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Edirne Event
The Edirne
Edirne
Event (Ottoman Turkish: Edirne
Edirne
Vaḳʿası) was a janissary revolt that began in Constantinople
Constantinople
in 1703. The revolt was a reaction to the consequences of the Treaty of Karlowitz
Treaty of Karlowitz
and Sultan
Sultan
Mustafa II’s absence from the capital. The rising power of the sultan’s former tutor, Seyhulislam Feyzullah Efendi and the empire’s declining economy caused by tax farming were also causes of the revolt. As a result of the Edirne
Edirne
Event, Seyhulislam Feyzullah Efendi was killed, and Sultan
Sultan
Mustafa II
Mustafa II
was ousted from power. The sultan was replaced by his brother, Sultan
Sultan
Ahmet III
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Ottoman Turkish Language
Ottoman Turkish (/ˈɒtəmən/; Turkish: Osmanlı Türkçesi), or the Ottoman language (Ottoman Turkish: لسان عثمانى‎, lisân-ı Osmânî, also known as تركجه‎, Türkçe or تركی‎, Türkî, "Turkish"; Turkish: Osmanlıca), is the variety of the Turkish language
Turkish language
that was used in the Ottoman Empire. It borrows, in all aspects, extensively from Arabic
Arabic
and Persian, and it was written in the Ottoman Turkish alphabet
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Kingdom Of Imereti
The Kingdom of Imereti
Kingdom of Imereti
(Georgian: იმერეთის სამეფო) was a Georgian monarchy established in 1455 by a member of the house of Bagrationi
Bagrationi
when the Kingdom of Georgia
Kingdom of Georgia
was dissolved into rival kingdoms. Before that time, Imereti was considered a separate kingdom within the Kingdom of Georgia, to which a cadet branch of the Bagration royal family held the crown beginning in 1260 by David VI
David VI
after he revolted against the Mongolian rule and fled to Abkhazia. This was due to the Mongolian conquest of the 13th century which decentralized and fragmented Georgia, forcing the relocation of governmental centers to the provinces
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Podolia
Podolia
Podolia
or Podilia (Ukrainian: Подíлля, Podillja, Russian: Подо́лье, Podolʹje, Turkish: Podolya, Polish: Podole, German: Podolien, Lithuanian: Podolė) is a historic region in Eastern Europe, located in the west-central and south-western parts of Ukraine
Ukraine
and in northeastern Moldova
Moldova
(i.e. northern Transnistria). The term is derived from Old Slavic po, meaning "by/next to/along", and dol, "valley" (see dale).Contents1 Geography 2 History2.1 Kievan Rus'
Kievan Rus'
and Polish Crown 2.2 Russian Empire 2.3 Between Poland and the Soviet Union3 Culture 4 References 5 External linksGeography[edit]This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed
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Eastern Europe
Eastern Europe
Europe
is the eastern part of the European continent. There is no consensus on the precise area it covers, partly because the term has a wide range of geopolitical, geographical, cultural, and socioeconomic connotations. There are "almost as many definitions of Eastern Europe
Europe
as there are scholars of the region".[1] A related United Nations
United Nations
paper adds that "every assessment of spatial identities is essentially a social and cultural construct".[2] One definition describes Eastern Europe
Europe
as a cultural entity: the region lying in Europe
Europe
with the main characteristics consisting of Greek, Byzantine, Eastern Orthodox, Russian, and some Ottoman culture influences.[3][4] Another definition was created during the Cold War and used more or less synonymously with the term Eastern Bloc
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Christian
A Christian
Christian
(/ˈkrɪstʃən, -tiən/ ( listen)) is a person who follows or adheres to Christianity, an Abrahamic, monotheistic religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus
Jesus
Christ
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Grand Vizier
In the Ottoman Empire, the Grand Vizier
Vizier
(Turkish: Sadrazam) was the prime minister of the Ottoman sultan, with absolute power of attorney and, in principle, dismissible only by the sultan himself.[1] He held the imperial seal and could convene all other viziers to attend to affairs of the state; the viziers in conference were called "Kubbealtı viziers" in reference to their meeting place, the Kubbealtı ('under the dome') in Topkapı Palace. His offices were located at the Sublime Porte.Contents1 Grand Viziers of the Ottoman Empire 2 Grand Viziers of the Mughal Empire 3 See also 4 References 5 SourcesGrand Viziers of the Ottoman Empire[edit] Main article: List of Ottoman Grand ViziersSeal of the Ottoman Grand VizierThe term “vizier” was originally a denomination used by the Abbasid Dynasty in the 8th century AD
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Elmas Mehmet Pasha
Great Turkish WarBattle of Lugos Battle of Ulaş Battle of Zenta †Elmas Mehmed Pasha
Pasha
(1661 – 11 September 1697) was an Ottoman statesman who served as grand vizier from 1695 to 1697. His epithet Elmas means "diamond" in Turkish and refers to his fame as a handsome man.Contents1 Early years 2 As a grand vizier 3 Battle of Zenta
Battle of Zenta
and death 4 ReferencesEarly years[edit] He was a Turk from Doğanyurt
Doğanyurt
(formerly Hoşalay), now in Kastamonu Province of Turkey. His father was a sea captain (Turkish: reis). During the reign of Mehmed IV, he began working for the Ottoman palace upon the personal request of the sultan. He was one of the few Ottoman statesmen who were fortunate enough to be appointed to high posts while still young
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Tax Farms
