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Elliptical Spring
A leaf spring is a simple form of spring commonly used for the suspension in wheeled vehicles. Originally called a laminated or carriage spring, and sometimes referred to as a semi-elliptical spring or cart spring, it is one of the oldest forms of springing, appearing on carriages in England after 1750 and from there migrating to France and Germany. [1]Leaf springs front independent suspension, front-wheel-drive Alvis 1928Independent front suspension by transverse leaf spring Humber 1935Independent front suspension by semi-elliptical springs Mercedes Benz 230 W153 1938 Leaf spring
Leaf spring
on a German locomotive built by Orenstein-Koppel and Lübecker MaschinenbauA leaf spring takes the form of a slender arc-shaped length of spring steel of rectangular cross-section. In the most common configuration, the center of the arc provides location for the axle, while loops formed at either end provide for attaching to the vehicle chassis
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Spring (device)
A spring is an elastic object that stores mechanical energy. Springs are typically made of spring steel. There are many spring designs. In everyday use, the term often refers to coil springs. When a conventional spring, without stiffness variability features, is compressed or stretched from its resting position, it exerts an opposing force approximately proportional to its change in length (this approximation breaks down for larger deflections). The rate or spring constant of a spring is the change in the force it exerts, divided by the change in deflection of the spring. That is, it is the gradient of the force versus deflection curve. An extension or compression spring's rate is expressed in units of force divided by distance, for example or N/m or lbf/in. A torsion spring is a spring that works by twisting; when it is twisted about its axis by an angle, it produces a torque proportional to the angle
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Pakistan
Coordinates: 30°N 70°E / 30°N 70°E / 30; 70 Islamic Republic
Islamic Republic
of Pakistan اِسلامی جمہوریہ پاكِستان‬ (Urdu) Islāmī Jumhūriyah Pākistān[1]FlagEmblemMotto: Īmān, Ittihād, Nazam ایمان، اتحاد، نظم‬ (Urdu) "Faith, Unity, Discipline" [2]Anthem: Qaumī Tarānah قَومی ترانہ‬ "The National Anthem"[3]Area controlled by Pakistan
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Parabola
In mathematics, a parabola is a plane curve which is mirror-symmetrical and is approximately U-shaped. It fits any of several superficially different mathematical descriptions, which can all be proved to define exactly the same curves.Part of a parabola (blue), with various features (other colours). The complete parabola has no endpoints. In this orientation, it extends infinitely to the left, right, and upward.One description of a parabola involves a point (the focus) and a line (the directrix). The focus does not lie on the directrix. The parabola is the locus of points in that plane that are equidistant from both the directrix and the focus. Another description of a parabola is as a conic section, created from the intersection of a right circular conical surface and a plane which is parallel to another plane that is tangential to the conical surface.[a] A third description is algebraic
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Ride Quality
Ride quality refers to the degree of protection offered vehicle occupants from uneven elements in the road surface, or the terrain if driving off-road. A car with very good ride quality is also a comfortable car to ride in. Cars which disturb vehicle occupants with major or minor road irregularities would be judged to have low ride quality. Key factors for ride quality are vibration and noise.Contents1 Importance 2 Technology 3 Impacts on ride quality 4 References 5 Further readingImportance[edit] While pleasant, the comfort of the vehicle driver is also important for car safety, both because of driver fatigue on long journeys in uncomfortable vehicles, and also because road disruption can impact the driver's ability to control the vehicle.[1][2] Automakers often perceive providing an adequate degree of ride quality as a compromise with car handling, because cars with firm suspension offer more roll stiffness, keeping the tires more perpendicular to the road
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Buses
A bus (archaically also omnibus,[1] multibus, motorbus, autobus) is a road vehicle designed to carry many passengers. Buses can have a capacity as high as 300 passengers.[2] The most common type of bus is the single-decker rigid bus, with larger loads carried by double-decker and articulated buses, and smaller loads carried by midibuses and minibuses; coaches are used for longer-distance services. Many types of buses, such as city transit buses and inter-city coaches, charge a fare. Other types, such as elementary or secondary school buses or shuttle buses within a post-secondary education campus do not charge a fare
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Unsprung Mass
In a ground vehicle with a suspension, the unsprung mass (or the unsprung weight) is the mass of the suspension, wheels or tracks (as applicable), and other components directly connected to them, rather than supported by the suspension (the mass of the body and other components supported by the suspension is the sprung mass). Unsprung mass includes the mass of components such as the wheel axles, wheel bearings, wheel hubs, tires, and a portion of the weight of driveshafts, springs, shock absorbers, and suspension links. If the vehicle's brakes are mounted outboard (i.e., within the wheel), their mass (weight) is also considered part of the unsprung mass.Contents1 Effects of unsprung mass 2 Unsprung mass
