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Edward Elgar
SIR EDWARD WILLIAM ELGAR, 1ST BARONET OM GCVO (2 June 1857 – 23 February 1934) was an English composer, many of whose works have entered the British and international classical concert repertoire. Among his best-known compositions are orchestral works including the Enigma Variations , the Pomp and Circumstance Marches , concertos for violin and cello , and two symphonies . He also composed choral works, including The Dream of Gerontius , chamber music and songs. He was appointed Master of the King\'s Musick in 1924. Although Elgar is often regarded as a typically English composer, most of his musical influences were not from England but from continental Europe. He felt himself to be an outsider, not only musically, but socially
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Moving-coil Microphone
A MICROPHONE, colloquially nicknamed MIC or MIKE (/ˈmaɪk/ ), is a transducer that converts sound into an electrical signal . Microphones are used in many applications such as telephones , hearing aids , public address systems for concert halls and public events, motion picture production, live and recorded audio engineering , sound recording , two-way radios , megaphones , radio and television broadcasting, and in computers for recording voice, speech recognition , VoIP , and for non-acoustic purposes such as ultrasonic sensors or knock sensors . Several different types of microphone are in use, which employ different methods to convert the air pressure variations of a sound wave to an electrical signal. The most common are the dynamic microphone , which uses a coil of wire suspended in a magnetic field; the condenser microphone , which uses the vibrating diaphragm as a capacitor plate, and the piezoelectric microphone , which uses a crystal of piezoelectric material
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Dover
DOVER (/ˈdoʊvər/ ) is a town and major ferry port in the home county of Kent
Kent
, in South East England
South East England
. It faces France
France
across the strait of Dover
Dover
, the narrowest part of the English Channel
English Channel
, and lies south-east of Canterbury
Canterbury
; east of Kent's county town Maidstone
Maidstone
; and north-east along the coastline from Dungeness and Hastings
Hastings

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Acoustic Recording
A PHONOGRAPH RECORD (also known as a GRAMOPHONE RECORD (especially in British English), or RECORD) is an analog sound storage medium in the form of a flat disc with an inscribed, modulated spiral groove. The groove usually starts near the periphery and ends near the center of the disc. At first, the discs were commonly made from shellac ; starting in the 1950s polyvinyl chloride became common. In recent decades, records have sometimes been called VINYL RECORDS, or simply VINYL, although this would exclude most records made until after World War II . The phonograph disc record was the primary medium used for music reproduction until late in the 20th century. It had co-existed with the phonograph cylinder from the late 1880s and had effectively superseded it by around 1912. Records retained the largest market share even when new formats such as the compact cassette were mass-marketed
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Gramophone Record
A PHONOGRAPH RECORD (also known as a GRAMOPHONE RECORD, especially in British English
British English
, or RECORD) is an analog sound storage medium in the form of a flat disc with an inscribed, modulated spiral groove. The groove usually starts near the periphery and ends near the center of the disc. At first, the discs were commonly made from shellac ; starting in the 1950s polyvinyl chloride became common. In recent decades, records have sometimes been called VINYL RECORDS, or simply VINYL, although this would exclude most records made until after World War II . The phonograph disc record was the primary medium used for music reproduction until late in the 20th century. It had co-existed with the phonograph cylinder from the late 1880s and had effectively superseded it by around 1912. Records retained the largest market share even when new formats such as the compact cassette were mass-marketed
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Grove Dictionary Of Music And Musicians
