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Ehsan Yarshater
EHSAN YARSHATER (Persian : احسان يارشاطر‎, born April 3, 1920) is the founder and director of The Center for Iranian Studies, and Hagop Kevorkian Professor Emeritus of Iranian Studies at Columbia University
Columbia University
. He was the first Persian full-time professor at a U.S. university since World War II. He is one of the 40 editors of the Encyclopædia Iranica , with articles by 300 authors from various academic institutions. He also edited the third volume of the Cambridge History of Iran
Iran
, comprising the history of the Seleucid
Seleucid
, the Parthians , and the Sassanians
Sassanians
, and a volume entitled Persian Literature. He is also an editor of a sixteen-volume series named History of Persian Literature
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Talysh Language
The TALYSH LANGUAGE (Tolışi / Толыши / تالشی زَوُن) is a Northwestern Iranian language spoken in the northern regions of the Iranian provinces of Gilan and Ardabil
Ardabil
and the southern regions of the Republic of Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
. Talysh language
Talysh language
is closely related to the Tati language . Historically, the language and its people can be traced through the middle Iranian period back to the ancient Medes . It includes many dialects usually divided into three main clusters: Northern (in Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
and Iran), Central (Iran) and Southern (Iran). There are a wide variety of estimates for the number of Talyshi speakers with reliable estimates running anywhere from 500,000 to 1 million. Talyshi is partially, but not fully, intelligible with respect to Persian
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Bahá'í Faith
The BAHá\'í FAITH (Persian : بهائی‎‎ Bahā'i) is an Abrahamic religion teaching the essential worth of all religions, and the unity and equality of all people. Established by Bahá\'u\'lláh in 1863, it initially grew in the Middle East
Middle East
and now has between 5-7 million adherents, known as BAHá\'íS, spread out into most of the world's countries and territories, with the highest concentrations in India
India
and Iran
Iran
. The religion was born in Iran
Iran
, where it has faced ongoing persecutions since its inception. It grew from the mid-19th century Bábí religion , whose founder reinterpreted Shia Islam and said that God would soon send a prophet in the manner of Jesus
Jesus
or Muhammad
Muhammad

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Qazvin
QAZVIN (/kæzˈviːn/ ; Persian : قزوین‎‎, IPA: ( listen ), also Romanized as Qazvīn, Caspin, Qazwin, or Ghazvin) is the largest city and capital of the Province of Qazvin
Qazvin
in Iran
Iran
. Qazvin was an ancient capital in the Safavid
Safavid
dynasty and nowadays is known as the calligraphy capital of Iran. It is famous for its Baghlava , carpet patterns, poets, political newspaper and pahlavi (Middle Persian ) influence on its accent. At the 2011 census, its population was 381,598. Located in 150 km (93 mi) northwest of Tehran
Tehran
, in the Qazvin Province , it is at an altitude of about 1,800 m (5,900 ft) above sea level. The climate is cold but dry, due to its position south of the rugged Alborz
Alborz
range called KTS Atabakiya
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Shah Rukh (Timurid Dynasty)
SHāHRUKH MīRZā (Persian : شاهرخ میرزا‎‎ Šāhrokh Mīrzā) (August 20, 1377 – March 13, 1447) son of Timur was the Timurid ruler of the eastern portion of the empire established by his father, Central Asian conqueror Timur (Tamerlane) who founded the Timurid dynasty , governing most of Persia and Transoxiana between 1405 and 1447. Shāhrukh was the fourth and youngest son of Timur and child of one of his concubines . After Timur's death in 1405, his empire fell apart with various tribes and warlords competing for dominance. The Kara Koyunlu Turkmen destroyed the western empire in 1410 when they captured Baghdad , but in Persia and Transoxiana Shāhrukh was able to secure effective control from about 1409. His empire controlled the main trade routes between East and West, including the legendary Silk Road , and became immensely wealthy as a result
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Walter Bruno Henning
WALTER BRUNO HENNING (August 26, 1908 – January 8, 1967) was a German scholar of Middle Iranian languages and literature, especially of the corpus discovered by the Turpan expeditions of the early 20th century. CONTENTS * 1 Biography * 2 Contributions * 3 References BIOGRAPHYWalter Henning was born in the ancient fortress town of Ragnit , then in East Prussia , but grew up in Köslin , in Pomerania on the Baltic coast . Henning initially attended the University of Göttingen to study mathematics , and although he would soon choose to study Iranian languages instead, he would maintain an interest in mathematics for the rest of his life. At Göttingen, Henning was—together with Paul Thieme, Walther Hinz, Kaj Barr and Hans Jakob Polotzky —among the last group of students of Friedrich Carl Andreas , chairman of the faculty for West-Asian languages, acknowledged authority on Middle Iranian literature and guiding force behind the analysis of the Turpan manuscripts
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Timurid Dynasty
The TIMURID DYNASTY (Persian : تیموریان‎‎), self-designated as GURKANI (Persian : گورکانیان‎‎, Gūrkāniyān), was a Sunni Muslim dynasty or clan of Turco-Mongol lineage descended from the warlord Timur (also known as Tamerlane). The word "Gurkani" derived from "gurkan", a Persianized form of the Mongolian word "kuragan" meaning "son-in-law", as the Timurids being in-laws of the line of Genghis Khan
Genghis Khan
, founder of the Mongol Empire
Mongol Empire

