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Eastern Wu
Jianye (229–265, 266–280)Languages ChineseReligion Taoism, Confucianism, Chinese folk religionGovernment MonarchyKing (222–229) Emperor (229–280) •  222–252 Sun Quan •  252–258 Sun Liang •  258–264 Sun Xiu •  264–280 Sun HaoHistorical era Three Kingdoms •  Independence from Cao Wei 222 •  Sun Quan
Sun Quan
declaring himself Emperor 229 •  Conquest of Wu by Jin 31 May 280[1]Population •  238[2] est. 2,567,00
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Soochow University (Taiwan)
Soochow University
Soochow University
(Chinese: 東吳大學) is a private university in Taipei, Taiwan. Although Soochow University
Soochow University
maintains a church and a Methodist[3] minister in residence, it may be considered a secular institution
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Cash (Chinese Coin)
Cash was a type of coin of China
China
and East Asia, used from the 4th century BC until the 20th century AD. Originally cast during the Warring States
Warring States
period, these coins continued to be used for the entirety of Imperial China
China
as well as under Mongol, and Manchu rule. The last Chinese cash coins were cast in the first year of the Republic of China. Generally most cash coins were made from copper or bronze alloys, with iron, lead, and zinc coins occasionally used less often throughout Chinese history. Rare silver and gold cash coins were also produced. During most of their production, cash coins were cast but, during the late Qing dynasty, machine-struck cash coins began to be made. In the modern era, these coins are considered to be Chinese “good luck coins”; they are hung on strings and round the necks of children, or over the beds of sick people
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Yuan Shu
Yuan Shu
Yuan Shu
(died 199),[1] courtesy name Gonglu (公路), was a warlord who lived in the late Eastern Han dynasty. He rose to prominence following the collapse of the imperial court in 189.Contents1 Life 2 Family 3 See also 4 Notes 5 ReferencesLife[edit]Map showing the major warlords of the Han dynasty in the 190s, including Yuan Shu Yuan Shu
Yuan Shu
was said to be a younger cousin[2][3] of the warlord Yuan Shao, but was actually Yuan Shao's younger half-brother.[a] After the death of General-in-Chief He Jin, Yuan Shu, as the Imperial Corps Commander of the Imperial Tiger Guards, led his men to kill the eunuch faction
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Wuyue
Wuyue
Wuyue
(simplified Chinese: 吴越; traditional Chinese: 吳越; pinyin: Wúyuè; Shanghainese: [ɦuɦyɪʔ]), 907–978, was an independent coastal kingdom founded during the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms (907–960) of Chinese history. It was ruled by the Qian family, which remains widespread in the kingdom's former territory.Contents1 Founding1.1 Origin of name2 Territorial extent2.1 Administrative divisions3 Reign of Qian Liu 4 Foreign diplomacy 5 Fall of the kingdom 6 Legacy6.1 Cultural legacy 6.2 Infrastructure 6.3 Personal legacy7 Rulers 8 Rulers family tree 9 References9.1 Notes 9.2 SourcesFounding[edit] Temple
Temple
to the Qian King in Hangzhou, one of many shrines to the kings of Wuyue
Wuyue
which still exist in its former territory.Qian Liu, the founder of Wuyue.Beginning in 887, the Qian family provided military leaders to the Tang Dynasty
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Vassal
A vassal[1] is a person regarded as having a mutual obligation to a lord or monarch, in the context of the feudal system in medieval Europe. The obligations often included military support and mutual protection, in exchange for certain privileges, usually including land held as a tenant or fief.[2] The term is applied to similar arrangements in other feudal societies. In contrast, fealty (fidelitas) was sworn, unconditional loyalty to a monarch.[3]Contents1 Western vassalage 2 Difference between "vassal" and "vassal state" 3 Feudal
Feudal
Japanese equivalents 4 See also4.1 Similar terms5 Notes 6 References 7 External linksWestern vassalage[edit] In fully developed vassalage, the lord and the vassal would take part in a commendation ceremony composed of two parts, the homage and the fealty, including the use of Christian sacraments to show its sacred importance
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Taiwanese Romanization System
The Taiwanese Romanization System
Taiwanese Romanization System
(Taiwanese Romanization: Tâi-uân Lô-má-jī Phing-im Hong-àn, Chinese: 臺灣閩南語羅馬字拼音方案; pinyin: Táiwān Mǐnnányǔ Luómǎzì Pīnyīn Fāng'àn; Pe̍h-ōe-jī: Tâi-ôan Lô-má-jī Pheng-im Hong-àn; often referred to as Tâi-lô) is a transcription system for Taiwanese Hokkien
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Southern Min
Southern Min, or Minnan (simplified Chinese: 闽南语; traditional Chinese: 閩南語), is a branch of Min Chinese
Min Chinese
spoken in Taiwan
Taiwan
and in certain parts of China
China
including Fujian
Fujian
(especially the Minnan region), eastern Guangdong, Hainan, and southern Zhejiang.[4] The Minnan dialects are also spoken by descendants of emigrants from these areas in diaspora, most notably the Philippines, Indonesia, Malaysia, and Singapore. It is the largest Min Chinese
Min Chinese
branch and the most widely distributed Min Chinese
Min Chinese
subgroup. In common parlance and in the narrower sense, Southern Min
Southern Min
refers to the Quanzhang or Hokkien-Taiwanese variety of Southern Min
Southern Min
originating from Southern Fujian
Fujian
in Mainland China
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Jyutping
Jyutping
Jyutping
