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Economy Of Pakistan
Pakistani rupee
Pakistani rupee
(PKR) Rs.1 = 100 Paisas 1 USD = 104.65 PKR (April 2017) FISCAL YEAR 1 July – 30 June TRADE ORGANISATIONS WTO , SAARC , ECO , OIC , SAFTA , AIIB , SCO , IMF , Commonwealth of Nations , World Bank
World Bank
. STATI
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Machinery
MACHINES employ power to achieve desired forces and movement (motion ). A machine has a power source and actuators that generate forces and movement, and a system of mechanisms that shape the actuator input to achieve a specific application of output forces and movement. Modern machines often include computers and sensors that monitor performance and plan movement, and are called mechanical systems . The meaning of the word "machine" is traced by the Oxford English Dictionary to an independently functioning structure and by Merriam-Webster Dictionary to something that has been constructed. This includes human design into the meaning of machine. The adjective "mechanical" refers to skill in the practical application of an art or science, as well as relating to or caused by movement, physical forces, properties or agents such as is dealt with by mechanics . Similarly Merriam-Webster Dictionary defines "mechanical" as relating to machinery or tools
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Mining
MINING is the extraction of valuable minerals or other geological materials from the earth usually from an orebody , lode , vein , seam , reef or placer deposits. These deposits form a mineralized package that is of economic interest to the miner. Ores recovered by mining include metals , coal , oil shale , gemstones , limestone , chalk , dimension stone , rock salt , potash , gravel , and clay . Mining
Mining
is required to obtain any material that cannot be grown through agricultural processes, or created artificially in a laboratory or factory. Mining
Mining
in a wider sense includes extraction of any non-renewable resource such as petroleum, natural gas, or even water . Mining
Mining
of stones and metal has been a human activity since pre-historic times
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Steel
STEEL is an alloy of iron and other elements, primarily carbon . Because of its high tensile strength and low cost, it is a major component in buildings , infrastructure , tools , ships , automobiles , machines , appliances, and weapons . Steel's base metal is iron, which is able to take on two crystalline forms (allotropic forms), body centered cubic (BCC) and face centered cubic (FCC) , depending on its temperature. It is the interaction of those allotropes with the alloying elements, primarily carbon, that gives steel and cast iron their range of unique properties. In the body-centred cubic arrangement, there is an iron atom in the centre of each cube, and in the face-centred cubic, there is one at the center of each of the six faces of the cube. In pure iron, the crystal structure has relatively little resistance to the iron atoms slipping past one another, and so pure iron is quite ductile , or soft and easily formed
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Engineering
ENGINEERING is the application of scientific knowledge and mathematical methods to practical purposes of the design, analysis, or operation of structures, machines, or systems. See glossary of engineering . The discipline of engineering encompasses a range of more specialized fields of engineering , each with a more specific emphasis on particular areas of applied mathematics , applied science, and types of application. The term engineering is derived from the Latin
Latin
ingenium, meaning "cleverness" and ingeniare, meaning "to contrive, devise"
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Software
COMPUTER SOFTWARE, or simply SOFTWARE, is a part of a computer system that consists of data or computer instructions, in contrast to the physical hardware from which the system is built. In computer science and software engineering , computer software is all information processed by computer systems , programs and data. Computer software includes computer programs , libraries and related non-executable data , such as online documentation or digital media . Computer hardware and software require each other and neither can be realistically used on its own. At the lowest level, executable code consists of machine language instructions specific to an individual processor —typically a central processing unit (CPU). A machine language consists of groups of binary values signifying processor instructions that change the state of the computer from its preceding state
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Cement
A CEMENT is a binder , a substance used in construction that sets , hardens and adheres to other materials , binding them together. Cement is seldom used solely, but is used to bind sand and gravel (aggregate ) together. Cement
Cement
is used with fine aggregate to produce mortar for masonry, or with sand and gravel aggregates to produce concrete . Cements used in construction are usually inorganic , often lime or calcium silicate based, and can be characterized as being either HYDRAULIC or NON-HYDRAULIC, depending upon the ability of the cement to set in the presence of water (see hydraulic and non-hydraulic lime plaster ). NON-HYDRAULIC CEMENT will not set in wet conditions or underwater; rather, it sets as it dries and reacts with carbon dioxide in the air. It is resistant to attack by chemicals after setting
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Chemicals
A CHEMICAL SUBSTANCE also known as a PURE SUBSTANCE is a form of matter that has constant chemical composition and characteristic properties. It cannot be separated into components by physical separation methods, i.e., without breaking chemical bonds. Chemical substances can be chemical elements , chemical compounds , ions or alloys . Chemical substances are often called 'pure' to set them apart from mixtures . A common example of a chemical substance is pure water ; it has the same properties and the same ratio of hydrogen to oxygen whether it is isolated from a river or made in a laboratory . Other chemical substances commonly encountered in pure form are diamond (carbon), gold , table salt (sodium chloride ) and refined sugar (sucrose ). However, in practice, no substance is entirely pure, and chemical purity is specified according to the intended use of the chemical
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Apparel
