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East Indies
The East Indies
East Indies
or the Indies are the lands of South and Southeast Asia.[1] In a more restricted sense, the Indies can be used to refer to the islands of Southeast Asia, especially the Malay Archipelago.[1][2] The name "Indies" is derived from the River Indus and is used to connote parts of Asia
Asia
that came under Indian cultural influence. Dutch-held colonies in the area were known for about 300 years as the Dutch East Indies
Dutch East Indies
before Indonesian independence, while Spanish-held colonies were known as the Spanish East Indies
Spanish East Indies
before the American conquest and later Philippine independence. The East Indies
East Indies
may also include the former French-held Indochina, former British territories Brunei
Brunei
and Singapore
Singapore
and former Portuguese East Timor
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Indies (other)
The Indies
Indies
is used to describe the lands of South and Southeast Asia. Indies
Indies
may also refe
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British India
The Provinces of India, earlier Presidencies of British India
India
and still earlier, Presidency towns, were the administrative divisions of British governance in the subcontinent. Collectively, they were called British India. In one form or another, they existed between 1612 and 1947, conventionally divided into three historical periods:During 1612–1757, the East India Company
East India Company
set up "factories" (trading posts) in several locations, mostly in coastal India, with the consent of the Mughal emperors
Mughal emperors
or local rulers. Its rivals were the merchant trading companies of Holland and France. By the mid-18th century, three "Presidency towns": Madras, Bombay, and Calcutta
Calcutta
had grown in size. During the period of Company rule in India, 1757–1858, the Company gradually acquired sovereignty over large parts of India, now called "Presidencies"
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Hinduism
ArtsBharatanatyam Kathak Kathakali Kuchipudi Manipuri Mohiniyattam Odissi Sattriya Bhagavata Mela Yakshagana Dandiya Raas Carnatic musicRites of passageGarbhadhana Pumsavana Simantonayana Jatakarma Namakarana Nishkramana Annaprashana Chudakarana Karnavedha Vidyarambha Upanayana Keshanta Ritushuddhi Samavartana Vivaha AntyeshtiAshrama DharmaAshrama: Brahmacharya Grihastha Vanaprastha SannyasaFestivalsDiwali Holi Shivaratri Navaratri Durga
Durga
Puja Ramlila Vijayadashami-Dussehra


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Sikhism
Sikhism
Sikhism
(/ˈsiːkɪzəm/; Punjabi: ਸਿੱਖੀ), or Sikhi[3] Sikkhī, pronounced [ˈsɪkːʰiː], from Sikh, meaning a "disciple", or a "learner"), is a religion that originated in the Punjab region
Pun

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Jainism
Jainism
Jainism
(/ˈdʒeɪnɪzəm/),[1] traditionally known as Jain
Jain
Dharma,[2] is an ancient Indian religion.[3] Followers of Jainism
Jainism
are called "Jains", a word derived from the Sanskrit word jina (victor) and connoting the path of victory in crossing over life's stream of rebirths through an ethical and spiritual life.[4] Jains
Jains
trace their history through a succession of twenty-four victorious saviors and teachers known as tirthankaras, with the first being Rishabhanatha, who is believed to have lived millions of years ago, and twenty-fourth being the Mahāvīra
Mahāvīra
around 500 BCE
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Chinese Folk Religion
Model humanity:Xian ZhenrenWen and wuPracticesFenxiang JingxiangFeng shui MiaohuiWu shamanismJitong mediumshipPrecious scrollsInstitutions and templesAssociations of good-doingLineage associations or churchesChinese temple Ancestral shrineChinese Folk Temples' AssociationFestivalsQingming Zhongyuan Zhongqiu Jiuhuangye Qixi Duanwu NianInternal traditions Major cultural formsChinese ancestral religionChinese communal deity religionChinese mother goddess worshipNortheast China
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Language Families
A language family is a group of languages related through descent from a common ancestral language or parental language, called the proto-language of that family. The term "family" reflects the tree model of language origination in historical linguistics, which makes use of a metaphor comparing languages to people in a biological family tree, or in a subsequent modification, to species in a phylogenetic tree of evolutionary taxonomy. Linguists therefore describe the daughter languages within a language family as being genetically related.[1] According to Ethnologue
Ethnologue
the 7,099 living human languages are distributed in 141 different language families.[2] A "living language" is simply one that is used as the primary form of communication of a group of people
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Indo-Aryan Languages
Pontic SteppeDomestication of the horse Kurgan Kurgan
Kurgan