(Chinese: 粵拼; Jyutping: Jyut6ping3; Cantonese pronunciation: [jỳːt̚.pʰēŋ]) is a romanisation system for Cantonese
Cantonese
developed by the Linguistic Society of Hong Kong (LSHK), an academic group, in 1993. Its formal name is The Linguistic Society of Hong Kong Cantonese
Cantonese
Romanisation
Romanisation
Scheme
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Yale Romanization Of Cantonese
The Yale romanization of Cantonese
Cantonese
was developed by Gerard P. Kok for his and Parker Po-fei Huang's textbook Speak Cantonese
Cantonese
initially circulated in looseleaf form in 1952[1] but later published in 1958.[2] Unlike the Yale romanization of Mandarin, it is still widely used in books and dictionaries, especially for foreign learners of Cantonese. It shares some similarities with Hanyu Pinyin
Pinyin
in that unvoiced, unaspirated consonants are represented by letters traditionally used in English and most other European languages to represent voiced sounds. For example, [p] is represented as b in Yale, whereas its aspirated counterpart, [pʰ] is represented as p
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Cantonese
Cantonese, or Standard Cantonese, is a variety of the Chinese language spoken within Guangzhou
Guangzhou
(historically known as Canton) and its vicinity in southeastern China. It is the traditional prestige variety of Yue, one of the major subdivisions of Chinese. In mainland China, it is the lingua franca of the province of Guangdong, being the majority language of the Pearl River Delta, and neighbouring areas such as Guangxi. It is the dominant and official language of Hong Kong
Hong Kong
and Macau
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Wade–Giles
Wade–Giles (/ˌweɪd ˈdʒaɪlz/), sometimes abbreviated Wade,[citation needed] is a Romanization system for Mandarin Chinese. It developed from a system produced by Thomas Wade, during the mid-19th century, and was given completed form with Herbert A. Giles's Chinese–English Dictionary of 1892. Wade–Giles was the system of transcription in the English-speaking world for most of the 20th century, used in standard reference books and in English language books published before 1979. It replaced the Nanking dialect-based romanization systems that had been common until the late 19th century, such as the Postal Romanization (still used in some place-names). In mainland China it has been entirely replaced by the Hànyǔ Pīnyīn system approved in 1958. Outside mainland China, it has mostly been replaced by Pīnyīn, even though Taiwan implements a multitude of Romanization systems in daily life
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Spelling In Gwoyeu Romatzyh
The spelling of Gwoyeu Romatzyh
Gwoyeu Romatzyh
(GR) can be divided into its treatment of initials, finals and tones. GR uses contrasting unvoiced/voiced pairs of consonants to represent aspirated and unaspirated initials in Chinese: for example b and p represent IPA
IPA
[p] and [pʰ]. The letters j, ch and sh represent two different series of initials: the alveolo-palatal and the retroflex sounds. Although these spellings create no ambiguity in practice, readers more familiar with Pinyin should pay particular attention to them: GR ju, for example, corresponds to Pinyin
Pinyin
zhu, not ju (which is spelled jiu in GR). Many of the finals in GR are similar to those used in other romanizations. Distinctive features of GR include the use of iu for the close front rounded vowel spelled ü or simply u in Pinyin
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Standard Chinese
Standard Chinese, also known as Modern Standard Mandarin, Standard Mandarin, or simply Mandarin, is a standard variety of Chinese that is the sole official language of both China
China
and Taiwan
Taiwan
(de facto), and also one of the four official languages of Singapore. Its pronunciation is based on the Beijing
Beijing
dialect, its vocabulary on the Mandarin dialects, and its grammar is based on written vernacular Chinese. Like other varieties of Chinese, Standard Chinese
Standard Chinese
is a tonal language with topic-prominent organization and subject–verb–object word order. It has more initial consonants but fewer vowels, final consonants and tones than southern varieties
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Simplified Chinese Characters
Simplified Chinese characters
Chinese characters
(简化字; jiǎnhuàzì)[1] are standardized Chinese characters
Chinese characters
prescribed in the Table of General Standard Chinese
Standard Chinese
Characters for use in mainland China. Along with traditional Chinese characters, they are one of the two standard character sets of the contemporary Chinese written language. The government of the People's Republic of China
People's Republic of China
in mainland China has promoted them for use in printing since the 1950s and 1960s to encourage literacy.[2] They are officially used in the People's Republic of China
Republic of China
and Singapore. Traditional Chinese
Traditional Chinese
characters are currently used in Hong Kong, Macau, and the Republic of China
Republic of China
(Taiwan)
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Traditional Chinese Characters
Traditional Chinese characters
Chinese characters
(traditional Chinese: 正體字/繁體字; simplified Chinese: 正体字/繁体字; Pinyin: Zhèngtǐzì/Fántǐzì) are Chinese characters
Chinese characters
in any character set that does not contain newly created characters or character substitutions performed after 1946. They are most commonly the characters in the standardized character sets of Taiwan, of Hong Kong and Macau
Macau
or in the Kangxi Dictionary
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