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Ehsan Yarshater
Ehsan Yarshater
Ehsan Yarshater
(Persian: احسان يارشاطر‎, born April 3, 1920) is the founder and director of The Center for Iranian Studies, and Hagop Kevorkian Professor Emeritus of Iranian Studies at Columbia University. He was the first Persian full-time professor at a U.S. university since World War II.[1] He is one of the 40 editors of the Encyclopædia Iranica,[2] with articles by 300 authors from various academic institutions. He also edited the third volume of the Cambridge History of Iran, comprising the history of the Seleucid, the Parthians, and the Sassanians, and a volume entitled Persian Literature
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Shahrestanha-ye Eranshahr
The modern Persian name of Iran (ایران) derives immediately from 3rd-century Sassanian Middle Persian
Middle Persian
ērān (Pahlavi spelling: ʼyrʼn), where it initially meant "of the Iranians",[1] but soon also acquired a geographical connotation in the sense of "(lands inhabited by) Iranians".[1] In both geographic and demonymic senses, ērān is distinguished from its antonymic anērān, meaning "non-Iran(ian)".[1][2] In the geographic sense, ērān was also distinguished from ērānšahr, the Sassanians' own name for their empire, and which also included territories that were not primarily inhabited by ethnic Iranians.[1]Contents1 In pre-Islamic usage 2 In early Islamic times 3 Modern usage 4 ReferencesIn pre-Islamic usage[edit] The word ērān is first attested in the inscriptions that accompany the investiture relief of Ardashir I
Ardashir I
(r
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Philology
Philology
Philology
is the study of language in oral and written historical sources; it is a combination of literary criticism, history, and linguistics.[1] Philology
Philology
is more commonly defined as the study of literary texts as well as oral and written records, the establishment of their authenticity and their original form, and the determination of their meaning. A person who pursues this kind of study is known as a philologist. In older usage, especially British, philology is more general, covering comparative and historical linguistics.[2][3] Classical philology
Classical philology
studies classical languages. Classical philology principally originated from the Library of Pergamum
Library of Pergamum
and the Library of Alexandria[4] around the fourth century BCE, continued by Greeks and Romans throughout the Roman/Byzantine Empire
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Dana-i Menog Khrat
The Dana-i Menog-i khrat[pronunciation?], (Persian:دانای مینوی خرد) or 'opinions of the spirit of wisdom', a Middle Persian book which was written about 8th century. It comprises the replies of that spirit to sixty-two inquiries, or groups of inquiries, made by a certain wise man regarding various subjects connected with the Zoroastrian
Zoroastrian
religion. This treatise contains about 11,000 words, and was long known, like the Shikand-gumanic Vichar (53), only through its Pazand version, prepared by a Persian zoroastrian writer, Neryosang in middle age. This book is translated to English by West in 1871
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Van Fortress
The Fortress of Van (Armenian: Վանի Բերդ, also known as Van Citadel, Turkish: Van Kalesi or Kurdish: Kela Wanê‎) is a massive stone fortification built by the ancient Armenian kingdom of Urartu during the 9th to 7th centuries BC, and is the largest example of its kind. It overlooks the ruins of Tushpa
Tushpa
the ancient Urartian capital during the 9th century which was centered upon the steep-sided bluff where the fortress now sits. A number of similar fortifications were built throughout the Urartian kingdom, usually cut into hillsides and outcrops in places where modern-day Armenia, Turkey
Turkey
and Iran
Iran
meet. Successive groups such as the Medes, Achaemenids, Armenians, Parthians, Romans, Sassanid Persians, Byzantines, Arabs, Seljuks, Safavids, Afsharids, Ottomans and Russians each controlled the fortress at one time or another
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Ganjnameh
