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Efficacious Grace
Irresistible grace
Irresistible grace
(or efficacious grace) is a doctrine in Christian theology particularly associated with Calvinism, which teaches that the saving grace of God
God
is effectually applied to those whom he has determined to save (the elect) and, in God's timing, overcomes their resistance to obeying the call of the gospel, bringing them to faith in Christ
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Grace In Christianity
In Western Christian theology, grace has been defined, not as a created substance of any kind, but as "the love and mercy given to us by God because God desires us to have it, not necessarily because of anything we have done to earn it",[1] "the condescension or benevolence shown by God toward the human race".[2] It is understood by Christians
Christians
to be a spontaneous gift from God to people "generous, free and totally unexpected and undeserved"[3] – that takes the form of divine favor, love, clemency, and a share in the divine life of God.[4] It is an attribute of God that is most manifest in the salvation of sinners
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Francis Turretin
Francis Turretin
Francis Turretin
(17 October 1623 – 28 September 1687; also known as François Turretini and Francis Turrettin) was a Genevan-Italian Reformed scholastic
Reformed scholastic
theologian. Turretin is especially known as a zealous opponent of the theology of the Academy of Saumur (embodied by Moise Amyraut
Moise Amyraut
and called Amyraldianism), as an earnest defender of the Calvinistic orthodoxy represented by the Synod of Dort, and as one of the authors of the Helvetic Consensus, which defended the formulation of predestination from the Synod of Dort
Synod of Dort
and the verbal inspiration of the Bible.Contents1 Life 2 Works 3 Free Choice 4 English translations 5 Notes 6 Bibliography 7 External linksLife[edit] He was the grandson of Francesco Turrettini, who left his native Lucca in 1574 and settled in Geneva in 1592
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1689 Baptist Confession Of Faith
The 1689 Baptist
Baptist
Confession of Faith,[1][2] also called the Second London
London
Baptist
Baptist
Confession, was written by Particular Baptists, who held to a Calvinistic Soteriology
Soteriology
in England
England
to give a formal expression of their Christian faith from a Baptist
Baptist
perspective. This confession, like the Westminster Confession of Faith
Westminster Confession of Faith
(1646) and the Savoy Declaration (1658), was written by Puritans who were concerned that their particular church organisation reflect what they perceived to be Biblical teaching
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First Helvetic Confession
A confession is a statement – made by a person or by a group of persons – acknowledging some personal fact that the person (or the group) would ostensibly prefer to keep hidden. The term presumes that the speaker is providing information that he believes the other party is not already aware of,[1] and is frequently associated with an admission of a moral or legal wrong:In one sense it is the acknowledgment of having done something wrong, whether on purpose or not. Thus confessional texts usually provide information of a private nature previously unavailable. What a sinner tells a priest in the confessional, the documents criminals sign acknowledging what they have done, an autobiography in which the author acknowledges mistakes, and so on, are all examples of confessional texts.[2]Not all confessions reveal wrongdoing, however
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Scots Confession
The Scots Confession (also called the Scots Confession of 1560) is a Confession of Faith
Confession of Faith
written in 1560 by six leaders of the Protestant Reformation in Scotland. The Confession was the first subordinate standard for the Protestant church in Scotland. Along with the Book of Discipline and the Book of Common Order, this is considered to be a formational document for the Church of Scotland
Church of Scotland
during the time.[1] In August 1560 the Parliament of Scotland
Parliament of Scotland
agreed to reform the religion of the country. To enable them to decide what the Reformed Faith was to be, they set John Knox
John Knox
as the superintendent[2] over John Winram, John Spottiswoode, John Willock, John Douglas, and John Row, to prepare a Confession of Faith. This they did in four days
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Huldrych Zwingli
Huldrych Zwingli[a] or Ulrich Zwingli[b] (1 January 1484 – 11 October 1531) was a leader of the Reformation
Reformation
in Switzerland. Born during a time of emerging Swiss patriotism and increasing criticism of the Swiss mercenary system, he attended the University of Vienna
University of Vienna
and the University of Basel, a scholarly center of Renaissance humanism. He continued his studies while he served as a pastor in Glarus
Glarus
and later in Einsiedeln, where he was influenced by the writings of Erasmus. In 1519, Zwingli became the pastor of the Grossmünster
Grossmünster
in Zurich where he began to preach ideas on reform of the Catholic Church. In his first public controversy in 1522, he attacked the custom of fasting during Lent
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Martin Bucer
Martin Bucer
Martin Bucer
(early German: Martin Butzer[1][2][a]; 11 November 1491 – 28 February 1551) was a German Protestant
Protestant
reformer based in Strasbourg
Strasbourg
who influenced Lutheran, Calvinist, and Anglican doctrines and practices. Bucer was originally a member of the Dominican Order, but after meeting and being influenced by Martin Luther in 1518 he arranged for his monastic vows to be annulled. He then began to work for the Reformation, with the support of Franz von Sickingen. Bucer's efforts to reform the church in Wissembourg
Wissembourg
resulted in his excommunication from the Roman Catholic
Catholic
