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Electrical Cable
An electrical cable is an assembly of one or more wires running side by side or bundled, which is used to carry electric current.Contents1 Etymology 2 Modern applications2.1 Cables and electromagnetic fields 2.2 Fire
Fire
protection 2.3 Types 2.4 Codes and colours3 Hybrid cables 4 See also 5 References 6 Further reading 7 External linksEtymology[edit] The term cable originally referred to a nautical line of specific length where multiple ropes are combined to produce a strong thick line that was used to anchor large ships. As electric technology developed, people changed from using bare copper wire to using groupings of wires and various sheathing and shackling methods that resembled the mechanical cabling so the term was adopted for electrical wiring. In the 19th century and early 20th century, electrical cable was often insulated using cloth, rubber or paper. Plastic materials are generally used today, except for high-reliability power cables
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Sweden
Coordinates: 63°N 16°E / 63°N 16°E / 63; 16Kingdom of Sweden Konungariket Sverige[a]FlagGreater coat of armsMotto: (royal) "För Sverige – i tiden"[a] "For Sweden
Sweden
– With the Times"[1]Anthem: Du gamla, Du fria[b] Thou ancient, thou freeRoyal anthem: Kungssången Song of the KingLocation of  Sweden  (dark green) – in Europe  (green & dark grey) – in the European Union  (green)  –  [L
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Solder
Solder
Solder
(/ˈsoʊldər/,[1] /ˈsɒldər/[1] or in North America /ˈsɒdər/[2]) is a fusible metal alloy used to create a permanent bond between metal workpieces. The word solder comes from the Middle English word soudur, via Old French
Old French
solduree and soulder, from the Latin
Latin
solidare, meaning "to make solid".[3] In fact, solder must first be melted in order to adhere to and connect the pieces together after cooling, which requires that an alloy suitable for use as solder have a lower melting point than the pieces being joined. The solder should also be resistant to oxidative and corrosive effects that would degrade the joint over time
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Electromagnetic Shielding
Electromagnetic shielding
Electromagnetic shielding
is the practice of reducing the electromagnetic field in a space by blocking the field with barriers made of conductive or magnetic materials. Shielding is typically applied to enclosures to isolate electrical devices from their surroundings, and to cables to isolate wires from the environment through which the cable runs. Electromagnetic shielding
Electromagnetic shielding
that blocks radio frequency electromagnetic radiation is also known as RF shielding. The shielding can reduce the coupling of radio waves, electromagnetic fields and electrostatic fields. A conductive enclosure used to block electrostatic fields is also known as a Faraday cage
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Power Supply
A power supply is an electrical device that supplies electric power to an electrical load. The primary function of a power supply is to convert electric current from a source to the correct voltage, current, and frequency to power the load. As a result, power supplies are sometimes referred to as electric power converters. Some power supplies are separate standalone pieces of equipment, while others are built into the load appliances that they power. Examples of the latter include power supplies found in desktop computers and consumer electronics devices
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Noise (electronics)
In electronics, noise is an unwanted disturbance in an electrical signal.[1]:5 Noise
Noise
generated by electronic devices varies greatly as it is produced by several different effects. In communication systems, noise is an error or undesired random disturbance of a useful information signal. The noise is a summation of unwanted or disturbing energy from natural and sometimes man-made sources. Noise
Noise
is, however, typically distinguished from interference,[a] for example in the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), signal-to-interference ratio (SIR) and signal-to-noise plus interference ratio (SNIR) measures
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Electromagnetic Field
An electromagnetic field (also EMF or EM field) is a physical field produced by electrically charged objects.[1] It affects the behavior of charged objects in the vicinity of the field. The electromagnetic field extends indefinitely throughout space and describes the electromagnetic interaction. It is one of the four fundamental forces of nature (the others are gravitation, weak interaction and strong interaction). The field can be viewed as the combination of an electric field and a magnetic field. The electric field is produced by stationary charges, and the magnetic field by moving charges (currents); these two are often described as the sources of the field
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Transformer
A transformer is a static electrical device that transfers electrical energy between two or more circuits through electromagnetic induction. A varying current in one coil of the transformer produces a varying magnetic field, which in turn induces a varying electromotive force (emf) or "voltage" in a second coil. Power can be transferred between the two coils through the magnetic field, without a metallic connection between the two circuits. Faraday's law of induction discovered in 1831 described this effect. Transformers
Transformers
are used to increase or decrease the alternating voltages in electric power applications. Since the invention of the first constant-potential transformer in 1885, transformers have become essential for the transmission, distribution, and utilization of alternating current electrical energy.[3] A wide range of transformer designs is encountered in electronic and electric power applications
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Building Construction
Construction
Construction
is the process of constructing a building or infrastructure.[1] Construction
Construction
