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Elamite Cuneiform
ELAMITE CUNEIFORM was a logo-syllabic script used to write the Elamite language
Elamite language
. The complete corpus of Elamite cuneiform consists of c. 20,000 tablets and fragments. The majority belong to the Achaemenid
Achaemenid
era, and contain primarily economic records. CONTENTS * 1 History and decipherment * 2 Inventory * 3 Syntax * 4 See also * 5 Notes * 6 References HISTORY AND DECIPHERMENTThe Elamite language
Elamite language
(c. 3000 BCE to 400 BCE) is the now-extinct language spoken by Elamites, who inhabited the regions of Khuzistān and Fārs in Southern Iran
Iran
. It has long been an enigma for scholars due to the scarcity of resources for its research and the irregularities found in the language. It seems to have no relation to its neighboring Semitic and Indo-European languages
Indo-European languages

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List Of Languages By First Written Accounts
This is a list of languages arranged by the approximate dates of the oldest existing texts recording a complete sentence in the language. It does not include undeciphered scripts , though there are various claims without wide acceptance, which, if substantiated, would push backward the first attestation of certain languages. It also does not include inscriptions consisting of isolated words or names from a language. A written record may encode a stage of a language corresponding to an earlier time, either as a result of oral tradition , or because the earliest source is a copy of an older manuscript that was lost. An oral tradition of epic poetry may typically bridge a few centuries, and in rare cases, over a millennium. An extreme case is the Vedic Sanskrit
Sanskrit
of the Rigveda
Rigveda
: the earliest parts of this text may date to c. 1500 BC, while the oldest known manuscript dates to the 11th century AD, a gap of over 2,500 years
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Abjad
An ABJAD (pronounced /ˈæbdʒɑːd/ or /ˈæbdʒæd/ ) is a type of writing system where each symbol stands for a consonant , leaving the reader to supply the appropriate vowel . The name abjad is based on the old Arabic
Arabic
alphabet's first four letters – a, b, j, d – to replace the common terms "CONSONANTARY", "CONSONANTAL ALPHABET" or "syllabary " to refer to the family of scripts called West Semitic . CONTENTS * 1 Etymology * 2 Terminology * 3 Origins * 4 Impure abjads * 4.1 Addition of vowels * 5 Abjads and the structure of Semitic languages * 6 Comparative chart of Abjads, extinct and extant * 7 See also * 8 References * 9 Sources ETYMOLOGYThe name "abjad" (abjad أبجد) is derived from pronouncing the first letters of the Arabic
Arabic
alphabet in order
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Abjad Numerals
The ABJAD NUMERALS are a decimal numeral system in which the 28 letters of the Arabic alphabet
Arabic alphabet
are assigned numerical values. They have been used in the Arabic
Arabic
-speaking world since before the eighth century when Arabic numerals
Arabic numerals
were adopted. In modern Arabic, the word abjadīyah means 'alphabet ' in general. In the Abjad system, the first letter of the Arabic
Arabic
alphabet, alif , is used to represent 1; the second letter, bāʾ , is used to represent 2, etc. Individual letters also represent 10s and 100s: yāʾ for 10, kāf for 20, qāf for 100, etc
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Aramaic Alphabet
Hebrew
Hebrew
Palmyrene Mandaic Pahlavi Brāhmī Kharoṣṭhī Syriac →Sogdian →Old Uyghur →Mongolian → Nabataean alphabet Arabic alphabet
Arabic alphabet
→N\'Ko alphabet DIRECTION Right-to-left ISO 15924 Armi, 124 Imperial Aramaic UNICODE ALIAS Imperial Aramaic UNICODE RANGE U+10840–U+1085F THIS ARTICLE CONTAINS IPA PHONETIC SYMBOLS. Without proper rendering support , you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Unicode
Unicode
characters. History of the alphabet ------------------------- Egyptian hieroglyphs
Egyptian hieroglyphs
32 c. BCE * Hieratic
Hieratic
32 c. BCE * Demotic 7 c. BCE * Meroitic 3 c. BCE* Proto-Sinaitic 19 c. BCE * Ugaritic 15 c. BCE* Epigraphic South Arabian 9 c. BCE * Ge’ez 5–6 c
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List Of Constructed Scripts
This list of constructed scripts is in alphabetical order. ISO 15924 codes are provided where assigned. This list includes neither shorthand systems nor ciphers of existing scripts. SCRIPT NAME ISO 15924 YEAR CREATED CREATOR COMMENTS (CLICK TO SORT BY CATEGORY) Afaka Afak 1910 Afáka Atumisi Syllabary used to write the Ndyuka language , an English-based creole of Surinam Aiha 1985 Ursula K. Le Guin Alphabet
Alphabet
of the fictional Kesh language in her novel Always Coming Home Armenian Armn 405–406 Saint Mesrob
Saint Mesrob
Alphabet
Alphabet
thought to have been based on Greek aUI 1962 John W
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List Of Inventors Of Writing Systems
This is an alphabetical list of any individuals, legendary or real, who are purported by traditions to have invented alphabets or other writing systems , whether this is proven or not. CONTENTS * 1 A * 2 B * 3 C * 4 D * 5 E * 6 F * 7 G * 8 H * 9 I * 10 J * 11 K * 12 L * 13 M * 14 N * 15 O * 16 P * 17 R * 18 S * 19 T * 20 U * 21 V * 22 W * 23 Y * 24 Z A * Adrien-Gabriel Morice - French, developed Carrier syllabary c. 1885. * Afáka Atumisi - Surinamese, invented Afaka script in 1908. * Alexandre de Rhodes - French missionary, developed Vietnamese alphabet c
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List Of Writing Systems
This is a LIST OF WRITING SYSTEMS (or SCRIPTS), classified according to some common distinguishing features. There are at least 3,866 languages that make use of a writing system. The usual name of the script is given first; the name of the language(s) in which the script is written follows (in brackets), particularly in the case where the language name differs from the script name. Other informative or qualifying annotations for the script may also be provided
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Writing System
