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Edward Elgar
Sir Edward William Elgar, 1st Baronet
Baronet
OM GCVO (2 June 1857 – 23 February 1934) was an English composer, many of whose works have entered the British and international classical concert repertoire. Among his best-known compositions are orchestral works including the Enigma Variations, the Pomp and Circumstance Marches, concertos for violin and cello, and two symphonies. He also composed choral works, including The Dream of Gerontius, chamber music and songs. He was appointed Master of the King's Musick
Master of the King's Musick
in 1924. Although Elgar is often regarded as a typically English composer, most of his musical influences were not from England but from continental Europe. He felt himself to be an outsider, not only musically, but socially
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Camille Saint-Saëns
Charles- Camille Saint-Saëns
Camille Saint-Saëns
(French: [ʃaʁl kamij sɛ̃sɑ̃s];[n 1] 9 October 1835 – 16 December 1921) was a French composer, organist, conductor and pianist of the Romantic era. His best-known works include Introduction and Rondo Capriccioso (1863), the Second Piano Concerto (1868), the First Cello Concerto (1872), Danse macabre (1874), the opera Samson and Delilah (1877), the Third Violin Concerto (1880), the Third ("Organ") Symphony (1886) and The Carnival of the Animals
The Carnival of the Animals
(1886). Saint-Saëns was a musical prodigy, making his concert debut at the age of ten. After studying at the Paris Conservatoire
Paris Conservatoire
he followed a conventional career as a church organist, first at Saint-Merri, Paris and, from 1858, La Madeleine, the official church of the French Empire
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Ludwig Van Beethoven
Ludwig van Beethoven
Ludwig van Beethoven
(/ˈlʊdvɪɡ væn ˈbeɪˌtoʊvən/ ( listen), /ˈbeɪtˌhoʊvən/; German: [ˈluːtvɪç fan ˈbeːtˌhoˑfn̩] ( listen); baptised 17 December 1770[1] – 26 March 1827) was a German composer and pianist. A crucial figure in the transition between the Classical and Romantic eras in Classical music, he remains one of the most famous and influential of all composers. His best-known compositions include 9 symphonies, 5 piano concertos, 1 violin concerto, 32 piano sonatas, 16 string quartets, his great Mass the Missa solemnis, and one opera, Fidelio. Born in Bonn, then the capital of the Electorate of Cologne
Electorate of Cologne
and part of the Holy Roman Empire, Beethoven displayed his musical talents at an early age and was taught by his father Johann van Beethoven
Johann van Beethoven
and by composer and conductor Christian Gottlob Neefe
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Quadrille
The quadrille is a dance that was fashionable in late 18th- and 19th-century Europe and its colonies. Performed by four couples in a rectangular formation, it is related to American square dancing. The Lancers, a variant of the quadrille, became popular in the late 19th century and was still danced in the 20th century in folk-dance clubs. A derivative found in the Francophone Lesser Antilles
Lesser Antilles
is known as kwadril, and the dance is also still found in Madagascar
Madagascar
and is within old Jamaican / Caribbean culture. The quadrille consists of a chain of four to six contredanses, courtly versions of English country dances that had been taken up at the court of Louis XIV
Louis XIV
and spread across Europe
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Symphony No. 6 (Dvořák)
Czech composer Antonín Dvořák
Antonín Dvořák
(1841–1904) composed his Symphony No. 6 in D major, Op. 60, B. 112, in 1880. It is dedicated to Hans Richter, who was the conductor of the Vienna Philharmonic Orchestra. With a performance time of approximately 40 minutes, the four-movement piece was one of the first of Dvořák’s large symphonic works to draw international attention. In it, he manages to capture some of the Czech national style within a standard Germanic classical-romantic form.Dvořák in 1879Contents1 Background 2 Compositional context and influences 3 Instrumentation and score3.1 Score 3.2 Instrumentation4 Orchestration and style4.1 I. Allegro non tanto 4.2 II. Adagio 4.3 III. Scherzo (Furiant): Presto 4.4 IV
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Glee Club
A glee club is a musical group or choir group, historically of male voices but also of female or mixed voices, which traditionally specializes in the singing of short songs—glees—by trios or quartets. In the late 19th century it was very popular in most schools and was made a tradition to have in American high schools from then on. The first named Glee Club was founded in Harrow School
Harrow School
in London in 1787, where an annual Glee competition is still held.[1] Glee clubs were very popular in Britain from then until the mid-1850s but by then they were gradually being superseded by choral societies. Glee in this context does not refer to the mood of the music or of its singers, but to a specific form of English part song popular between 1650 and 1900, the glee
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The Musical Times
The Musical Times is an academic journal of classical music edited and produced in the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
and currently the oldest such journal still being published in that country. It was originally published as The Musical Times and Singing Class Circular from 1844 until 1903.[1][2] Its title was shortened to its present name from January 1904.[3] The journal originally appeared monthly but is now a quarterly publication. It is also available online at JSTOR
JSTOR
and RILM Abstracts of Music Literature Full Text. Past editors include F. G. Edwards (1897–1909),[4] Harvey Grace, Stanley Sadie (1967–1987) and Eric Wen. References[edit]^ Publisher Information: Musical Times Publications Ltd. Retrieved 9 August 2009. ^ "Front Matter". The Musical Times and Singing Class Circular, 1 December 1903, Vol. 44, No. 730. JSTOR 904250. ^ "Front Matter"
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University Of Music And Theatre Leipzig
The University of Music and Theatre " Felix Mendelssohn
Felix Mendelssohn
Bartholdy" Leipzig
Leipzig