THE NEW GROVE DICTIONARY OF MUSIC AND MUSICIANS is an encyclopedic dictionary of music and musicians. Along with the German-language Musik in Geschichte und Gegenwart , it is one of the largest reference works on western music. Originally published under the title A DICTIONARY OF MUSIC AND MUSICIANS, and later as GROVE\'S DICTIONARY OF MUSIC AND MUSICIANS, it has gone through several editions since the 19th century and is widely used. In recent years it has been made available as an electronic resource called GROVE MUSIC ONLINE, which is now an important part of OXFORD MUSIC ONLINE
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Piano Tuning
PIANO TUNING is the act of making minute adjustments to the tensions of the strings of an acoustic piano to properly align the intervals between their tones so that the instrument is in tune . The meaning of the term 'in tune', in the context of piano tuning, is not simply a particular fixed set of pitches . Fine piano tuning requires an assessment of the vibration interaction among notes, which is different for every piano, thus in practice requiring slightly different pitches from any theoretical standard. Pianos are usually tuned to a modified version of the system called equal temperament (see: Piano
Piano
key frequencies , for the theoretical piano tuning). In all systems of tuning, every pitch may be derived from its relationship to a chosen fixed pitch, which is usually A440 , the note A above middle C (261.626 Hz)
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Quadrille
The QUADRILLE is a dance that was fashionable in late 18th- and 19th-century Europe and its colonies. Performed by four couples in a rectangular formation, it is related to American square dancing . The Lancers , a variant of the quadrille, became popular in the late 19th century and was still danced in the 20th century in folk-dance clubs. A derivative found in the Francophone Lesser Antilles
Lesser Antilles
is known as kwadril , and the dance is also still found in Madagascar
Madagascar
and is within old Jamaican / Caribbean culture. The quadrille consists of a chain of four to six contredanses , courtly versions of English country dances that had been taken up at the court of Louis XIV
Louis XIV
and spread across Europe. Latterly the quadrille was frequently danced to a medley of opera melodies
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The Musical Times
THE MUSICAL TIMES is an academic journal of classical music edited and produced in the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
and currently the oldest such journal still being published in that country. It was originally published as THE MUSICAL TIMES AND SINGING CLASS CIRCULAR from 1844 until 1903. Its title was shortened to its present name from January 1904. The journal originally appeared monthly but is now a quarterly publication. It is also available online at JSTOR
JSTOR
and RILM Abstracts of Music Literature Full Text. Past editors include F. G. Edwards (1897–1909), Harvey Grace , Stanley Sadie (1967–1987) and Eric Wen. REFERENCES * ^ Publisher Information: Musical Times Publications Ltd. Retrieved 9 August 2009. * ^ "Front Matter". The Musical Times and Singing Class Circular, 1 December 1903, Vol. 44, No. 730
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University Of Music And Theatre Leipzig
The UNIVERSITY OF MUSIC AND THEATRE "FELIX MENDELSSOHN BARTHOLDY" LEIPZIG (German : Hochschule für Musik und Theater "Felix Mendelssohn Bartholdy" Leipzig) is a public university in Leipzig
Leipzig
( Saxony
Saxony
, Germany
Germany
). Founded in 1843 by Felix Mendelssohn
Felix Mendelssohn
as the Conservatory of Music, it is the oldest university school of music in Germany. The institution includes the traditional Church Music Institute founded in 1919 by Karl Straube (1873–1950). The music school was renamed ″ Felix Mendelssohn
Felix Mendelssohn
Bartholdy″ after its founder in 1972. In 1992, the Theaterhochschule "Hans Otto" Leipzig
Leipzig

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Glee Club
A GLEE CLUB is a musical group or choir group, historically of male voices but also of female or mixed voices, which traditionally specializes in the singing of short songs—glees —by trios or quartets. In the late 19th century it was very popular in most schools and was made a tradition to have in American high schools from then on. The first named Glee Club was founded in Harrow School
Harrow School
, in London , Kingdom of Great Britain
Kingdom of Great Britain