Farming is a technique of financial management, namely the process of commuting (changing), by its assignment by legal contract to a third party, a future uncertain revenue stream into fixed and certain periodic rents, in consideration for which commutation a discount in value received is suffered. It is most commonly used in the field of public finance, where the state wishes to gain some certainty about its future taxation revenue for the purposes of medium-term budgetting of expenditure. The tax collection process requires considerable expenditure on administration and the yield is uncertain both as to amount and timing, as taxpayers delay or default on their assessed obligations, often the result of unforeseen external forces such as bad weather affecting harvests
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Balkan
The Balkans, or the Balkan Peninsula, is a geographic area in southeastern Europe
Europe
with various and disputed definitions.[1][2] The region takes its name from the Balkan Mountains
Balkan Mountains
that stretch from the Serbian-Bulgarian border to the Black Sea. The Balkan Peninsula
Peninsula
is bordered by the Adriatic Sea
Adriatic Sea
on the northwest, the Ionian Sea
Ionian Sea
on the southwest, the Aegean Sea
Aegean Sea
in the south and southeast, and the Black Sea
Black Sea
on the east and northeast. The northern border of the peninsula is variously defined
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Anatolia
Anatolia
Anatolia
(Modern Greek: Ανατολία, Anatolía, from Ἀνατολή, Anatolḗ, modern pronunciation Anatolí;[needs IPA] Turkish: Anadolu "east" or "(sun)rise"), also known as Asia
Asia
Minor (in Medieval and Modern Greek: Μικρά Ἀσία, Mīkrá AsíaTurkish: Küçük Asya, , modern pronunciation Mikrá Asía – "small Asia"), Asian Turkey, the Anatolian peninsula, or the Anatolian plateau, is the westernmost protrusion of Asia, which makes up the majority of modern-day Turkey. The region is bounded by the Black Sea
Black Sea
to the north, the Mediterranean Sea
Mediterranean Sea
to the south, and the Aegean Sea
Aegean Sea
to the west
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Arab
Historically: Arabian mythology (Hubal · al-Lāt · Al-‘Uzzá · Manāt · Other Goddesses) Predominantly: Islam (Sunni · Shia · Sufi · Ibadi · Alawite · Ismaili) Sizable minority: Christianity (Eastern Orthodox · Maronite · Coptic Orthodox · Greek Orthodox · Greek Catholic · Chaldean Christian) Smaller minority: Other monotheistic religions (Druze · Bahá'í Faith · Sabianism · Bábism · Mandaeism)Related ethnic groupsOther Afroasiatic-speaking peoplesa Arab
Arab
ethnicity should not be confused with non- Arab
Arab
ethnicities that are also native to the Arab
Arab
world.[30] b Not all Arabs
Arabs
are Muslims
Muslims
and not all Muslims
Muslims
are Arabs
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George VII Of Imereti
George VII (Georgian: გიორგი VII; alternatively known as George VI) (died February 22, 1720), of the Bagrationi Dynasty, was King of Imereti
King of Imereti
(western Georgia) in the periods of 1707–11, 1712–13, 1713–16, and 1719–1720. Reign[edit] An illegitimate son of Alexander IV of Imereti, George was declared, with the approval of the Ottoman government, a rightful king of Imereti by the loyal party of nobles in 1702, though it was not until 1707 that he was able to wrest the crown from the usurper Giorgi-Malakia Abashidze
Abashidze
(George VI). In October 1711, a noble revolt deposed him in favor of Mamia III Gurieli
Gurieli
who forced George to retire to Kartli, eastern Georgia. Later, with the support of the Turkish pasha of Akhaltsikhe, he defeated Mamia at the Battle of Chkhara in June 1712
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Ottoman Porte
The Sublime Porte, also known as the Ottoman Porte or High Porte (Ottoman Turkish: باب عالی‎ Bāb-ı Ālī or Babıali, from Arabic: باب‎, bāb "gate" and Arabic: عالي‎, alī "high"), is a synecdochic metonym for the central government of the Ottoman Empire.Contents1 History 2 Diplomacy 3 See also 4 ReferencesHistory[edit] The naming has its origins in the old Oriental practice, according to which the ruler announced his official decisions and judgements at the gate of his palace.[1] This was the practice in the Byzantine Empire and it was adopted also by Ottoman Turk sultans since Orhan I, and therefore the palace of the sultan, or the gate leading to it, became known as the "High Gate". This name referred first to a palace in Bursa, Turkey
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Venetian Dalmatia
Coat of arms Dalmatia
Dalmatia
as a Venetian possession in 1560Government GovernorateHistory •  Established 1409 •  Disestablished 1797Today part of  CroatiaVenetian Dalmatia
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Cebeci (corps)
Jebeji (from Turkish Cebeci, pronounced [ˈdʒebedʒi]) was a military subunit of Ottoman Army's artillery corps.Contents1 Foundation 2 Duties 3 Abolishment 4 ReferencesFoundation[edit] Foundation date of the unit (Turkish: ocak) (pronounced [ˈodʒak]) is not known, but it appears that the Jebeji unit was founded in the 15th century.[1] It was one of the privileged units of the Ottoman army.[2] They were considered as a part of the Jannisary
Jannisary
and based on devshirme system. Their commander was called Cebecibaşı. The unit was small and selected, numbering no more than 625 men in 1574.[3] Duties[edit] The Jebeji unit was in charge of maintenance and keeping the weaponry.[2] They were also responsible in transporting weapons to where they were needed.[3] During peace times, they kept the weaponry in arsenals named cephane. The Jebeji unit participated in all campaigns commanded by the sultan or the grand vizier
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