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Eiger
The Eiger
Eiger
is a 3,967-metre (13,015 ft) mountain of the Bernese Alps, overlooking Grindelwald
Grindelwald
and Lauterbrunnen
Lauterbrunnen
in the Bernese Oberland of Switzerland, just north of the main watershed and border with Valais. It is the easternmost peak of a ridge crest that extends across the Mönch
Mönch
to the Jungfrau
Jungfrau
at 4,158 m (13,642 ft), constituting one of the most emblematic sights of the Swiss Alps. While the northern side of the mountain rises more than 3,000 m (10,000 ft) above the two valleys of Grindelwald
Grindelwald
and Lauterbrunnen, the southern side faces the large glaciers of the Jungfrau-Aletsch
Jungfrau-Aletsch
area, the most glaciated region in the Alps
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Topographic Map
In modern mapping, a topographic map is a type of map characterized by large-scale detail and quantitative representation of relief, usually using contour lines, but historically using a variety of methods. Traditional definitions require a topographic map to show both natural and man-made features. A topographic map is typically published as a map series, made up of two or more map sheets that combine to form the whole map
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Mountain Range
A mountain range or hill range is a series of mountains or hills ranged in a line and connected by high ground. A mountain system or mountain belt is a group of mountain ranges with similarity in form, structure and alignment that have arisen from the same cause, usually an orogeny.[1] Mountain
Mountain
ranges are formed by a variety of geological processes, but most of the significant ones on Earth
Earth
are the result of plate tectonics. Mountain
Mountain
ranges are also found on many planetary mass objects in the Solar System
Solar System
and are likely a feature of most terrestrial planets. Mountain
Mountain
ranges are usually segmented by highlands or mountain passes and valleys. Individual mountains within the same mountain range do not necessarily have the same geologic structure or petrology
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Rhine
The Rhine
Rhine
(Latin: Rhenus, Romansh: Rein, German: Rhein, French: le Rhin,[1] Dutch: Rijn) is a European river that begins in the Swiss canton of Graubünden
Graubünden
in the southeastern Swiss Alps, forms part of the Swiss-Liechtenstein, Swiss-Austrian, Swiss-German and then the Franco-German border, then flows through the German Rhineland
Rhineland
and the Netherlands
Netherlands
and eventually empties into the North Sea. The largest city on the Rhine
Rhine
is Cologne, Germany, with a population of more than 1,050,000 people
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Normal Route
A normal route or normal way (French: Voie Normale; German: Normalweg) is the most frequently used route for ascending and descending a mountain peak. It is usually the simplest route.[1][2] In the Alps, routes are classed in the following ways, based on their waymarking, construction and upkeep:Footpaths (Fußwege) Hiking trails (Wanderwege) Mountain trails (Bergwege) Alpine routes (Alpine Routen) Climbing
Climbing
routes (Kletterrouten) and High Alpine routes (Hochalpine Routen) in combined rock and ice terrain, (UIAA) graded by difficultySometimes the normal route is not the easiest ascent to the summit, but just the one that is most used. There may be technically easier variations. This is especially the case on the Watzmannfrau, the Hochkalter
Hochkalter
and also Mount Everest
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First Ascent
In mountaineering, a first ascent (abbreviated to FA in guidebooks) is the first successful, documented attainment of the top of a mountain, or the first to follow a particular climbing route. First mountain ascents are notable because they entail genuine exploration, with greater risks, challenges, and recognition than climbing a route pioneered by others. The person who performs the first ascent is called the first ascensionist. In free climbing, a first ascent (or first free ascent, abbreviated FFA) of a climbing route is the first successful, documented climb of a route without using equipment such as anchors or ropes for aiding progression or resting.Contents1 History 2 Related terms 3 See also 4 References 5 External linksHistory[edit] The details of the first ascents of even many prominent mountains are scanty or unknown; sometimes the only evidence of prior summiting is a cairn, artifacts, or inscriptions at the top
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Limestone
Limestone
Limestone
is a sedimentary rock, composed mainly of skeletal fragments of marine organisms such as coral, forams and molluscs. Its major materials are the minerals calcite and aragonite, which are different crystal forms of calcium carbonate (CaCO3). About 10% of sedimentary rocks are limestones. The solubility of limestone in water and weak acid solutions leads to karst landscapes, in which water erodes the limestone over thousands to millions of years
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List Of Mountain Types
Mountains and hills can be characterized in several ways. Some mountains are volcanoes and can be characterized by the type of lava and eruptive history. Other mountains are shaped by glacial processes and can be characterized by their shape