Church, and he was forced to flee to Strasbourg. There he joined a team of reformers which included Matthew Zell, Wolfgang Capito, and Caspar Hedio
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Peter Martyr Vermigli
Peter Martyr Vermigli[b] (8 September 1499 – 12 November 1562) was an Italian-born Reformed theologian. His early work as a reformer in Catholic Italy
Italy
and his decision to flee for Protestant northern Europe influenced many other Italians to convert and flee as well. In England, he influenced the Edwardian Reformation, including the Eucharistic service of the 1552 Book of Common Prayer. He was considered an authority on the Eucharist
Eucharist
among the Reformed churches, and engaged in controversies on the subject by writing treatises. Vermigli's Loci Communes, a compilation of excerpts from his biblical commentaries organized by the topics of systematic theology, became a standard Reformed theological textbook. Born in Florence, Vermigli entered a religious order and was appointed to influential posts as abbot and prior
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William Farel
William Farel
William Farel
(1489 – 13 September 1565), Guilhem Farel or Guillaume Farel (French: [gijom faʁɛl]), was a French evangelist, and a founder of the Reformed
Reformed
Church in the cantons of Neuchâtel, Berne, Geneva, and Vaud in Switzerland. He is most often remembered for having persuaded John Calvin
John Calvin
to remain in Geneva
Geneva
in 1536,[1] and for persuading him to return there in 1541,[2] after their expulsion in 1538
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Heinrich Bullinger
Heinrich Bullinger
Heinrich Bullinger
(18 July 1504 – 17 September 1575) was a Swiss reformer, the successor of Huldrych Zwingli
Huldrych Zwingli
as head of the Zurich church and pastor at Grossmünster. A much less controversial figure than John Calvin
John Calvin
or Martin Luther, his importance has long been underestimated; recent research shows that he was one of the most influential theologians of the Protestant Reformation
Protestant Reformation
in the 16th century.[citation needed]Contents1 Early life 2 Studies 3 Kappel ministry begins (1523–1528) 4 Bremgarten Ministry (1529–1531) 5 Second Helvetic Confession5.1 Marian views6 Works6.1 Theological works 6.2 Historical 6.3 Letters7 References 8 External linksEarly life[edit]This section needs additional citations for verification
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John Knox
John Knox
John Knox
(c. 1513 – 24 November 1572) was a Scottish minister, theologian, and writer who was a leader of the country's Reformation. He is the founder of the Presbyterian Church of Scotland. Born in Giffordgate, Knox is believed to have been educated at the University of St Andrews
University of St Andrews
and worked as a notary-priest. Influenced by early church reformers such as George Wishart, he joined the movement to reform the Scottish church. He was caught up in the ecclesiastical and political events that involved the murder of Cardinal David Beaton in 1546 and the intervention of the regent of Scotland
Scotland
Mary of Guise, a French noblewoman
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Theodore Beza
Theodore Beza
Theodore Beza
(Latin: Theodorus Beza; French: Théodore de Bèze or de Besze; June 24, 1519 – October 13, 1605) was a French Protestant Christian
Christian
theologian and scholar who played an important role in the Reformation. He was a disciple of John Calvin
John Calvin
and lived most of his life in Geneva.Contents1 Biography1.1 Early life 1.2 Teacher at Lausanne 1.3 Journeys on behalf of the Protestants 1.4 Settles in Geneva 1.5 Events of 1560–63 1.6 Calvin's successor 1.7 Course of events after 1564 1.8 The Colloquy of Montbéliard 1.9 Last days2 Literary works2.1 Humanistic and historical writings 2.2 Theological works 2.3 Beza's Greek New Testament3 See also 4 Notes 5 References 6 External linksBiography[edit] Early life[edit] Theodore Beza
Theodore Beza
was born at Vézelay, in Burgundy, France
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Jonathan Edwards (theologian)
Jonathan Edwards (October 5, 1703 – March 22, 1758) was an American revivalist preacher, philosopher, and Congregationalist Protestant theologian. Like most of the Puritans, he held to the Reformed theology. His colonial followers later distinguished themselves from other Congregationalists as "New Lights" (endorsing the Great Awakening), as opposed to "Old Lights" (non-revivalists). Edwards is widely regarded as "one of America's most important and original philosophical theologians". Edwards' theological work is broad in scope, but he was rooted in Reformed
Reformed
theology, the metaphysics of theological determinism, and the Puritan
Puritan
heritage
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La Rochelle Confession
A confession is a statement – made by a person or by a group of persons – acknowledging some personal fact that the person (or the group) would ostensibly prefer to keep hidden. The term presumes that the speaker is providing information that he believes the other party is not already aware of,[1] and is frequently associated with an admission of a moral or legal wrong:In one sense it is the acknowledgment of having done something wrong, whether on purpose or not. Thus confessional texts usually provide information of a private nature previously unavailable. What a sinner tells a priest in the confessional, the documents criminals sign acknowledging what they have done, an autobiography in which the author acknowledges mistakes, and so on, are all examples of confessional texts.[2]Not all confessions reveal wrongdoing, however
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Charles Hodge
Charles Hodge
Charles Hodge
(December 27, 1797 – June 19, 1878) was a Presbyterian theologian and principal of Princeton Theological Seminary
Princeton Theological Seminary
between 1851 and 1878. He was a leading exponent of the Princeton Theology, an orthodox Calvinist
Calvinist
theological tradition in America during the 19th century
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