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List Of Iranian Scientists
The following is a non-comprehensive list of IRANIAN SCIENTISTS AND ENGINEERS who lived from antiquity up until the beginning of the modern age. Contents : * Top * 0–9 * A * B * C * D * E * F * G * H * I * J * K * L * M * N * O * P * Q * R * S * T * U * V * W * X * Y * Z A * Abd al-Hamid al-Katib (?–756), founder of Arabic prose along with fellow Persian Ibn Muqaffa * Abu al-Qasim Muqane\'i :(10th century) physician * Abhari (?–1262/1265), mathematician * Abu Dawood (c. 817–889), Islamic scholar * Abu Hanifa (699–767), Islamic scholar * Abu Nasr-e Mansur (c
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Mary Boyce
NORA ELISABETH MARY BOYCE (2 August 1920 – 4 April 2006) was a British scholar of Iranian languages
Iranian languages
, and an authority on Zoroastrianism
Zoroastrianism
. The Royal Asiatic Society 's annual Boyce Prize for outstanding contributions to the study of religion is named after her. CONTENTS * 1 Early years * 2 Academic career * 3 Awards and recognition * 4 Publications * 4.1 Selected works * 5 References * 6 Notes * 7 External links EARLY YEARSShe was born in Darjeeling
Darjeeling
where her parents were vacationing to escape the heat of the plains during the summer. Her father, William H. Boyce, was a Judge at the Calcutta
Calcutta
high-court, then an institution of the British imperial government. Her mother Nora (née Gardiner) was a granddaughter of the historian Samuel Rawson Gardiner
Samuel Rawson Gardiner

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Van Fortress
The FORTRESS OF VAN (Armenian : Վանի Բերդ, also known as VAN CITADEL, Turkish : VAN KALESI or Kurdish : KELA WANê‎) is a massive stone fortification built by the ancient Armenian kingdom of Urartu during the 9th to 7th centuries BC, and is the largest example of its kind. It overlooks the ruins of Tushpa the ancient Urartian capital during the 9th century which was centered upon the steep-sided bluff where the fortress now sits. A number of similar fortifications were built throughout the Urartian kingdom, usually cut into hillsides and outcrops in places where modern-day Armenia
Armenia
, Turkey
Turkey
and Iran
Iran
meet. Successive groups such as the Medes, Achaemenids, Armenians, Parthians, Romans, Sassanid Persians, Byzantines, Arabs, Seljuks, Safavids, Afsharids, Ottomans and Russians each controlled the fortress at one time or another
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Dana-i Menog Khrat
THE DANA-I MENOG-I KHRAT, (Persian:دانای مینوی خرد) or 'opinions of the spirit of wisdom', a Middle Persian
Middle Persian
book which was written about 8th century. It comprises the replies of that spirit to sixty-two inquiries, or groups of inquiries, made by a certain wise man regarding various subjects connected with the Zoroastrian religion. This treatise contains about 11,000 words, and was long known, like the Shikand-gumanic Vichar (53), only through its Pazand version, prepared by a Persian zoroastrian writer, Neryosang in middle age . This book is translated to English by West in 1871. followed by a translation of the Pahlavi text in 1885
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Ganjnameh
GANJ NAMEH (Persian : گنجنامه‎‎ literally: Treasure epistle) is an ancient inscription, 5 km south-west of Hamedan
Hamedan
, on the side of Alvand Mountain in Iran
Iran
. The inscriptions were carved in granite in two sections. The one on the left was ordered by Darius the Great (521-485 BC) and the one on the right by Xerxes the Great (485-65 BC). Both sections were carved in three ancient languages: Old Persian , Neo-Babylonian and Neo- Elamite
Elamite
. The inscriptions start with praise of the Zoroastrian
Zoroastrian
God ( Ahura Mazda ) and describe the lineage and deeds of the mentioned kings. Later generations who could not read the Cuneiform
Cuneiform
alphabets of the ancient Persian assumed that they contained the guide to an uncovered treasure; hence they called it Ganjnameh
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Behistun Inscription
The BEHISTUN INSCRIPTION (also BISOTUN, BISTUN or BISUTUN; Persian : بیستون‎‎, Old Persian : BAGASTANA, meaning "the place of god") is a multilingual inscription and large rock relief on a cliff at Mount Behistun in the Kermanshah Province of Iran , near the city of Kermanshah in western Iran . It was crucial to the decipherment of cuneiform script . Authored by Darius the Great sometime between his coronation as king of the Persian Empire in the summer of 522 BC and his death in autumn of 486 BC, the inscription begins with a brief autobiography of Darius, including his ancestry and lineage
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Iranian Revolution
Imperial State of Iran
Iran
* Regency Council * Resurgence Party * Imperial Iranian Army * Imperial Guard * SAVAK *
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Old Persian Language
Western Iranian languages
Iranian languages
------------------------- OLD PERSIAN (c. 525 – 300 BCE) Old Persian cuneiform ------------------------- MIDDLE PERSIAN (c. 300 BCE – 800 CE) Pahlavi scripts Manichaean alphabet Avestan alphabet ------------------------- MODERN PERSIAN (from 800) Persian alphabet • Tajiki Cyrillic alphabet The OLD PERSIAN LANGUAGE is one of the two directly attested Old Iranian languages
Iranian languages
(the other being Avestan ). Old Persian appears primarily in the inscriptions, clay tablets , and seals of the Achaemenid era (c. 600 BCE to 300 BCE)
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Philology
PHILOLOGY is the study of language in oral and written historical sources; it is a combination of literary criticism , history , and linguistics . It is more commonly defined as the study of literary texts as well as oral and written records, the establishment of their authenticity and their original form, and the determination of their meaning. A person who pursues this kind of study is known as a philologist. In older usage, especially British, PHILOLOGY is more general, covering comparative and historical linguistics. Classical philology studies classical languages
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