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Eastern Europe
Eastern Europe
Europe
is the eastern part of the European continent. There is no consensus on the precise area it covers, partly because the term has a wide range of geopolitical, geographical, cultural, and socioeconomic connotations. There are "almost as many definitions of Eastern Europe
Europe
as there are scholars of the region".[1] A related United Nations
United Nations
paper adds that "every assessment of spatial identities is essentially a social and cultural construct".[2] One definition describes Eastern Europe
Europe
as a cultural entity: the region lying in Europe
Europe
with the main characteristics consisting of Greek, Byzantine, Eastern Orthodox, Russian, and some Ottoman culture influences.[3][4] Another definition was created during the Cold War and used more or less synonymously with the term Eastern Bloc
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East
East
East
is one of the four cardinal directions or points of the compass. It is the opposite direction from west.Contents1 Etymology 2 Navigation 3 Cultural 4 See also 5 References 6 External linksEtymology[edit] The word east comes from Middle English
Middle English
est, from Old English
Old English
ēast, which itself comes from the Proto-Germanic *aus-to- or *austra- "east, toward the sunrise", from Proto-Indo-European *aus- "to shine," or "dawn".[1] This is similar to Old High German
Old High German
*ōstar "to the east", Latin
Latin
aurora "dawn", and Greek ēōs ἠώς.[2] Ēostre, a Germanic goddess of dawn, might have been a personification of both dawn and the cardinal points. Navigation[edit] By convention, the right hand side of a map is east. This convention has developed from the use of a compass, which places north at the top
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Culture Of The Ottoman Empire
Ottoman culture evolved over several centuries as the ruling administration of the Turks absorbed, adapted and modified the cultures of conquered lands and their peoples. There was a strong influence from the customs and languages of Islamic societies, Turkish "the official language for the Empire, notably Arabic because of the origins of Islam, while Persian culture had a significant contribution through the heavily Persianized Seljuq Turks, the Ottomans' predecessors
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State (polity)
A state is a compulsory political organization with a centralized government that maintains a monopoly of the legitimate use of force within a certain geographical territory.[1][2] Many human societies have been governed by states for millennia, however for most of pre-history people lived in stateless societies. The first states arose about 5,500 years ago in conjunction with rapid growth of cities, invention of writing, and codification of new forms of religion. Over time, a variety of different forms developed, employing a variety of justifications for their existence (such as divine right, the theory of the social contract, etc.). Today, however, the modern nation-state is the predominant form of state to which people are subject. Some states are sovereign
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United Nations Statistics Division
The United Nations
United Nations
Statistics Division (UNSD), formerly the United Nations Statistical Office,[1] serves under the United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs (DESA) as the central mechanism within the Secretariat of the United Nations
United Nations
to supply the statistical needs and coordinating activities of the global statistical system. The Division is overseen by the United Nations Statistical Commission, established in 1947, as the apex entity of the global statistical system and highest decision making body for coordinating international statistical activities
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Protestant
Protestantism
Protestantism
is the second largest form of Christianity
Christianity
with collectively more than 900 million adherents worldwide or nearly 40% of all Christians.[1][2][3][a] It or
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Montenegro
Coordinates: 42°30′N 19°18′E / 42.500°N 19.300°E / 42.500; 19.300Montenegro Crna Gora (Serbo-Croatian) Црна Гора  (Serbo-Croatian)FlagCoat of armsAnthem:  Oj, svijetla majska zoro Ој, свијетла мајска зоро Oh, Bright Dawn of MayLocation of  Montenegro  (Green) in Europe  (Dark Grey)  –  [Legend]Capital and largest city Podgoricaa 42°47′N 19°28′E / 42.783°N 19.467°E / 42.783; 19.467Official languages Montenegrin[1]Other languages in official use[2]Serbian Bosnian Albanian CroatianEthnic groups (2011[3])44.6% Montenegrins 28.7% Serbs 8.6% Bosniaks 4.9% Albanians 0.9% Croats 13.5% OthersDemonym MontenegrinGovernment Unitary dominant-party parliamentary constitutional republic• PresidentFilip Vujanović• Prime MinisterDuško Markovi
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Western Christianity
Western Christianity
Christianity
is the type of Christianity
Christianity
which developed in the areas of the former Western Roman Empire.[1] Western Christianity consists of the Latin Rite
Latin Rite
of the Catholic Church
Catholic Church
(in contrast to the Eastern rites in communion with Rome) and a wide variety of Protestant denominations. The name "Western Christianity" is applied in order to distinguish these from Eastern Christianity. With the expansion of European colonialism from the Early Modern era, Western Christianity