(German: Hochschule für Musik und Theater "Felix Mendelssohn Bartholdy" Leipzig) is a public university in Leipzig
Leipzig
(Saxony, Germany). Founded in 1843 by Felix Mendelssohn
Felix Mendelssohn
as the Conservatory of Music, it is the oldest university school of music in Germany. The institution includes the traditional Church Music Institute founded in 1919 by Karl Straube
Karl Straube
(1873–1950)
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Grove Dictionary Of Music And Musicians
The New Grove Dictionary of Music
Music
and Musicians is an encyclopedic dictionary of music and musicians. Along with the German-language Musik in Geschichte und Gegenwart, it is one of the largest reference works on western music. Originally published under the title A Dictionary of Music
Music
and Musicians, and later as Grove's Dictionary of Music
Music
and Musicians, it has gone through several editions since the 19th century and is widely used
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Stabat Mater (Dvořák)
Stabat
Stabat
is a town in North Sumatra
North Sumatra
province of Indonesia
Indonesia
and it is the seat (capital) of Langkat Regency. The town lies on the road between Medan
Medan
and Banda Aceh, a short distance past the city of Binjai. Stabat
Stabat
District is one of the 23 districts of Langkat Regency. Its capital is the town of Stabat. It is bordered by Wampu District to the west, Secanggang District to the north, Binjai
Binjai
to the south, and Hamparan Perak District of Deli Serdang Regency
Deli Serdang Regency
to the east. Stabat
Stabat
has been since the Dutch colonial period a centre of government. References[edit]^ a b http://bappeda.sumutprov.go.id/File_Upload/Data&Informasi/13_KCDA_LANGKAT/070_Stabat.pdfThis North Sumatra
North Sumatra
location article is a stub
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Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart
Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart
Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart
(/ˈwʊlfɡæŋ æməˈdeɪəs ˈmoʊtsɑːrt/ MOHT-sart;[1] German: [ˈvɔlfɡaŋ amaˈdeːʊs ˈmoːtsaʁt]; 27 January 1756 – 5 December 1791), baptised as Johannes Chrysostomus Wolfgangus Theophilus Mozart,[2] was a prolific and influential composer of the classical era. Born in Salzburg, Mozart showed prodigious ability from his earliest childhood. Already competent on keyboard and violin, he composed from the age of five and performed before European royalty. At 17, Mozart was engaged as a musician at the Salzburg
Salzburg
court, but grew restless and traveled in search of a better position. While visiting Vienna
Vienna
in 1781, he was dismissed from his Salzburg
Salzburg
position
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Member Of The Order Of Merit
The Order of Merit
Order of Merit
(French: Ordre du Mérite)[n 1] is an order of merit recognising distinguished service in the armed forces, science, art, literature, or for the promotion of culture
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Johann Nepomuk Hummel
Johann Nepomuk Hummel
Johann Nepomuk Hummel
(14 November 1778 – 17 October 1837) was an Austrian composer and virtuoso pianist. His music reflects the transition from the Classical to the Romantic musical era.Contents1 Life 2 Influence 3 Music 4 Last years and legacy 5 References 6 External linksLife[edit]Hummel's birthplace in Klobucnicka Street, BratislavaHummel was born in Pressburg, Kingdom of Hungary, then a part of the Austrian Habsburg Monarchy
Habsburg Monarchy
(now Bratislava
Bratislava
in Slovakia). He was named after St John of Nepomuk, and – unusually for that period – an only child. His father, Johannes Hummel,[1] was the director of the Imperial School of Military Music in Vienna
Vienna
and the conductor there of Emanuel Schikaneder's theatre orchestra at the Theater auf der Wieden; his mother, Margarethe Sommer Hummel, was the widow of the wigmaker Josef Ludwig
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Luigi Cherubini
Luigi Cherubini
Luigi Cherubini
(Italian: [luˈiːdʒi keruˈbiːni]; 8 or 14 September[1] 1760 – 15 March 1842) was a Classical and pre-Romantic[2][3] composer from Italy
Italy
who spent most of his working life in France. His most significant compositions are operas and sacred music. Beethoven regarded Cherubini as the greatest of his contemporaries.[4]Contents1 Early years 2 Adulthood and first operas 3 French assimilation 4 From opera to church music 5 Old age and legacy 6 Works6.1 Orchestral music 6.2 Chamber music 6.3 Masses and sections of the mass 6.4 Motets and other choral works 6.5 Operas 6.6 Teaching manuals7 References 8 External linksEarly years[edit] Cherubini was born Maria Luigi Carlo Zenobio Salvatore Cherubini in Florence
Florence
in 1760
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Piano Tuning
Piano
Piano
tuning is the act of making minute adjustments to the tensions of the strings of an acoustic piano to properly align the intervals between their tones so that the instrument is in tune. The meaning of the term 'in tune', in the context of piano tuning, is not simply a particular fixed set of pitches. Fine piano tuning requires an assessment of the vibration interaction among notes, which is different for every piano, thus in practice requiring slightly different pitches from any theoretical standard
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Antonín Dvořák
Antonín Leopold Dvořák (/d(ə)ˈvɔːrʒɑːk, -ʒæk/ d(ə)-VOR-zha(h)k; Czech: [ˈantoɲiːn ˈlɛopolt ˈdvor̝aːk]; 8 September 1841 – 1 May 1904) was a Czech composer. After Bedřich Smetana, he was the second Czech composer to achieve major worldwide recognition. Following Smetana's nationalist example, Dvořák frequently employed aspects, specifically rhythms, of the folk music of Moravia and his native Bohemia. Dvořák's own style has been described as "the fullest recreation of a national idiom with that of the symphonic tradition, absorbing folk influences and finding effective ways of using them".[1] Dvořák displayed his musical gifts at an early age, being an apt violin student from age six. The first public performances of his works were in Prague
Prague
in 1872 and, with special success, in 1873, when he was aged 31
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