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EEC Syndrome
Ectrodactyly–ectodermal dysplasia–cleft syndrome, or EEC, and also referred to as EEC syndrome[1] (also known as "Split hand–split foot–ectodermal dysplasia–cleft syndrome"[2]:520) is a rare form of ectodermal dysplasia, an autosomal dominant disorder inherited as an genetic trait.[3]:571 EEC is characterized by the triad of ectrodactyly, ectodermal dysplasia, and facial clefts.[4] Other features noted in association with EEC include vesicoureteral reflux, recurrent urinary tract infections,[5] obstruction of the nasolacrimal duct,[6] decreased pigmentation of the hair and skin, missing or abnormal teeth, enamel hypoplasia, absent punctae in the lower eyelids, photophobia, occasional cognitive impairment and kidney anomalies, and conductive hearing loss.[7][8]Contents1 Presentation1.1 Ectrodactyly 1.2 Ectodermal dysplasia 1.3 Facial clefting 1.4 Speech deficits2 Embryology 3 Management 4 Research4.1 Genetics4.1.1 Mutations 4.1.2 Genet
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Specialty (medicine)
A specialty, or speciality, in medicine is a branch of medical practice. After completing medical school, physicians or surgeons usually further their medical education in a specific specialty of medicine by completing a multiple year residency to become a medical specialist.[1]Contents1 History of medical specialization 2 Classification of medical specialization 3 Specialties that are common worldwide 4 List of specialties recognized in the European Union and European Economic Area 5 List of North American medical specialties and others 6 Physician
Physician
compensation 7 Specialties by country7.1 Australia and New Zealand 7.2 Canada 7.3 Germany 7.4 India 7.5 United States 7.6 Specialty and Physician
Physician
Location8 Other uses 9 Training 10 Satisfaction 11 See also 12 ReferencesHistory of medical specialization[edit] To a certain extent, medical practitioners have always been specialized
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Mesoderm
In all bilaterian animals, the mesoderm is one of the three primary germ layers in the very early embryo. The other two layers are the ectoderm (outside layer) and endoderm (inside layer), with the mesoderm as the middle layer between them.[1][2] The mesoderm forms mesenchyme, mesothelium, non-epithelial blood cells and coelomocytes. Mesothelium
Mesothelium
lines coeloms
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Endothelial Cells
Endothelium
Endothelium
refers to cells that line the interior surface of blood vessels and lymphatic vessels,[1] forming an interface between circulating blood or lymph in the lumen and the rest of the vessel wall. It is a thin layer of simple, or single-layered, squamous cells called endothelial cells. Endothelial cells in direct contact with blood are called vascular endothelial cells, whereas those in direct contact with lymph are known as lymphatic endothelial cells. Vascular endothelial cells line the entire circulatory system, from the heart to the smallest capillaries. These cells have unique functions in vascular biology
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Phonation
The term phonation has slightly different meanings depending on the subfield of phonetics. Among some phoneticians, phonation is the process by which the vocal folds produce certain sounds through quasi-periodic vibration. This is the definition used among those who study laryngeal anatomy and physiology and speech production in general. Phoneticians in other subfields, such as linguistic phonetics, call this process voicing, and use the term phonation to refer to any oscillatory state of any part of the larynx that modifies the airstream, of which voicing is just one example
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Voice
The human voice consists of sound made by a human being using the vocal tract, such as talking, singing, laughing, crying, screaming, etc. The human voice frequency is specifically a part of human sound production in which the vocal folds (vocal cords) are the primary sound source. (Other sound production mechanisms produced from the same general area of the body involve the production of unvoiced consonants, clicks, whistling and whispering.) Generally speaking, the mechanism for generating the human voice can be subdivided into three parts; the lungs, the vocal folds within the larynx (voice box), and the articulators. The lung, the "pump" must produce adequate airflow and air pressure to vibrate vocal folds. The vocal folds (vocal cords) then vibrate to use airflow from the lungs to create audible pulses that form the laryngeal sound source[1]. The muscles of the larynx adjust the length and tension of the vocal folds to ‘fine-tune’ pitch and tone
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Vocal Folds
plica vocali sMeSH D014827TA A06.2.09.013FMA 55457Anatomical terminology [edit on Wikidata] Vocal folds
Vocal folds
(open) Vocal folds
Vocal folds
(speaking)The vocal folds, also known commonly as vocal cords or voice reeds, are composed of twin infoldings of mucous membrane stretched horizontally, from back to front, across the larynx
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Cleft Lip
Cleft lip and cleft palate, also known as orofacial cleft, is a group of conditions that includes cleft lip (CL), cleft palate (CP), and both together (CLP).[1][2] A cleft lip contains an opening in the upper lip that may extend into the nose.[1] The opening may be on one side, both sides, or in the middle.[1] A cleft palate is when the roof of the mouth contains an opening into the nose.[1] These disorders can result in feeding problems, speech problems, hearing problems, and frequent ear infections.[1] Less than half the time the condition is associated with other disorders.[1] Cleft lip and palate
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Cleft Palate