Christianity
spread throughout the Americas, much of the Philippines, Southern Africa, pockets of West Africa, and throughout Australia
Australia
and New Zealand
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Culture
Culture
Culture
(/ˈkʌltʃər/) is the social behavior and norms found in human societies. Culture
Culture
is considered a central concept in anthropology, encompassing the range of phenomena that are transmitted through social learning in human societies. Some aspects of human behavior, social practices such as culture, expressive forms such as art, music, dance, ritual, religion, and technologies such as tool usage, cooking, shelter, and clothing are said to be cultural universals, found in all human societies
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Ural River
The Ural (Russian: Урал, pronounced [ʊˈraɫ]) or Jayıq/Zhayyq (Bashkir: Яйыҡ, Yayıq, pronounced [jɑˈjɯq]; Kazakh: Jai'yq, Жайық, جايىق, pronounced [ʒɑjə́q]), known as Yaik
Yaik
(Russian: Яик) before 1775, is a river flowing through Russia
Russia
and Kazakhstan
Kazakhstan
in Eurasia. It originates in the southern Ural Mountains
Ural Mountains
and discharges into the Caspian Sea
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The World Factbook
The World
World
Factbook, also known as the CIA World
World
Factbook,[1] is a reference resource produced by the Central Intelligence Agency
Central Intelligence Agency
(CIA) with almanac-style information about the countries of the world. The official print version is available from the Government Printing Office. Other companies—such as Skyhorse Publishing—also print a paper edition. The Factbook is available in the form of a website that is partially updated every week. It is also available for download for use off-line
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Thesaurus
In general usage, a thesaurus is a reference work that lists words grouped together according to similarity of meaning (containing synonyms and sometimes antonyms), in contrast to a dictionary, which provides definitions for words, and generally lists them in alphabetical order. The main purpose of such reference works for users "to find the word, or words, by which [an] idea may be most fitly and aptly expressed" – to quote Peter Mark Roget, architect of the best known thesaurus in the English language.[1] Although including synonyms, a thesaurus should not be taken as a complete list of all the synonyms for a particular word. The entries are also designed for drawing distinctions between similar words and assisting in choosing exactly the right word. Unlike a dictionary, a thesaurus entry does not give the definition of words. In library science and information science, thesauri have been widely used to specify domain models
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United Nations
The United Nations
United Nations
(UN) is an intergovernmental organization tasked to promote international cooperation and to create and maintain international order. A replacement for the ineffective League of Nations, the organization was established on 24 October 1945 after World War II
World War II
with the aim of preventing another such conflict. At its founding, the UN had 51 member states; there are now 193. The headquarters of the UN is in Manhattan, New York City, and is subject to extraterritoriality. Further main offices are situated in Geneva, Nairobi, and Vienna. The organization is financed by assessed and voluntary contributions from its member states. Its objectives include maintaining international peace and security, promoting human rights, fostering social and economic development, protecting the environment, and providing humanitarian aid in cases of famine, natural disaster, and armed conflict
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Socioeconomic
Socioeconomics
Socioeconomics
(also known as social economics) is the social science that studies how economic activity affects and is shaped by social processes. In general it analyzes how societies progress, stagnate, or regress because of their local or regional economy, or the global economy. Societies are divided into 3 groups : social, cultural and economic.Contents1 Overview 2 See also 3 Notes 4 References 5 External linksOverview[edit] “Socioeconomics” is sometimes used as an umbrella term for various areas of inquiry
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Cultural Construct
Social constructionism
Social constructionism
or the social construction of reality (also social concept) is a theory of knowledge in sociology and communication theory that examines the development of jointly constructed understandings of the world that form the basis for shared assumptions about reality
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Austria
Coordinates: 47°20′N 13°20′E / 47.333°N 13.333°E / 47.333; 13.333 Republic
Republic
of Austria Republik Österreich  (German)FlagCoat of armsAnthem: Land der Berge, Land am Strome  (German) Land of Mountains, Land by the RiverLocation of  Austria  (dark green) – in Europe  (green & dark grey) – in the European Union  (green)  –  [Legend]Capital and largest city Vienna 48°12′N 16°21′E / 48.200°N 16.350°E / 48.200; 16.350Off
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