior quality. Along with many other industrial developments that were going on in other parts of the country, this discovery was a major factor in the growing industrialisation of Britain, which was to become known as the Industrial Revolution
Industrial Revolution

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Pseudonym
A PSEUDONYM (UK : /ˈsjuːdənɪm/ SYOO-də-nim and US : /ˈsuːdənɪm/ SOO-də-nim ) or ALIAS is a name that a person or group assumes for a particular purpose, which can differ from their original or true name (orthonym ). Pseudonyms include stage names and user names (both called screen names), ring names , pen names , nicknames , aliases, superhero or villain identities and code names, gamer identifications, and regnal names of emperors , popes , and other monarchs . Historically, they have often taken the form of anagrams , Graecisms, and Latinisations , although there are many other methods of choosing a pseudonym. Pseudonyms should not be confused with new names that replace old ones and become the individual's full-time name
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