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Electrical Cable
An ELECTRICAL CABLE is an assembly of one or more wires running side by side or bundled, which is used to carry electric current . CONTENTS * 1 Etymology * 2 Modern applications * 2.1 Cables and electromagnetic fields * 2.2 Fire
Fire
protection * 2.3 Types * 2.4 Codes and colours * 3 Hybrid cables * 4 See also * 5 References * 6 Further reading * 7 External links ETYMOLOGYThe term cable originally referred to a nautical line of specific length where multiple ropes are combined to produce a strong thick line that was used to anchor large ships. As electric technology developed, people changed from using bare copper wire to using groupings of wires and various sheathing and shackling methods that resembled the mechanical cabling so the term was adopted for electrical wiring
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Power Supply
A POWER SUPPLY is an electronic device that supplies electric energy to an electrical load . The primary function of a power supply is to convert one form of electrical energy to another. As a result, power supplies are sometimes referred to as electric power converters . Some power supplies are discrete, stand-alone devices, whereas others are built into larger devices along with their loads. Examples of the latter include power supplies found in desktop computers and consumer electronics devices. Every power supply must obtain the energy it supplies to its load, as well as any energy it consumes while performing that task, from an energy source. Depending on its design, a power supply may obtain energy from various types of energy sources, including electrical energy transmission systems, energy storage devices such as a batteries and fuel cells , electromechanical systems such as generators and alternators , solar power converters, or another power supply
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Electromagnetic Shielding
ELECTROMAGNETIC SHIELDING is the practice of reducing the electromagnetic field in a space by blocking the field with barriers made of conductive or magnetic materials. Shielding is typically applied to enclosures to isolate electrical devices from the 'outside world', and to cables to isolate wires from the environment through which the cable runs. Electromagnetic shielding
Electromagnetic shielding
that blocks radio frequency electromagnetic radiation is also known as RF SHIELDING. The shielding can reduce the coupling of radio waves , electromagnetic fields and electrostatic fields . A conductive enclosure used to block electrostatic fields is also known as a Faraday cage . The amount of reduction depends very much upon the material used, its thickness, the size of the shielded volume and the frequency of the fields of interest and the size, shape and orientation of apertures in a shield to an incident electromagnetic field
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Faraday Cage
A FARADAY CAGE or FARADAY SHIELD is an enclosure used to block electromagnetic fields . A Faraday shield may be formed by a continuous covering of conductive material or in the case of a Faraday cage, by a mesh of such materials. Faraday cages are named after the English scientist Michael Faraday
Michael Faraday
, who invented them in 1836. Play media Video of a Faraday cage
Faraday cage
shielding a man from electricity A Faraday cage
Faraday cage
operates because an external electrical field causes the electric charges within the cage's conducting material to be distributed such that they cancel the field's effect in the cage's interior. This phenomenon is used to protect sensitive electronic equipment from external radio frequency interference (RFI)
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Noise (electronics)
In electronics, NOISE is a random fluctuation in an electrical signal, a characteristic of all electronic circuits . Noise
Noise
generated by electronic devices varies greatly as it is produced by several different effects. Thermal noise
Thermal noise
is unavoidable at non-zero temperature (see fluctuation-dissipation theorem ), while other types depend mostly on device type (such as shot noise , which needs a steep potential barrier) or manufacturing quality and semiconductor defects, such as conductance fluctuations, including 1/f noise . In communication systems , noise is an error or undesired random disturbance of a useful information signal . The noise is a summation of unwanted or disturbing energy from natural and sometimes man-made sources
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Electromagnetic Field
An ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELD (also EMF or EM FIELD) is a physical field produced by electrically charged objects . It affects the behavior of charged objects in the vicinity of the field. The electromagnetic field extends indefinitely throughout space and describes the electromagnetic interaction . It is one of the four fundamental forces of nature (the others are gravitation , weak interaction and strong interaction ). The field can be viewed as the combination of an electric field and a magnetic field . The electric field is produced by stationary charges, and the magnetic field by moving charges (currents); these two are often described as the sources of the field. The way in which charges and currents interact with the electromagnetic field is described by Maxwell\'s equations and the Lorentz force
Lorentz force
law
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Fire Test
A FIRE TEST is a means of determining whether fire protection products meet minimum performance criteria as set out in a building code or other applicable legislation. Successful tests in laboratories holding national accreditation for testing and certification result in the issuance of a certification listing . The listing is public domain, whereas the test report itself is proprietary information belonging to the test sponsor. There are many different types of fire tests apart from those on firestops. Walls and floors themselves can be tested, closures within them, such as windows, fire doors , fire dampers, structural steel , and more. Fire tests are conducted both on active fire protection and on passive fire protection items. Each have different test methods and scales. There are full scale, small scale and bench scale tests
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Sweden
Coordinates : 63°N 16°E / 63°N 16°E / 63; 16 Kingdom of Sweden Konungariket Sverige Flag Greater coat of arms MOTTO: (royal) "För Sverige – i tiden" "For Sweden
Sweden
– With the Times" ANTHEM: Du gamla, Du fria Thou ancient, thou free ROYAL ANTHEM :
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Circular Mil