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Swisstopo
Swisstopo
Swisstopo
is the official name for the Swiss Federal Office of Topography (in German: Bundesamt für Landestopografie; French: Office fédéral de topographie; Italian: Ufficio federale di topografia; Romansh: Uffizi federal da topografia), Switzerland's national mapping agency. The current pseudo-English name was made official in 2002. It had been in use as the domain name for the institute's homepage, swisstopo.ch, since 1997.[citation needed]Contents1 Maps1.1 Regular maps1.1.1 Numbering system1.2 Tourist maps 1.3 Other maps2 History2.1 Early work and Dufourkarten 2.2 Siegfriedkarten 2.3 New century 2.4 Modern maps3 Peculiarities 4 Notes and references 5 See also 6 External linksMaps[edit] The main class of products produced by Swisstopo
Swisstopo
are topographical maps on seven different scales. Swiss maps have been praised for their accuracy and quality.[1] Regular maps[edit]1:25.000
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Latin Language
Latin
Latin
(Latin: lingua latīna, IPA: [ˈlɪŋɡʷa laˈtiːna]) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. The Latin alphabet
Latin alphabet
is derived from the Etruscan and Greek alphabets, and ultimately from the Phoenician alphabet. Latin
Latin
was originally spoken in Latium, in the Italian Peninsula.[3] Through the power of the Roman Republic, it became the dominant language, initially in Italy and subsequently throughout the Roman Empire. Vulgar Latin
Vulgar Latin
developed into the Romance languages, such as Italian, Portuguese, Spanish, French, and Romanian. Latin, Greek and French have contributed many words to the English language
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Rhône
The Rhône
Rhône
(/roʊn/; French: Le Rhône
Rhône
[ʁon]; German: Rhone [ˈroːnə]; Walliser German: Rotten [ˈrotən]; Italian: Rodano [ˈrɔːdano]; Arpitan: Rôno [ˈʁono]; Occitan: Ròse [ˈrrɔze (ˈrɔze, ˈʀɔze)]) is one of the major rivers of Europe and has twice the average discharge of the Loire
Loire
(which is the longest French river), rising in the Rhône Glacier
Rhône Glacier
in the Swiss Alps
Swiss Alps
at the far eastern end of the Swiss canton
Swiss canton
of Valais, passing through Lake Geneva and running through southeastern France. At Arles, near its mouth on the Mediterranean Sea, the river divides into two branches, known as the Great Rhône
Rhône
(French: Le Grand Rhône) and the Little Rhône
Rhône
(Le Petit Rhône)
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Valais
The canton of Valais (French pronunciation: ​[valɛ]; German: Kanton Wallis, German pronunciation: [ˈvalɪs] ( listen)) is one of the 26 cantons of Switzerland, situated in the southwestern part of the country, around the valley of the Rhône
Rhône
from its headwaters to Lake Geneva, separating the Pennine Alps
Pennine Alps
from the Bernese Alps. The canton is simultaneously one of the driest regions of Switzerland
Switzerland
in its central Rhône
Rhône
valley and among the wettest, having large amounts of snow and rain up on the highest peaks found in Switzerland. The canton of Valais is widely known for the Matterhorn and resort towns such as Crans-Montana, Saas Fee
Saas Fee
and Zermatt
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Tschuggen (Wengen)
The Tschuggen is a mountain of the Bernese Alps, overlooking Wengen in the Bernese Oberland. It has an elevation of 2,521 metres above sea level and it is the highest summit of the group lying north of the Kleine Scheidegg. References[edit]^ Retrieved from the Swisstopo topographic maps. The key col is the Kleine Scheidegg (2,061 m).External links[edit]Tschuggen on HikrThis Switzerland location article is a stub
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Lütschine
The Lütschine is a river in the Bernese Oberland
Bernese Oberland
region of Switzerland. The Lütschine proper runs from Zweilütschinen, where its two tribututaries join, to Lake Brienz
Lake Brienz
at Bönigen. The Schwarze Lütschine, or Black Lütschine, flows from Grindelwald
Grindelwald
to Zweilütschinen. The Weisse Lütschine, or White Lütschine, flows from the Lauterbrunnen
Lauterbrunnen
Valley to Zweilütschinen
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Geographic Coordinate System
A geographic coordinate system is a coordinate system used in geography that enables every location on Earth to be specified by a set of numbers, letters or symbols.[n 1] The coordinates are often chosen such that one of the numbers represents a vertical position, and two or three of the numbers represent a horizontal position
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Männlichen
The Männlichen
Männlichen
is a 2,343-metre (7,687 ft) mountain in the Swiss Alps located within the Canton of Berne. It can be reached from Wengen by the Wengen– Männlichen
Männlichen
aerial cableway, or from Grindelwald
Grindelwald
using the Grindelwald–Männlichen gondola cableway (GM). It then takes 15 minutes to walk to the summit. It is a popular viewpoint over the Lauterbrunnen
Lauterbrunnen
valley and a popular start location for hikers and skiers. Lauterbrunnen
Lauterbrunnen
Valley in winter from MännlichenSee also[edit]List of mountains of Switzerland
Switzerland
accessible by public transportReferences[edit]^ Retrieved from the Swisstopo
Swisstopo
topographic maps
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