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Electronics
[1] Electronics
Electronics
is the science of dealing with the development and application of devices and systems involving the flow of electrons in a vacuum, in gaseous media, and in semiconductors. Electronics
Electronics
deals with electrical circuits that involve active electrical components such as vacuum tubes, transistors, diodes, integrated circuits, optoelectronics, and sensors, associated passive electrical components, and interconnection technologies
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Signal Processing
Signal
Signal
processing concerns the analysis, synthesis, and modification of signals, which are broadly defined as functions conveying "information about the behavior or attributes of some phenomenon",[1] such as sound, images, and biological measurements.[2] For example, signal processing techniques are used to improve signal transmission fidelity, storage efficiency, and subjective quality, and to emphasize or detect components of interest in a measured signal.[3]Contents1 History 2 Application fields 3 Typical devices 4 Mathematical methods applied 5 Categories5.1 Analog signal processing 5.2 Continuous-time signal processing 5.3 Discrete-time signal
Discrete-time signal
processing 5.4 Digital signal processing 5.5 Nonlinear signal processing6 See also 7 Notes and references 8 External linksHistory[edit] According to Alan V. Oppenheim and Ronald W
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Sensor
In the broadest definition, a sensor is a device, module, or subsystem whose purpose is to detect events or changes in its environment and send the information to other electronics, frequently a computer processor. A sensor is always used with other electronics, whether as simple as a light or as complex as a computer. Sensors are used in everyday objects such as touch-sensitive elevator buttons (tactile sensor) and lamps which dim or brighten by touching the base, besides innumerable applications of which most people are never aware. With advances in micromachinery and easy-to-use microcontroller platforms, the uses of sensors have expanded beyond the traditional fields of temperature, pressure or flow measurement,[1] for example into MARG sensors. Moreover, analog sensors such as potentiometers and force-sensing resistors are still widely used
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USS Abraham Lincoln (CVN 72)
USS Abraham Lincoln (CVN-72) is the fifth Nimitz-class aircraft carrier in the United States Navy. She is the second Navy ship to have been named after former President Abraham Lincoln. Her home port is Norfolk, Virginia,[2] and she is a member of the United States Atlantic Fleet
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Information Processing
Information
Information
processing is the change (processing) of information in any manner detectable by an observer. As such, it is a process that describes everything that happens (changes) in the universe, from the falling of a rock (a change in position) to the printing of a text file from a digital computer system. In the latter case, an information processor is changing the form of presentation of that text file. Information
Information
processing may more specifically be defined in terms used by, Claude E. Shannon
Claude E. Shannon
as the conversion of latent information into manifest information (McGonigle & Mastrian, 2011)
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Nonlinear
In mathematics and physical sciences, a nonlinear system is a system in which the change of the output is not proportional to the change of the input.[1] Nonlinear problems are of interest to engineers, physicists,[2][3] mathematicians, and many other scientists because most systems are inherently nonlinear in nature.[4] Nonlinear dynamical systems, describing changes in variables over time, may appear chaotic, unpredictable, or counterintuitive, contrasting with much simpler linear systems. Typically, the behavior of a nonlinear system is described in mathematics by a nonlinear system of equations, which is a set of simultaneous equations in which the unknowns (or the unknown functions in the case of differential equations) appear as variables of a polynomial of degree higher than one or in the argument of a function which is not a polynomial of degree one
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Solid-state Physics
Solid-state physics
Solid-state physics
is the study of rigid matter, or solids, through methods such as quantum mechanics, crystallography, electromagnetism, and metallurgy. It is the largest branch of condensed matter physics. Solid-state physics
Solid-state physics
studies how the large-scale properties of solid materials result from their atomic-scale properties. Thus, solid-state physics forms a theoretical basis of materials science. It also has direct applications, for example in the technology of transistors and semiconductors.Contents1 Background 2 History 3 Crystal
Crystal
structure and properties 4 Electronic properties 5 Modern research 6 See also 7 References 8 Further readingBackground[edit] Solid
Solid
materials are formed from densely packed atoms, which interact intensely. These interactions produce the mechanical (e.g
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System
A system is a regularly interacting or interdependent group of items forming an integrated whole.[1] Every system is delineated by its spatial and temporal boundaries, surrounded and influenced by its environment, described by its structure and purpose and expressed in its functioning.Contents1 Etymology 2 History 3 Concepts3.1 Subsystem4 Analysis4.1 Cultural system 4.2 Economic system5 Application of the system concept5.1 In information and computer science 5.2 In engineering and physics 5.3 In social and cognitive sciences and management research 5.4 Pure logical systems 5.5 Applied to strategic thinking6 See also 7 References 8 Bibliography 9 External linksEtymology[edit] The term "system" comes from the Latin
Latin
word systēma, in turn from Greek σύστημα systēma: "whole concept made of several parts or members, system", literary "composition".[2] History[edit] According to Marshall McLuhan,"System" means "something to look at"