CLOTHING (also known as CLOTHES and ATTIRE) is fiber and textile material worn on the body. The wearing of clothing is mostly restricted to human beings and is a feature of nearly all human societies . The amount and type of clothing worn depends on body type, social, and geographic considerations. Some clothing can be gender-specific. Physically, clothing serves many purposes: it can serve as protection from the elements , and can enhance safety during hazardous activities such as hiking and cooking. It protects the wearer from rough surfaces, rash-causing plants, insect bites, splinters, thorns and prickles by providing a barrier between the skin and the environment. Clothes can insulate against cold or hot conditions. Further, they can provide a hygienic barrier, keeping infectious and toxic materials away from the body. Clothing
Clothing
also provides protection from ultraviolet radiation
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Food Processing
FOOD PROCESSING is the transformation of raw ingredients , by physical or chemical means into food , or of food into other forms. Food
Food
processing combines raw food ingredients to produce marketable food products that can be easily prepared and served by the consumer. Food
Food
processing typically involves activities such as mincing and macerating , liquefaction , emulsification , and cooking (such as boiling, broiling, frying, or grilling); pickling , pasteurization , and many other kinds of preservation ; and canning or other packaging
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Pharmaceuticals
A PHARMACEUTICAL DRUG (also referred to as MEDICINE, MEDICATION, or simply as DRUG) is a drug used to diagnose , cure , treat , or prevent disease . Drug
Drug
therapy (pharmacotherapy ) is an important part of the medical field and relies on the science of pharmacology for continual advancement and on pharmacy for appropriate management. Drugs are classified in various ways. One of the key divisions is by level of control , which distinguishes prescription drugs (those that a pharmacist dispenses only on the order of a physician , physician assistant , or qualified nurse ) from over-the-counter drugs (those that consumers can order for themselves)
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Construction Materials
This is a LIST OF BUILDING MATERIALS. Many types of Building materials are used in the building construction and construction industry to create buildings and structures . These categories of materials and products are used by architects and construction project managers to specify the materials and methods used for building projects . Some building materials like cold rolled steel framing are considered modern methods of construction, over the traditionally slower methods like blockwork and timber. Many building materials have a variety of uses, therefore it is always a good idea to consult the manufacturer to check if a product is best suited to your requirements. CONTENTS * 1 Catalogs * 2 Industry standards * 3 See also * 4 Sources * 5 External links CATALOGSCatalogs distributed by architectural product suppliers are typically organized into these groups
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Automobiles
A CAR (or AUTOMOBILE) is a wheeled motor vehicle used for transportation . Most definitions of car say they run primarily on roads, seat one to eight people, have four tires , and mainly transport people rather than goods. Cars came into global use during the 20th century, and developed economies depend on them. The year 1886 is regarded as the birth year of the modern car, when German inventor Karl Benz built his Benz Patent-Motorwagen
Benz Patent-Motorwagen
. Cars did not become widely available until the early 20th century. One of the first cars that was accessible to the masses was the 1908 Model T , an American car manufactured by the Ford Motor Company
Ford Motor Company
. Cars were rapidly adopted in the US, where they replaced animal-drawn carriages and carts, but took much longer to be accepted in Western Europe and other parts of the world
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Motorcycle
A MOTORCYCLE often called a BIKE, MOTORBIKE, or CYCLE is a two- or three-wheeled motor vehicle . Motorcycle design varies greatly to suit a range of different purposes: long distance travel, commuting , cruising , sport including racing , and off-road riding. Motorcycling is riding a motorcycle and related social activity such as joining a motorcycle club and attending motorcycle rallies . In 1894, Hildebrand "> A cruiser (front) and a sportbike (background) A Ural motorcycle with a sidecar French gendarme motorcyclist The term motorcycle has different legal definitions depending on jurisdiction (see #Legal definitions and restrictions ). There are three major types of motorcycle: street, off-road, and dual purpose. Within these types, there are many sub-types of motorcycles for different purposes. There is often a racing counterpart to each type, such as road racing and street bikes, or motocross and dirt bikes
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Mineral
A MINERAL is a naturally occurring chemical compound , usually of crystalline form and abiogenic in origin. A mineral has one specific chemical composition , whereas a rock can be an aggregate of different minerals or mineraloids . The study of minerals is called mineralogy . There are over 5,300 known mineral species; as of March 2017 , over 5,230 of these have been approved by the International Mineralogical Association (IMA). The silicate minerals compose over 90% of the Earth\'s crust . The diversity and abundance of mineral species is controlled by the Earth's chemistry. Silicon
Silicon
and oxygen constitute approximately 75% of the Earth's crust, which translates directly into the predominance of silicate minerals. Minerals are distinguished by various chemical and physical properties . Differences in chemical composition and crystal structure distinguish the various species, which were determined by the mineral's geological environment when formed
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Ease Of Doing Business Index
The EASE OF DOING BUSINESS INDEX is an index created by the World Bank Group . Higher rankings (a low numerical value) indicate better, usually simpler, regulations for businesses and stronger protections of property rights. Empirical research funded by the World Bank to justify their work show that the economic growth impact of improving these regulations is strong. " Empirical research is needed to establish the optimal level of business regulation—for example, what the duration of court procedures should be and what the optimal degree of social protection is. The indicators compiled in the Doing Business
Business
project allow such research to take place
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