Unsprung mass
and vehicle design 3 Notes 4 External linksEffects of unsprung mass[edit] The unsprung mass of a wheel offers a trade-off between a wheel's bump-following ability and its vibration isolation
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Fiat 128
The Fiat
Fiat
128 is a tranverse front-engine, front wheel drive small family car manufactured and marketed by Fiat
Fiat
from 1969 to 1985 in body styles including two- and four-door sedan, three- and five-door station wagon as well as two- and three-door coupé
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Blacksmiths
A blacksmith is a metalsmith who creates objects from wrought iron or steel by forging the metal, using tools to hammer, bend, and cut (cf. whitesmith)
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India
India, officially the Republic
Republic
of India
India
(IAST: Bhārat Gaṇarājya),[e] is a country in South Asia. It is the seventh-largest country by area, the second-most populous country (with over 1.2 billion people), and the most populous democracy in the world. It is bounded by the Indian Ocean
Indian Ocean
on the south, the Arabian Sea on the southwest, and the Bay of Bengal
Bay of Bengal
on the southeast. It shares land borders with Pakistan
Pakistan
to the west;[f] China, Nepal, and Bhutan
Bhutan
to the northeast; and Myanmar
Myanmar
and Bangladesh
Bangladesh
to the east. In the Indian Ocean, India
India
is in the vicinity of Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
and the Maldives
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Nepal
Nepal
Nepal
(/nəˈpɔːl/ ( listen);[12] Nepali: नेपाल  Nepāl [neˈpal]), officially the Federal Democratic Republic
Republic
of Nepal
Nepal
(Nepali: सङ्घीय लोकतान्त्रिक गणतन्त्र नेपाल Sanghiya Loktāntrik Ganatantra Nepāl),[13] is a landlocked country in South Asia
South Asia
located in the Himalaya. With an estimated population of 26.4 million, it is 48th largest country by population and 93rd largest country by area.[2][14] It borders China
China
in the north and India
India
in the south, east, and west while Bangladesh
Bangladesh
is located within only 27 km (17 mi) of its southeastern tip and Bhutan
Bhutan
is separated from it by the Indian state of Sikkim
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Bangladesh
Coordinates: 23°48′N 90°18′E / 23.8°N 90.3°E / 23.8; 90.3People's Republic
Republic
of Bangladeshগণপ্রজাতন্ত্রী বাংলাদেশ (Bengali) Gaṇaprajātantrī BāṃlādēśaFlagEmblemAnthem: "Amar Sonar Bangla" (Bengali) "My Golden Bengal"March: "Notuner Gaan" "The Song of Youth"[1]Government Seal of BangladeshCapital and largest city Dhaka 23°42′N 90°21′E / 23.700°N 90.350°E / 23.700; 90.350Official languages Bengali[2]Ethnic groups (2011[3])98% Bengalis2% M
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Philippines
Coordinates: 13°N 122°E / 13°N 122°E / 13; 122 Republic
Republic
of the Philippines Republika ng PilipinasFlagCoat of armsMotto:  "Maka-Diyos, Maka-Tao, Makakalikasan at Makabansa"[1] "For God, People, Nature, and Country"Anthem: Lupang Hinirang Chosen LandGreat SealDakilang Sagisag ng Pilipinas  (Tagalog) Great Seal of the PhilippinesCapital Manilaa 14°35′N 120°58′E / 14.583°N 120.967°E / 14.583; 120.967Largest city
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Kukris
The kukri or khukuri (Nepali: खुकुरी khukuri) is a Nepalese knife with an inwardly curved blade, similar to a machete, used as both a tool and as a weapon in Nepal. Traditionally, it was, and in many cases still is, the basic utility knife of the Nepalese people. It is a characteristic weapon of the Nepalese Army, the Royal Gurkha Rifles of the British Army, the Assam Rifles, the Assam Regiment, the Garhwal Rifles, the Gorkha regiments of the Indian Army, and of all Gurkha regiment throughout the world, so much so that some English-speakers refer to the weapon as a "Gurkha blade" or "Gurkha knife"
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Panhard Rod
A Panhard
Panhard
rod (also called Panhard
Panhard
bar, track bar, or track rod) is a suspension link that provides lateral location of the axle.[1] Originally invented by the Panhard
Panhard
automobile company of France
France
in the early twentieth century, this device has been widely used ever since.Contents1 Overview 2 Advantages and disadvantages 3 Applications 4 See also 5 ReferencesOverview[edit] While the purpose of automobile suspension is to let the wheels move vertically with respect to the body, it is undesirable to allow them to move forward and backwards (longitudinally), or side to side (laterally). The Panhard
Panhard
rod prevents lateral movement.[2] The Panhard bar is a simple device, consisting of a rigid bar running sideways in the same plane as the axle, connecting one end of the axle to the car body or chassis on the opposite side of the vehicle
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Coil Springs
A coil spring, also known as a helical spring, is a mechanical device which is typically used to store energy and subsequently release it, to absorb shock, or to maintain a force between contacting surfaces. They are made of an elastic material formed into the shape of a helix which returns to its natural length when unloaded. Under tension or compression, the material (wire) of a coil spring undergoes torsion. The spring characteristics therefore depend on the shear modulus, not Young's Modulus. A coil spring may also be used as a torsion spring: in this case the spring as a whole is subjected to torsion about its helical axis. The material of the spring is thereby subjected to a bending moment, either reducing or increasing the helical radius
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