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Elisha Gray
ELISHA GRAY (August 2, 1835 – January 21, 1901) was an American electrical engineer who co-founded the Western Electric
Western Electric
Manufacturing Company . Gray is best known for his development of a telephone prototype in 1876 in Highland Park, Illinois . Some recent authors have argued that Gray should be considered the true inventor of the telephone because Alexander Graham Bell
Alexander Graham Bell
allegedly stole the idea of the liquid transmitter from him, although Bell had been using liquid transmitters in his telephone experiments for more than two years previously . Bell's telephone patent was held up in numerous court decisions. Gray is also considered to be the father of the modern music synthesizer , and was granted over 70 patents for his inventions. He was one of the founders of Graybar , purchasing a controlling interest in the company shortly after its inception
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Augustus Garland
AUGUSTUS HILL GARLAND (June 11, 1832 – January 26, 1899) was an Arkansas
Arkansas
lawyer and politician. He was a senator in both the United States and the Confederate States , served as 11th Governor of Arkansas
Arkansas
and as Attorney General of the United States in the first administration of Grover Cleveland
Grover Cleveland

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Xerox
XEROX CORPORATION /ˈzɪərɒks/ (also known as XEROX, stylized as XEROX since 2008, and previously as XEROX from 1960 to 2008) is an American global corporation that sells document solutions and services, and document technology products in more than 160 countries. Xerox
Xerox
is headquartered in Norwalk, Connecticut
Norwalk, Connecticut
(moved from Stamford, Connecticut
Connecticut
in October 2007), though its largest population of employees is based around Rochester, New York
Rochester, New York
, the area in which the company was founded. The company purchased Affiliated Computer Services for $6.4 billion in early 2010. As a large developed company, it is consistently placed in the list of Fortune 500 companies. On December 31, 2016, Xerox
Xerox
separated its business process service operations into a new publicly traded company, Conduent
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1893 Columbian Exposition
The WORLD\'S COLUMBIAN EXPOSITION (the official shortened name for the WORLD\'S FAIR: COLUMBIAN EXPOSITION, also known as the CHICAGO WORLD\'S FAIR and CHICAGO COLUMBIAN EXPOSITION) was a world\'s fair held in Chicago
Chicago
in 1893
1893
to celebrate the 400th anniversary of Christopher Columbus
Christopher Columbus
's arrival in the New World
New World
in 1492. The centerpiece of the Fair, the large water pool, represented the long voyage Columbus took to the New World. Chicago
Chicago
bested New York City
New York City
; Washington, D.C.
Washington, D.C.
; and St. Louis
St. Louis
for the honor of hosting the fair. The Exposition was an influential social and cultural event and had a profound effect on architecture , sanitation, the arts, Chicago's self-image, and American industrial optimism
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Affidavit
An AFFIDAVIT (/ˌæfɪˈdeɪvɪt/ AF-i-DAY-vit ) is a written sworn statement of fact voluntarily made by an affiant or deponent under an oath or affirmation administered by a person authorized to do so by law. Such statement is witnessed as to the authenticity of the affiant's signature by a taker of oaths, such as a notary public or commissioner of oaths. The name is Medieval Latin
Medieval Latin
for he/she has declared upon oath. An affidavit is a type of verified statement or showing, or in other words, it contains a verification, meaning it is under oath or penalty of perjury, and this serves as evidence to its veracity and is required for court proceedings. It is done with the help of court, with a stamp paper. Affidavits may be written in the first or third person, depending on who drafted the document
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United States Patent Office
The UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE (USPTO) is an agency in the U.S. Department of Commerce that issues patents to inventors and businesses for their inventions, and trademark registration for product and intellectual property identification. The USPTO is "unique among federal agencies because it operates solely on fees collected by its users, and not on taxpayer dollars". Its "operating structure is like a business in that it receives requests for services—applications for patents and trademark registrations—and charges fees projected to cover the cost of performing the services provide". The USPTO is based in Alexandria, Virginia
Alexandria, Virginia
, after a 2005 move from the Crystal City area of neighboring Arlington , Virginia
Virginia

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J. P. Morgan
JOHN PIERPONT MORGAN SR. (April 17, 1837 – March 31, 1913) was an American financier and banker who dominated corporate finance and industrial consolidation in late 19th and early 20th Century United States. In 1892, Morgan arranged the merger of Edison General Electric and Thomson-Houston Electric Company to form General Electric . He was also instrumental in the creation of the United States Steel Corporation , International Harvester and AT&T . At the height of Morgan's career during the early 1900s, he and his partners had financial investments in many large corporations and had significant influence over the nation's high finance and United States Congress members. He directed the banking coalition that stopped the Panic of 1907 . He was the leading financier of the Progressive Era , and his dedication to efficiency and modernization helped transform American business
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Electric Instrument
An ELECTRIC MUSICAL INSTRUMENT is one in which the use of electric devices determines or affects the sound produced by an instrument. Electric musical instruments are an example of electric music technology . It is also known as an AMPLIFIED MUSICAL INSTRUMENT due to the common utilization of an electronic instrument amplifier to project the intended sound as determined by electric signals from the instrument. Two common types of instrument amplifiers are the guitar amplifier and the bass amplifier . This is not the same as an electronic musical instrument , like a synthesizer , which uses entirely electronic means to both create and control sound. Most electric or amplified musical instruments are electric versions of chordophones (including pianos, guitars and violins). Some of the most commonly used electric instruments are electric guitar , electric bass and electric piano