A WRITING SYSTEM is any conventional method of visually representing verbal communication . While both writing and speech are useful in conveying messages , writing differs in also being a reliable form of information storage and transfer . The processes of encoding and decoding writing systems involve shared understanding between writers and readers of the meaning behind the sets of characters that make up a script. Writing
Writing
is usually recorded onto a durable medium , such as paper or electronic storage , although non-durable methods may also be used, such as writing on a computer display , on a blackboard, in sand, or by skywriting . The general attributes of writing systems can be placed into broad categories such as alphabets , syllabaries , or logographies . Any particular system can have attributes of more than one category
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Grapheme
In linguistics , a GRAPHEME is the smallest unit of a writing system of any given language. An individual grapheme may or may not carry meaning by itself, and may or may not correspond to a single phoneme of the spoken language. Graphemes include alphabetic letters , typographic ligatures , Chinese characters
Chinese characters
, numerical digits , punctuation marks, and other individual symbols. The word grapheme, coined in analogy with phoneme, is derived from Greek γράφω (gráphō), meaning 'write', and the suffix -eme, by analogy with phoneme and other names of emic units . The study of graphemes is called graphemics . The concept of graphemes is an abstract one and similar to the notion in computing of a character . By comparison, a specific shape that represents any particular grapheme in a specific typeface is called a glyph
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Undeciphered Writing Systems
Many UNDECIPHERED WRITING SYSTEMS date from several thousand years BC, though some more modern examples do exist. The term "writing systems " is used here loosely to refer to groups of glyphs which appear to have representational symbolic meaning, but which may include "systems" that are largely artistic in nature and are thus not examples of actual writing . The difficulty in deciphering these systems can arise from a lack of known language descendants or from the languages being entirely isolated , from insufficient examples of text having been found and even (such as in the case of Vinča ) from the question of whether the symbols actually constitute a writing system at all
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Hatran Alphabet
U+108E0–U+108FF Final Accepted Script Proposal The HATRAN ALPHABET is the script used to write Aramaic of Hatra , also known as Ashurian Aramaic , a dialect that was spoken from approximately 98-97 BC (year 409 of the Seleucid calendar) to 240 AD by early inhabitants of present-day northern Iraq. Many inscriptions of this alphabet could be found at Hatra
Hatra
, an ancient city in northern Iraq
Iraq
built by the Seleucid Empire
Seleucid Empire
and also used by the Parthian Empire , but subsequently destroyed by the Sassanid Empire
Sassanid Empire
in 241 AD. Assur also has several inscriptions which came to an end following its destruction by the Sasanian in 257 AD while the rest of the inscriptions are spread sparsely throughout Duro-Europos , Gaddala, Tur Abdin
Tur Abdin
, Tikrit, Sa'adiya and Qabr Abu Naif
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Arabic Script
The ARABIC SCRIPT is the writing system used for writing Arabic
Arabic
and several other languages of Asia and Africa, such as Persian , Urdu
Urdu
, Azerbaijani , Pashto , Central Kurdish , Luri , dialects of Mandinka , and others. Until the 16th century, it was also used to write some texts in Spanish . It is the second-most widely used writing system in the world by the number of countries using it and the third by the number of users, after Latin and Chinese characters
Chinese characters
. The Arabic
Arabic
script is written from right to left in a cursive style. In most cases the letters transcribe consonants, or consonants and a few vowels, so most Arabic
Arabic
alphabets are abjads . The script was first used to write texts in Arabic, most notably the Qurʼān , the holy book of Islam
Islam

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Manichaean Alphabet
U+10AC0–U+10AFF Final Accepted Script Proposal MANICHAEAN SCRIPT is an abjad -based writing system rooted in the Semitic family of alphabets and associated with the spread of Manichaean religion from southwest to central Asia and beyond, beginning in the 3rd century CE. It bears a sibling relationship to early forms of the Pahlavi script , both systems having developed from the Imperial Aramaic alphabet
Aramaic alphabet
, in which the Achaemenid court rendered its particular, official dialect of the Aramaic language
Aramaic language
. Unlike Pahlavi, Manichaean script reveals influences from Sogdian script , which in turn descends from the Syriac branch of Aramaic. Manichaean script is so named because Manichaean texts attribute its design to Mani himself. Middle Persian
Middle Persian
is written with this alphabet
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Tifinagh
TIFINAGH (Berber pronunciation: ; also written Tifinaɣ in the Berber Latin alphabet
Berber Latin alphabet
; Neo-Tifinagh: ⵜⵉⴼⵉⵏⴰⵖ; Tuareg Tifinagh: ⵜⵊⵉⵏⵗ or ⵜⵊⵏⵗ) is an abjad script used to write the Berber languages
Berber languages
. A modern alphabetical derivative of the traditional script, known as NEO-TIFINAGH, was introduced in the 20th century. A slightly modified version of the traditional script, called Tifinagh
Tifinagh
Ircam , is used in a number of Moroccan elementary schools in teaching the Berber language to children as well as a number of publications. The word tifinagh is thought to be a Berberised feminine plural cognate of Punic
Punic
, through the Berber feminine prefix ti- and Latin Punicus; thus tifinagh could possibly mean "the Phoenician (letters)" or "the Punic
Punic
letters"
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