differs from manufacturing in that manufacturing typically involves mass production of similar items without a designated purchaser, while construction typically takes place on location for a known client.[2] Construction
Construction
as an industry comprises six to nine percent of the gross domestic product of developed countries.[3] Construction
Construction
starts with planning, design, and financing; it continues until the project is built and ready for use. Large-scale construction requires collaboration across multiple disciplines. A project manager normally manages the job, and a construction manager, design engineer, construction engineer or architect supervises it
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Circular Mil
A circular mil is a unit of area, equal to the area of a circle with a diameter of one mil (one thousandth of an inch). It corresponds to 5.067×10−4 mm². It is a unit intended for referring to the area of a wire with a circular cross section. As the area in circular mils can be calculated without reference to π, the unit makes conversion between cross section and diameter of a wire considerably easier. The area in circular mils, A, of a circle with a diameter of d mils, is given by the formula: A = d 2 displaystyle A=d^ 2 In Canada and the United States the National Electrical Code (NEC) uses the circular mil to define wire sizes larger than 0000 AWG
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Fire
Fire
Fire
is the rapid oxidation of a material in the exothermic chemical process of combustion, releasing heat, light, and various reaction products.[1] Slower oxidative processes like rusting or digestion are not included by this definition. Fire
Fire
is hot because the conversion of the weak double bond in molecular oxygen, O2, to the stronger bonds in the combustion products carbon dioxide and water releases energy (418 kJ per 32 g of O2); the bond energies of the fuel play only a minor role here.[2] At a certain point in the combustion reaction, called the ignition point, flames are produced. The flame is the visible portion of the fire
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Mineral-insulated Copper-clad Cable
Mineral-insulated copper-clad cable
Mineral-insulated copper-clad cable
is a variety of electrical cable made from copper conductors inside a copper sheath, insulated by inorganic magnesium oxide powder. The name is often abbreviated to MICC or MI cable, and colloquially known as pyro (because the original manufacturer and vendor for this product in the UK was a company called Pyrotenax). A similar product sheathed with metals other than copper is called mineral insulated metal sheathed (MIMS) cable.Contents1 Construction 2 History 3 Purpose and use 4 Heating cable 5 Typical specifications 6 Advantages 7 Disadvantages 8 Alternatives 9 See also 10 References 11 External linksConstruction[edit] MI cable is made by placing copper rods inside a circular copper tube and filling the intervening spaces with dry magnesium oxide powder. The overall assembly is then pressed between rollers to reduce its diameter (and increase its length)
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Fire Test
A fire test is a means of determining whether fire protection products meet minimum performance criteria as set out in a building code or other applicable legislation. Successful tests in laboratories holding national accreditation for testing and certification result in the issuance of a certification listing. The listing is public domain, whereas the test report itself is proprietary information belonging to the test sponsor. There are many different types of fire tests apart from those on firestops. Walls and floors themselves can be tested, closures within them, such as windows, fire doors, fire dampers, structural steel, and more. Fire tests are conducted both on active fire protection and on passive fire protection items. Each have different test methods and scales. There are full scale, small scale and bench scale tests
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Cable Television
Cable television
Cable television
is a system of delivering television programming to paying subscribers via radio frequency (RF) signals transmitted through coaxial cables, or in more recent systems, light pulses through fiber-optic cables. This contrasts with broadcast television, in which the television signal is transmitted over the air by radio waves and received by a television antenna attached to the television; or satellite television, in which the television signal is bounced off of the Earth's firmament and received by a satellite dish on the roof. FM radio
FM radio
programming, high-speed Internet, telephone services, and similar non-television services may also be provided through these cables
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Cable Lacing
Cable lacing
Cable lacing
is a method for tying wiring harnesses and cable looms, traditionally used in telecommunication, naval, and aerospace applications. This old cable management technique, taught to generations of linemen,[1] is still used in some modern applications since it does not create obstructions along the length of the cable, avoiding the handling problems of cables groomed by plastic or velcro cable ties. Cable lacing
Cable lacing
uses a thin cord, traditionally made of waxed linen, to bind together a group of cables using a series of running lockstitches
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Ground (electricity)
In electrical engineering, ground or earth is the reference point in an electrical circuit from which voltages are measured, a common return path for electric current, or a direct physical connection to the Earth. Electrical circuits may be connected to ground (earth) for several reasons. In mains powered equipment, exposed metal parts are connected to ground so that if, due to any fault conditions, a "Line" supply voltage connection occurs to any such conductive parts, the current flow will then be such that any protective equipment installed for either overload or "leakage" protection will operate and disconnect the "Line" voltage. This is done to prevent harm resulting to the user from coming in contact with any such dangerous voltage in a situation where the user may, at the same time, also come in contact with an object at ground/earth potential
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