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First To Invent
FIRST TO FILE (FTF) and FIRST TO INVENT (FTI) are legal concepts that define who has the right to the grant of a patent for an invention . The first-to-file system is used in all countries, including the United States, which switched to a FIRST-INVENTOR-TO-FILE (FITF) system on March 16, 2013 after the enactment of the America Invents Act . There is an important difference between the strict nature of the FTF under the European Patent Office (EPO) and the FITF system of the United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO) . The USPTO FITF system affords early disclosers some "grace" time before they need to file a patent, whereas the EPO does not recognise any grace period, so early disclosure under the FITF provisions is an absolute bar to later EPO patent
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Closed-circuit Television
CLOSED-CIRCUIT TELEVISION (CCTV), also known as VIDEO SURVEILLANCE, is the use of video cameras to transmit a signal to a specific place, on a limited set of monitors. It differs from broadcast television in that the signal is not openly transmitted, though it may employ point to point (P2P), point to multipoint (P2MP), or mesh wired or wireless links. Though almost all video cameras fit this definition, the term is most often applied to those used for surveillance in areas that may need monitoring such as bars, banks, casinos, schools, hotels, airports, hospitals, restaurants, military installations, convenience stores and other areas where security is needed. Videotelephony is seldom called "CCTV" but the use of video in distance education , where it is an important tool, is often so called. Surveillance of the public using CCTV is common in many areas around the world
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International Standard Book Number
The INTERNATIONAL STANDARD BOOK NUMBER (ISBN) is a unique numeric commercial book identifier. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation (except reprintings) of a book. For example, an e-book , a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, and 10 digits long if assigned before 2007. The method of assigning an ISBN is nation-based and varies from country to country, often depending on how large the publishing industry is within a country. The initial ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 based upon the 9-digit STANDARD BOOK NUMBERING (SBN) created in 1966. The 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO 2108 (the SBN code can be converted to a ten digit ISBN by prefixing it with a zero)
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LibriVox
LIBRIVOX is a group of worldwide volunteers who read and record public domain texts creating free public domain audiobooks for download from their website and other digital library hosting sites on the internet. It was founded in 2005 by Hugh McGuire to provide "Acoustical liberation of books in the public domain" and the LibriVox
LibriVox
objective is "To make all books in the public domain available, for free, in audio format on the internet". By the end of 2017, LibriVox
LibriVox
had a catalog of over 12,000 works and from 2009-2017 was producing about 1,000 per year. Most releases are in the English language, but many non-English works are also available. There are multiple affiliated projects that are providing additional content
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Wayback Machine
The WAYBACK MACHINE is a digital archive of the World Wide Web
World Wide Web
and other information on the Internet
Internet
created by the Internet Archive
Internet Archive
, a nonprofit organization , based in San Francisco
San Francisco
, California
California
, United States . CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Technical details * 2.1 Storage capabilities * 2.2 Growth * 2.3 Website exclusion policy * 2.3.1 Oakland Archive
Archive
Policy * 3 Uses * 3.1 In legal evidence * 3.1.1 Civil litigation * 3.1.1.1 Netbula LLC v. Chordiant Software Inc. * 3.1.1.2 Telewizja Polska
Telewizja Polska
* 3.1.2 Patent law * 3.1.3 Limitations of utility * 4 Legal status * 5 Archived content legal issues * 5.1 Scientology
Scientology
* 5.2 Healthcare Advocates, Inc
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TIFF
TAGGED IMAGE FILE FORMAT, abbreviated TIFF or TIF, is a computer file format for storing raster graphics images, popular among graphic artists, the publishing industry, and photographers. The TIFF format is widely supported by scanning , faxing , word processing , optical character recognition , image manipulation, desktop publishing and page layout applications. The format was created by Aldus Corporation for use in desktop publishing. It published the latest version 6.0 in 1992, subsequently updated with an Adobe Systems copyright after the latter acquired Aldus in 1994. Several Aldus or Adobe technical notes have been published with minor extensions to the format, and several specifications have been based on TIFF 6.0, including TIFF/EP (ISO 12234-2), TIFF/IT (ISO 12639), TIFF-F (RFC 2306 ) and TIFF-FX (RFC 3949 )
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Internet Archive
Coordinates : 37°46′56″N 122°28′18″W / 37.7823°N 122.4716°W / 37.7823; -122.4716 Internet Archive
Internet Archive
TYPE OF BUSINESS 501(c)(3) nonprofit TYPE OF SITE Digital library AVAILABLE IN English FOUNDED May 12, 1996; 21 years ago (1996-05-12) HEADQUARTERS Richmond District San Francisco
San Francisco
, California
California
, U.S
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Project Gutenberg
PROJECT GUTENBERG (PG) is a volunteer effort to digitize and archive cultural works, to "encourage the creation and distribution of eBooks ". It was founded in 1971 by Michael S. Hart and is the oldest digital library . Most of the items in its collection are the full texts of public domain books . The project tries to make these as free as possible, in long-lasting, open formats that can be used on almost any computer. As of 3 October 2015 , Project Gutenberg
Project Gutenberg
reached 50,000 items in its collection. The releases are available in plain text but, wherever possible, other formats are included, such as HTML
HTML
, PDF
PDF
, EPUB , MOBI , and Plucker . Most releases are in the English language
English language
, but many non-English works are also available
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