, in 1787, where an annual Glee competition is still held. Glee clubs were very popular in the UK from then until the mid-1850s but by then they were gradually being superseded by choral societies. Glee in this context does not refer to the mood of the music or of its singers, but to a specific form of English part song popular between 1650 and 1900, the glee . But by the mid-20th century, proper glee clubs were no longer common
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Johann Nepomuk Hummel
JOHANN NEPOMUK HUMMEL (14 November 1778 – 17 October 1837) was an Austrian composer and virtuoso pianist. His music reflects the transition from the Classical to the Romantic musical era. CONTENTS * 1 Life * 2 Influence * 3 Music * 4 Last years and legacy * 5 Notes * 6 References * 7 External links * 7.1 Music scores LIFE Hummel's birthplace in Klobucnicka Street, Bratislava
Bratislava
Hummel was born in Pressburg, Kingdom of Hungary
Kingdom of Hungary
, then a part of the Austrian Habsburg Monarchy
Habsburg Monarchy
(now Bratislava
Bratislava
in Slovakia
Slovakia
)
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Luigi Cherubini
LUIGI CHERUBINI (Italian: ; 8 or 14 September 1760 – 15 March 1842) was an Italian composer who spent most of his working life in France
France
. His most significant compositions are operas and sacred music. Beethoven regarded Cherubini as the greatest of his contemporaries. CONTENTS * 1 Early years * 2 Adulthood and first operas * 3 French assimilation * 4 From opera to church music * 5 Old age and legacy * 6 Works * 6.1 Orchestral music * 6.2 Chamber music * 6.3 Masses and sections of the mass * 6.4 Motets and other choral works * 6.5 Operas * 6.6 Teaching manuals * 7 References * 8 External links EARLY YEARSCherubini was born MARIA LUIGI CARLO ZENOBIO SALVATORE CHERUBINI in Florence
Florence
in 1760. There is uncertainty about his exact date of birth. Although 14 September is sometimes stated, evidence from baptismal records and Cherubini himself suggests the 8th is correct
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Symphony No. 6 (Dvořák)
Czech composer Antonín Dvořák (1841–1904) composed his SYMPHONY NO. 6 IN D MAJOR, OP. 60, B. 112, in 1880. It is dedicated to Hans Richter , who was the conductor of the Vienna Philharmonic Orchestra
Vienna Philharmonic Orchestra
. With a performance time of approximately 40 minutes, the four-movement piece was one of the first of Dvořák’s large symphonic works to draw international attention. In it, he manages to capture some of the Czech national style within a standard Germanic classical-romantic form. Dvořák in 1879 CONTENTS * 1 Background * 2 Compositional context and influences * 3 Instrumentation and score * 3.1 Score * 3.2 Instrumentation * 4 Orchestration and style * 4.1 I. Allegro non tanto * 4.2 II. Adagio * 4.3 III. Scherzo (Furiant): Presto * 4.4 IV
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Antonín Dvořák
ANTONíN LEOPOLD DVOřáK (/dəˈvɔːr.ʒɑːk, ˈdvɔːr-, -ʒæk/ d-VOR-zha(h)k ; Czech: ; 8 September 1841 – 1 May 1904) was a Czech composer. After Bedřich Smetana , he was the second Czech composer to achieve worldwide recognition. Following Smetana's nationalist example, Dvořák frequently employed aspects, specifically rhythms, of the folk music of Moravia and his native Bohemia . Dvořák’s own style has been described as ‘the fullest recreation of a national idiom with that of the symphonic tradition, absorbing folk influences and finding effective ways of using them’. Dvořák displayed his musical gifts at an early age, being an apt violin student from age six. The first public performances of his works were in Prague in 1872 and, with special success, in 1873, when he was aged 31
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Richard Wagner
Wilhelm RICHARD WAGNER (/ˈvɑːɡnər/ ; German: ( listen ); 22 May 1813 – 13 February 1883), was a German composer, theatre director, polemicist , and conductor who is primarily known for his operas (or, as some of his later works were later known, "music dramas"). Unlike most opera composers, Wagner wrote both the libretto and the music for each of his stage works. Initially establishing his reputation as a composer of works in the romantic vein of Weber and Meyerbeer , Wagner revolutionised opera through his concept of the Gesamtkunstwerk ("total work of art"), by which he sought to synthesise the poetic, visual, musical and dramatic arts, with music subsidiary to drama. He described this vision in a series of essays published between 1849 and 1852. Wagner realised these ideas most fully in the first half of the four-opera cycle Der Ring des Nibelungen (The Ring of the Nibelung )
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