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Physics
Physics
Physics
(from Ancient Greek: φυσική (ἐπιστήμη), translit. physikḗ (epistḗmē), lit. 'knowledge of nature', from φύσις phýsis "nature"[1][2][3]) is the natural science that studies matter[4] and its motion and behavior through space and time and that studies the related entities of energy and force.[5] Physics
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Relay
A relay is an electrically operated switch. Many relays use an electromagnet to mechanically operate a switch, but other operating principles are also used, such as solid-state relays. Relays are used where it is necessary to control a circuit by a separate low-power signal, or where several circuits must be controlled by one signal. The first relays were used in long distance telegraph circuits as amplifiers: they repeated the signal coming in from one circuit and re-transmitted it on another circuit. Relays were used extensively in telephone exchanges and early computers to perform logical operations. A type of relay that can handle the high power required to directly control an electric motor or other loads is called a contactor. Solid-state relays control power circuits with no moving parts, instead using a semiconductor device to perform switching
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Electric Generator
In electricity generation, a generator[1] is a device that converts motive power (mechanical energy) into electrical power for use in an external circuit. Sources of mechanical energy include steam turbines, gas turbines, water turbines, internal combustion engines and even hand cranks. The first electromagnetic generator, the Faraday disk, was built in 1831 by British scientist Michael Faraday. Generators provide nearly all of the power for electric power grids. The reverse conversion of electrical energy into mechanical energy is done by an electric motor, and motors and generators have many similarities
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Wire
A wire is a single, usually cylindrical, flexible strand or rod of metal. Wires are used to bear mechanical loads or electricity and telecommunications signals. Wire
Wire
is commonly formed by drawing the metal through a hole in a die or draw plate. Wire
Wire
gauges come in various standard sizes, as expressed in terms of a gauge number. The term wire is also used more loosely to refer to a bundle of such strands, as in "multistranded wire", which is more correctly termed a wire rope in mechanics, or a cable in electricity. Wire
Wire
comes in solid core, stranded, or braided forms. Although usually circular in cross-section, wire can be made in square, hexagonal, flattened rectangular, or other cross-sections, either for decorative purposes, or for technical purposes such as high-efficiency voice coils in loudspeakers
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Electro-mechanical
In engineering, electromechanics[1][2][3][4] combines electrical and mechanical processes and procedures drawn from electrical engineering and mechanical engineering. Electrical engineering
Electrical engineering
in this context also encompasses electronic engineering. Devices which carry out electrical operations by using moving parts are known as electromechanical. Strictly speaking, a manually operated switch is an electromechanical component, but the term is usually understood to refer to devices which involve an electrical signal to create mechanical movement, or mechanical movement to create an electric signal. Often involving electromagnetic principles such as in relays, which allow a voltage or current to control other, usually isolated circuit voltage or current by mechanically switching sets of contacts, and solenoids, by which a voltage can actuate a moving linkage as in solenoid valves
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Electronic Circuit
An electronic circuit is composed of individual electronic components, such as resistors, transistors, capacitors, inductors and diodes, connected by conductive wires or traces through which electric current can flow. To be referred to as electronic, rather than electrical, generally at least one active component must be present. The combination of components and wires allows various simple and complex operations to be performed: signals can be amplified, computations can be performed, and data can be moved from one place to another.[1] Circuits can be constructed of discrete components connected by individual pieces of wire, but today it is much more common to create interconnections by photolithographic techniques on a laminated substrate (a printed circuit board or PCB) and solder the components to these interconnections to create a finished circuit
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Transmitter
In electronics and telecommunications a transmitter or radio transmitter is an electronic device which produces radio waves with an antenna. The transmitter itself generates a radio frequency alternating current, which is applied to the antenna. When excited by this alternating current, the antenna radiates radio waves. Transmitters are necessary component parts of all electronic devices that communicate by radio, such as radio and television broadcasting stations, cell phones, walkie-talkies, wireless computer networks, Bluetooth
Bluetooth
enabled devices, garage door openers, two-way radios in aircraft, ships, spacecraft, radar sets and navigational beacons. The term transmitter is usually limited to equipment that generates radio waves for communication purposes; or radiolocation, such as radar and navigational transmitters
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Science
Science
Science
(from Latin scientia, meaning "knowledge")[2][3]:58 is a systematic enterprise that builds and organizes knowledge in the form of testable explanations and predictions about the universe.[a] Contemporary science is typically subdivided into the natural sciences which study the material world, the social sciences which study people and societies, and the formal sciences like mathematics
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