culture Steppe culturesBug-Dniester Sredny Stog Dnieper-Donets Samara Khvalynsk YamnaMikhaylovka cultureCaucasusMaykopEast-AsiaAfanasevoEastern EuropeUsatovo Cernavodă CucuteniNorthern EuropeCorded wareBaden Middle DnieperBronze AgePontic SteppeChariot Yamna Catacomb Multi-cordoned ware Poltavka SrubnaNorthern/Eastern SteppeAbashevo culture Andronovo SintashtaEuropeGlobular Amphora Corded ware Beaker Unetice Trzciniec Nordi
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Indo-Iranian Languages
The Indo- Iranian languages
Iranian languages
or Indo-Iranic languages[2][3], or Aryan languages,[4] constitute the largest and easternmost extant branch of the Indo-European language family. It has more than 1 billion speakers, stretching from Europe
Europe
(Romani) and the Caucasus
Caucasus
(Ossetian) eastward to Xinjiang
Xinjiang
(Sarikoli) and Assam
Assam
(Assamese), and south to Sri Lanka (Sinhalese) and the Maldives
Maldives
(Maldivian). The common ancestor of all of the languages in this family is called Proto-Indo-Iranian—also known as Common Aryan—which was spoken in approximately the late 3rd millennium BC
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Ethiopian Empire
The Ethiopian Empire
Empire
(Amharic: የኢትዮጵያ ንጉሠ ነገሥት መንግሥተ, Mängəstä Ityop'p'ya), also known as Abyssinia (derived from the Arabic al-Habash),[10] was a kingdom that spanned a geographical area in the current state of Ethiopia
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Islam
Islam
Islam
(/ˈɪslɑːm/)[note 1] is an Abrahamic monotheistic religion teaching that there is only one God
God
(Allah)[1] and that Muhammad
Muhammad
is the messenger of God.[2][3] It is the world's second-largest religion[4] and the fastest-growing major religion in the world,[5][6][7] with over 1.8 billion followers or 24.1% of the global population,[8] known as Muslims.[9] Muslims make up a majority of the population in 50 countries.[4] Islam
Islam
teaches that God
God
is merciful, all-powerful, unique[10] and has guided mankind through prophets, revealed scriptures and natural signs.[3][11] The primary scriptures of Islam
Islam
are the Quran, viewed by Muslims as the verbatim word of God, and the teachings and normative example (called the sunnah, composed of accounts called hadith) of Muhammad
Muhammad
(c
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Ethiopia
Coordinates: 8°N 38°E / 8°N 38°E / 8; 38Federal Democratic Republic
Republic
of Ethiopia የኢትዮጵያ ፌዴራላዊ ዴሞክራሲያዊ ሪፐብሊክ yeʾĪtiyoṗṗya Fēdēralawī Dēmokirasīyawī RīpebilīkFlagEmblemAnthem:  ወደፊት ገስግሺ፣ ውድ እናት ኢትዮጵያ March Forward, Dear Mother EthiopiaCapital and largest city Addis Ababa 9°1′N 38°45′E / 9.017°N 38.750°E / 9.017; 38.750Official languages
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Prester John
Prester John
Prester John
(Latin: Presbyter Johannes) is a legendary Christian patriarch, presbyter (elder) and king who was popular in European chronicles and tradition from the 12th through the 17th centuries. He was said to rule over a Nestorian (Church of the East) Christian nation lost amid the Muslims and pagans of the Orient, in which the Patriarch of the Saint Thomas Christians
Saint Thomas Christians
resided. The accounts are varied collections of medieval popular fantasy, depicting Prester John as a descendant of the Three Magi, ruling a kingdom full of riches, marvels, and strange creatures. At first, Prester John
Prester John
was imagined to reside in India; tales of the Nestorian Christians' evangelistic success there and of Thomas the Apostle's subcontinental travels as documented in works like the Acts of Thomas probably provided the first seeds of the legend
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Kingdom Of Portugal
The Kingdom of Portugal
Portugal
(Latin: Regnum Portugalliae, Portuguese: Reino de Portugal) was a monarchy on the Iberian Peninsula
Iberian Peninsula
and the predecessor of modern Portugal. It was in existence from 1139 until 1910. After 1248, it was also known as the Kingdom of Portugal
Portugal
and the Algarves, and between 1815 and 1822, it was known as the United Kingdom of Portugal, Brazil
Brazil
and the Algarves. The name is also often applied to the Portuguese Empire, the realm's extensive overseas colonies. The nucleus of the Portuguese state was the County of Portugal, established in the 9th century as part of the Reconquista, by Vímara Peres, a vassal of the King of Asturias
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Exploration
Exploration
Exploration
is the act of searching for the purpose of discovery of information or resources. Exploration
Exploration
occurs in all non-sessile animal species, including humans. In human history, its most dramatic rise was during the Age of Discovery
Age of Discovery
when European explorers sailed and charted much of the rest of the world for a variety of reasons. Since then, major explorations after the Age of Discovery
Age of Discovery
have occurred for reasons mostly aimed at information discovery. In scientific research, exploration is one of three purposes of empirical research (the other two being description and explanation). The term is often used metaphorically
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