A CIRCULAR MIL is a unit of area , equal to the area of a circle with a diameter of one mil (one thousandth of an inch). It corresponds to 5.067×10−4 mm². It is a unit intended for referring to the area of a wire with a circular cross section. As the area in circular mils can be calculated without reference to π , the unit makes conversion between cross section and diameter of a wire considerably easier. The area in circular mils, A, of a circle with a diameter of d mils, is given by the formula: A = d 2 {displaystyle A=d^{2}} In Canada and the United States the National Electrical Code (NEC) uses the circular mil to define wire sizes larger than 0000 AWG . In many NEC publications and uses, large wires may be expressed in thousands of circular mils, which is abbreviated in two different ways: KCMIL or MCM
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Ground (electricity)
In electrical engineering , GROUND or EARTH is the reference point in an electrical circuit from which voltages are measured, a common return path for electric current , or a direct physical connection to the Earth
Earth
. Electrical circuits may be connected to ground (earth) for several reasons. In mains powered equipment, exposed metal parts are connected to ground to prevent user contact with dangerous voltage when electrical insulation fails. In electrical power distribution systems, a protective ground conductor is an essential part of the safety Earthing system . Connection to ground also limits the build-up of static electricity when handling flammable products or electrostatic-sensitive devices . In some telegraph and power transmission circuits, the earth itself can be used as one conductor of the circuit, saving the cost of installing a separate return conductor (see single-wire earth return )
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Transformer
A TRANSFORMER is an electrical device that transfers electrical energy between two or more circuits through electromagnetic induction . A varying current in one coil of the transformer produces a varying magnetic field, which in turn induces a varying electromotive force (emf) or "voltage " in a second coil. Power can be transferred between the two coils through the magnetic field, without a metallic connection between the two circuits. Faraday\'s law of induction discovered in 1831 described this effect. Transformers
Transformers
are used to increase or decrease the alternating voltages in electric power applications. Since the invention of the first constant-potential transformer in 1885, transformers have become essential for the transmission , distribution , and utilization of alternating current electrical energy. A wide range of transformer designs is encountered in electronic and electric power applications
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Submersible Pump Cable
A SUBMERSIBLE PUMP (or SUB PUMP, ELECTRIC SUBMERSIBLE PUMP (ESP)) is a device which has a hermetically sealed motor close-coupled to the pump body. The whole assembly is submerged in the fluid to be pumped. The main advantage of this type of pump is that it prevents pump cavitation , a problem associated with a high elevation difference between pump and the fluid surface. Submersible pumps push fluid to the surface as opposed to jet pumps having to pull fluids. Submersibles are more efficient than jet pumps. One style of submersible pump for industrial use. Outlet pipe and electrical cable not connected. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Working principle * 3 Applications * 4 Use in oil wells * 5 Cables * 6 See also * 7 References * 8 External links HISTORYCa. 1928 Armenian oil delivery system engineer and inventor Armais Arutunoff successfully installed the first submersible oil pump in an oil field
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Twinaxial Cabling
TWINAXIAL CABLING, or "TWINAX", is a type of cable similar to coaxial cable , but with two inner conductors instead of one. Due to cost efficiency it is becoming common in modern (2013) very-short-range high-speed differential signaling applications
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Twin-lead
TWIN-LEAD cable is a two-conductor flat cable used as a balanced transmission line to carry radio frequency (RF) signals. It is constructed of two stranded copper or copper-clad steel wires, held a precise distance apart by a plastic (usually polyethylene ) ribbon. The uniform spacing of the wires is the key to the cable's function as a transmission line; any abrupt changes in spacing would reflect some of the signal back toward the source. The plastic also covers and insulates the wires. Twin lead can have significantly lower signal loss than miniature flexible coaxial cable at shortwave and VHF radio frequencies; for example, type RG-58 coaxial cable loses 6.6 dB per 100 m at 30 MHz, while 300 ohm twin-lead loses only 0.55 dB. However, twin-lead is more vulnerable to interference. Proximity to metal objects will inject signals into twin-lead that would be blocked out by coaxial cable
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Ribbon Cable
A RIBBON CABLE (also known as multi-wire planar cable) is a cable with many conducting wires running parallel to each other on the same flat plane. As a result the cable is wide and flat. Its name comes from its resemblance to a piece of ribbon . Ribbon cables are usually seen for internal peripherals in computers , such as hard drives , CD drives and floppy drives . On some older computer systems (such as the BBC Micro and Apple II series ) they were used for external connections as well. The ribbon-like shape interferes with computer cooling by disrupting airflow within the case and also makes the cables awkward to handle, especially when there are a lot of them; as a result, round cables have almost entirely replaced ribbon cables for external connections and are increasingly being used internally as well
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Cable Television
CABLE TELEVISION is a system of delivering television programming to paying subscribers via radio frequency (RF) signals transmitted through coaxial cables , or in more recent systems, light pulses through fiber-optic cables . This contrasts with broadcast television , in which the television signal is transmitted over the air by radio waves and received by a television antenna attached to the television; or satellite television , in which the television signal is transmitted by a communications satellite orbiting the Earth and received by a satellite dish on the roof. FM radio
FM radio
programming, high-speed Internet
Internet
, telephone services , and similar non-television services may also be provided through these cables. Analog television was standard in the 20th century, but since the 2000s, cable systems have been upgraded to digital cable operation
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