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Ecological Economics
Organizations:International Society
Society
for Ecological EconomicsWorks Wealth, Virtual Wealth and Debt The Entropy
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Demand
In economics, demand is the quantity of a good that consumers are willing and able to purchase at various prices during a given period of time.[1] The relationship between price and quantity demanded is also known as the demand curve
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Public Economics
Public economics
Public economics
(or economics of the public sector) is the study of government policy through the lens of economic efficiency and equity. Public economics
Public economics
builds on the theory of welfare economics and is ultimately used as a tool to improve social welfare. Public economics
Public economics
provides a framework for thinking about whether or not the government should participate in economic markets and to what extent it should do so. Microeconomic theory
Microeconomic theory
is utilized to assess whether the private market is likely to provide efficient outcomes in the absence of governmental interference; this study involves the analysis of government taxation and expenditures
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Demographic Economics
Demographic economics or population economics is the application of economic analysis to demography, the study of human populations, including size, growth, density, distribution, and vital statistics.[1][2]Aspects[edit] Aspects of the subject includemarriage and fertility[1][3][4][5][6][7][8][9][10] the family[11][12][13][14][15][16][17] divorce[18][19][20] morbidity[21] and life expectancy/mortality[22][23][24] dependency ratios[1][3][25][26][27] migration[28][29][30] population growth[31][32][33
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National Accounts
National accounts or national account systems (NAS) are the implementation of complete and consistent accounting techniques for measuring the economic activity of a nation. These include detailed underlying measures that rely on double-entry accounting. By design, such accounting makes the totals on both sides of an account equal even though they each measure different characteristics, for example production and the income from it
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Agricultural Economics
Agricultural
Agricultural
economics is an applied field of economics concerned with the application of economic theory in optimizing the production and distribution of food and fiber. Agricultural
Agricultural
economics began as a branch of economics that specifically dealt with land usage, it focused on maximizing the crop yield while maintaining a good soil ecosystem. Throughout the 20th century the discipline expanded and the current scope of the discipline is much broader. Agricultural economics today includes a variety of applied areas, having considerable overlap with conventional economics.[1][2][3][4] Agricultural economists have made substantial contributions to research in economics, econometrics, development economics, and environmental economics
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Knowledge Economy
The knowledge economy is the use of knowledge to create goods and services. In particular, it refers to a high portion of skilled workers in the economy of a locality, country, or the world, and the idea that most jobs require specialized skills. In particular, the main personal capital of knowledge workers is knowledge, and many knowledge worker jobs require a lot of thinking and manipulating information as opposed to moving or crafting physical objects. It stands in contrast to an agrarian economy (where the primary activity is subsistence farming for which the main requirement is manual labor) or an industrialized economy (which has mass production but where most jobs are relatively unskilled). Knowledge
Knowledge
economy emphasizes the importance of skills in a service economy, the third phase of economic development, also called a post-industrial economy
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Business Economics
Business
Business
economics is a field in applied economics which uses economic theory and quantitative methods to analyze business enterprises and the factors contributing to the diversity of organizational structures and the relationships of firms with labour, capital and product markets.[1] A professional focus of the journal Business Economics
Economics
has been expressed as providing "practical information for people who apply economics in their jobs."[2] Business
Business
economics is an integral part of traditional economics and is an extension of economic concepts to the real business situations. It is an applied science in the sense of a tool of managerial decision-making and forward planning by management. In other words, business economics is concerned with the application of economic theory to business management
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Computational Economics
Computational economics is a research discipline at the interface of computer science, economics, and management science.[1] This subject encompasses computational modeling of economic systems, whether agent-based,[2] general-equilibrium,[3] macroeconomic,[4] or rational-expectations,[5] computational econometrics and statistics,[6] computational finance, computational tools for the design of automated internet markets, programming tool specifically designed for computational economics and the teaching of computational economics. Some of these areas are unique, while others extend traditional areas of economics by solving problems that are tedious to study without computers and associated numerical methods.[7] Computational economics uses computer-based economic modelling for the solution of analytically and statistically- formulated economic problems
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Cultural Economics
Cultural economics
Cultural economics
is the branch of economics that studies the relation of culture to economic outcomes. Here, 'culture' is defined by shared beliefs and preferences of respective groups
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Economics Of Digitization
The economics of digitization is the field of economics that studies how digitization, digitalisation and digital transformation affects markets and how digital data can be used to study economics. Digitization
Digitization
is the process by which technology lowers the costs of storing, sharing, and analyzing data. This process has changed how consumers behave, how industrial activity is organized, and how governments operate. The economics of digitization exists as a distinct field of economics for two reasons. First, new economic models are needed because many traditional assumptions about information no longer holds in a digitized world. Second, the new types of data generated by digitization require new methods to analyze. Research in the economics of digitization touches on several fields of economics including industrial organization, labor economics, and intellectual property
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Development Economics
Development economics
Development economics
is a branch of economics which deals with economic aspects of the development process in low income countries. Its focus is not only on methods of promoting economic development, economic growth and structural change but also on improving the potential for the mass of the population, for example, through health, education and workplace conditions, whether through public or private channels.[1]
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Post-scarcity Economy
Post-scarcity is an economic theory in which most goods can be produced in great abundance with minimal human labor needed, so that they become available to all very cheaply or even freely.[1][2] Post-scarcity is not generally taken to mean that scarcity has been eliminated for all consumer goods and services; instead, it is often taken to mean that all people can easily have their basic survival needs met along with some significant proportion of their desires for goods and services,[3] with writers on the topic often emphasizing that certain commodities are likely to remain scarce in a post-scarcity society.[4][5][6][7] In the paper "The Post- Scarcity
Scarcity
World of 2050-2075",[8] authors assert that we are currently living an age of scarcity resulting from negligent behavior (as regards the future) of the 19th and 20th centuries
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Education Economics
Education
Education
economics or the economics of education is the study of economic issues relating to education, including the demand for education, the financing and provision of education, and the comparative efficiency of various educational programs and policies. From early works on the relationship between schooling and labor market outcomes for individuals, the field of the economics of education has grown rapidly to cover virtually all areas with linkages to education.Contents1 Education
Education
as an investment1.1 Investment
Investment
costs 1.2 Returns on investment 1.3 Effects on productivity2 Demand for education2.1 Demand for vs
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Engineering Economics
For the application of engineering economics in the practice of civil engineering see Engineering
Engineering
economics (Civil Engineering). Engineering
Engineering
economics, pre
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International Economics
International economics is concerned with the effects upon economic activity from international differences in productive resources and consumer preferences and the international institutions that affect them
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