Ganj Nameh (Persian: گنجنامه‎ literally: Treasure epistle) is an ancient inscription, 5 km south-west of Hamedan, on the side of Alvand
Alvand
Mountain in Iran. The inscriptions were carved in granite in two sections. The one on the left was ordered by Darius the Great (521-485 BC) and the one on the right by Xerxes the Great
Xerxes the Great
(485-65 BC). Both sections were carved in three ancient languages: Old Persian, Neo-Babylonian and Neo-Elamite. The inscriptions start with praise of the Zoroastrian
Zoroastrian
God (Ahura Mazda) and describe the lineage and deeds of the mentioned kings. Later generations who could not read the Cuneiform
Cuneiform
alphabets of the ancient Persian assumed that they contained the guide to an uncovered treasure; hence they called it Ganjnameh
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Behistun Inscription
The Behistun Inscription
Behistun Inscription
(also Bisotun, Bistun or Bisutun; Persian: بیستون‎, Old Persian: Bagastana, meaning "the place of god") is a multilingual inscription and large rock relief on a cliff at Mount Behistun
Mount Behistun
in the Kermanshah Province
Kermanshah Province
of Iran, near the city of Kermanshah
Kermanshah
in western Iran. It was crucial to the decipherment of cuneiform script. Authored by Darius the Great
Darius the Great
sometime between his coronation as king of the Persian Empire in the summer of 522 BC and his death in autumn of 486 BC, the inscription begins with a brief autobiography of Darius, including his ancestry and lineage
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Old Persian Language
Western Iranian languages Old Persian
Old Persian
(c. 525 – 300 BCE) Old Persian
Old Persian
cuneiform Middle Persian
Middle Persian
(c. 300 BCE – 800 CE) Pahlavi scripts
Pahlavi scripts
Manichaean alphabet
Manichaean alphabet
Avestan
Avestan
alphabet Modern Persian
Modern Persian
(from 800) Persian alphabet
Persian alphabet
• Tajiki Cyrillic alphabet Old Persian
Old Persian
is one of the two directly attested Old Iranian languages (the other being Avestan). Old Persian
Old Persian
appears primarily in the inscriptions, clay tablets and seals of the Achaemenid era (c. 600 BCE to 300 BCE)
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Iranian Revolution
Imperial State of IranRegency Council[a] Resurgence Party Imperial Iranian Army[b] Imperial Guard SAVAK Shahrbani Gendarmerie Revolution
Revolution
Council Interim GovernmentOpposition groups:Confederation of Iranian Students Islamic Association of Students Combatant Clergy Association Islamic Coalition Societies Fedayeen of Islam Islamist Guerrillas Movement of Militant Muslims JAMA National Front Freedom Movement Nation Party Tudeh Party People's Mujahedin Union of Communist Militants Peykar People's Fedai GuerrillasLead figures
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Mary Boyce
Nora Elisabeth Mary Boyce (2 August 1920 – 4 April 2006) was a British scholar of Iranian languages, and an authority on Zoroastrianism. The Royal Asiatic Society's annual Boyce Prize for outstanding contributions to the study of religion is named after her.Contents1 Early years 2 Academic career 3 Awards and recognition 4 Publications4.1 Selected works5 References 6 Notes 7 External linksEarly years[edit] She was born in Darjeeling
Darjeeling
where her parents were vacationing to escape the heat of the plains during the summer. Her father, William H. Boyce, was a Judge at the Calcutta
Calcutta
high-court, then an institution of the British imperial government. Her mother Nora (née Gardiner) was a granddaughter of the historian Samuel Rawson Gardiner.[1] Boyce was educated at Wimbledon High School and then Cheltenham Ladies' College
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List Of Iranian Scientists
The following is a non-comprehensive list of Iranian scientists and engineers who lived from antiquity up until the beginning of the modern age. For the modern era, see List of contemporary Iranian scientists, scholars, and engineers. For mathematicians of any era, see List of Iranian mathematicians. (A person may appear on two lists, e.g. Abū Ja'far al-Khāzin.)Contents: Top 0–9 A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y ZA[edit] Abd al-Hamid al-Katib (?–756), founder of Arabic prose along with fellow Persian Ibn Muqaffa Abu al-Qasim Muqane'i:(10th century) physician Abu Dawood
Abu Dawood
(c
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Bahá'í Faith
The Bahá'í Faith
Faith
(/bəˈhɑːiː, -ˈhaɪ/; Persian: بهائی‎ Bahā'i) is a religion teaching the essential worth of all religions, and the unity and equality of all people.[1] Established by Bahá'u'lláh
Bahá'u'lláh
in 1863, it initially grew in Iran
Iran
(Persia) and parts of the Middle East, where it has faced ongoing persecution since its inception.[2] Currently it has between 5 and 7 million adherents, known as Bahá'ís, spread out into most of the world's countries and territories.[3][note 1] It grew from the mid-19th-century Bábí religion, whose founder taught that God
God
would soon send a prophet in the manner of Jesus
Jesus
or Muhammad.[4] In 1863, after being banished from his native Iran, Bahá'u'lláh
Bahá'u'lláh
announced that he was this prophet
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Talysh Language
The Talysh language
Talysh language
(Tolışi / Толыши / تالشی زَوُن) is a Northwestern Iranian language spoken in the northern regions of the Iranian provinces of Gilan and Ardabil
Ardabil
and the southern regions of the Republic of Azerbaijan. Talysh language
Talysh language
is closely related to the Tati language. Historically, the language and its people can be traced through the middle Iranian period back to the ancient Medes. It includes many dialects usually divided into three main clusters: Northern (in Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
and Iran), Central (Iran) and Southern (Iran). There are a wide variety of estimates for the number of Talyshi speakers with reliable estimates running anywhere from 500,000[citation needed] to 1 million.[citation needed] Talyshi is partially, but not fully, intelligible with respect to Persian
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Qazvin
Qazvin
Qazvin
(/kæzˈviːn/; Persian: قزوین‎, IPA: [ɢæzˈviːn] ( listen), also Romanized as Qazvīn, Caspin, Qazwin, or Ghazvin) is the largest city and capital of the Province of Qazvin
Qazvin
in Iran. Qazvin
Qazvin
was an ancient capital in the Safavid
Safavid
dynasty and nowadays is known as the calligraphy capital of Iran. It is famous for its Baghlava, carpet patterns, poets, political newspaper and pahlavi (Middle Persian) influence on its accent. At the 2011 census, its population was 381,598.[1] Located in 150 km (93 mi) northwest of Tehran, in the Qazvin Province, it is at an altitude of about 1,800 m (5,900 ft) above sea level
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Shah Rukh (Timurid Dynasty)
Shāh Rukh (Persian: شاهرخ‎ Šāhrokh)[1][2] (August 20, 1377 – March 13, 1447) was the Timurid ruler of the eastern portion of the empire established by his father, Central Asian conqueror Timur (Tamerlane) who founded the Timurid dynasty, governing most of Persia and Transoxiana
Transoxiana
between 1405 and 1447. Shāh Rukh was the fourth and youngest son of Timur
Timur
and child of one of his concubines. After Timur's death in 1405, his empire fell apart with various tribes and warlords competing for dominance. The Kara Koyunlu
Kara Koyunlu
Turkmen destroyed the western empire in 1410 when they captured Baghdad, but in Persia
Persia
and Transoxiana
Transoxiana
Shāhrukh was able to secure effective control from about 1409
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Timurid Dynasty
The Timurid dynasty (Persian: تیموریان‎), self-designated as Gurkani (Persian: گورکانیان‎, Gūrkāniyān), was a Sunni Muslim[1] dynasty or clan of Turco-Mongol
Turco-Mongol
lineage[2][3][4][5] descended from the warlord Timur
Timur
(also known as Tamerlane). The word "Gurkani" derived from "gurkan", a Persianized form of the Mongolian word "kuragan" meaning "son-in-law",[6] as the Timurids were in-laws of the line of Genghis Khan,[7][full citation needed] founder of the Mongol
Mongol
Empire
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