Cleft lip and cleft palate, also known as orofacial cleft, is a group of conditions that includes cleft lip (CL), cleft palate (CP), and both together (CLP).[1][2] A cleft lip contains an opening in the upper lip that may extend into the nose.[1] The opening may be on one side, both sides, or in the middle.[1] A cleft palate is when the roof of the mouth contains an opening into the nose.[1] These disorders can result in feeding problems, speech problems, hearing problems, and frequent ear infections.[1] Less than half the time the condition is associated with other disorders.[1] Cleft lip and palate
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Hypernasal Speech
Hypernasal speech (also hyperrhinolalia or open nasality; medically known as Rhinolalia aperta from Latin rhinolalia: "nasal speech" and aperta: "open") is a disorder that causes abnormal resonance in a human's voice due to increased airflow through the nose during speech. It is caused by an open nasal cavity resulting from an incomplete closure of the soft palate and/or velopharyngeal sphincter.[citation needed] In normal speech, nasality is referred to as nasalization and is a linguistic category that can apply to vowels or consonants in a specific language. The primary underlying physical variable determining the degree of nasality in normal speech is the opening and closing of a velopharyngeal passageway between the oral vocal tract and the nasal vocal tract
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Manner Of Articulation
In articulatory phonetics, the manner of articulation is the configuration and interaction of the articulators (speech organs such as the tongue, lips, and palate) when making a speech sound. One parameter of manner is stricture, that is, how closely the speech organs approach one another. Others include those involved in the r-like sounds (taps and trills), and the sibilancy of fricatives. The concept of manner is mainly used in the discussion of consonants, although the movement of the articulators will also greatly alter the resonant properties of the vocal tract, thereby changing the formant structure of speech sounds that is crucial for the identification of vowels. For consonants, the place of articulation and the degree of phonation of voicing are considered separately from manner, as being independent parameters
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Language
Language
Language
is a system that consists of the development, acquisition, maintenance and use of complex systems of communication, particularly the human ability to do so; and a language is any specific example of such a system. The scientific study of language is called linguistics. Questions concerning the philosophy of language, such as whether words can represent experience, have been debated at least since Gorgias
Gorgias
and Plato
Plato
in ancient Greece. Thinkers such as Rousseau
Rousseau
have argued that language originated from emotions while others like Kant have held that it originated from rational and logical thought. 20th-century philosophers such as Wittgenstein argued that philosophy is really the study of language. Major figures in linguistics include Ferdinand de Saussure and Noam Chomsky. Estimates of the number of human languages in the world vary between 5,000 and 7,000
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Stem Cells
Stem cells are biological cells that can differentiate into other types of stem cells and can divide to produce more of the same type of stem cells. They are found in multicellular organisms. In mammals, there are two broad types of stem cells: embryonic stem cells, which are isolated from the inner cell mass of blastocysts, and adult stem cells, which are found in various tissues. In adult organisms, stem cells and progenitor cells act as a repair system for the body, replenishing adult tissues
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Endoderm
Endoderm
Endoderm
is one of the three primary germ layers in the very early embryo. The other two layers are the ectoderm (outside layer) and mesoderm (middle layer), with the endoderm being the innermost layer.[1] Cells migrating inward along the archenteron form the inner layer of the gastrula, which develops into the endoderm.[citation needed] The endoderm consists at first of flattened cells, which subsequently become columnar. It forms the epithelial lining of multiple systems.[citation needed] In plant biology, endoderm corresponds to the innermost part of the cortex (bark) in young shoots and young roots often consisting of a single cell layer. As the plant becomes older, more endoderm will lignify.Contents1 Production 2 Additional images 3 See also 4 ReferencesProduction[edit] The following chart shows the tissues produced by the endoderm
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Hypodermis
The subcutaneous tissue (from Latin
Latin
subcutaneous, meaning 'beneath the skin'), also called the hypodermis, hypoderm (from Greek, meaning 'beneath the skin'), subcutis, or superficial fascia, is the lowermost layer of the integumentary system in vertebrates.[2] The types of cells found in the hypodermis are fibroblasts, adipose cells, and macrophages. The hypodermis is derived from the mesoderm, but unlike the dermis, it is not derived from the dermatome region of the mesoderm. In arthropods, the hypodermis is an epidermal layer of cells that secretes the chitinous cuticle. The term also refers to a layer of cells lying immediately below the epidermis of plants. The hypodermis is beneath dermis which is beneath epidermis. It is used mainly for fat storage. A layer of tissue lies immediately below the dermis of vertebrate skin. It is often referred to as subcutaneous tissue though this is a less precise and anatomically inaccurate term
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Skin
Skin
Skin
is the soft outer tissue covering vertebrates. Other animal coverings, such as the arthropod exoskeleton, have different developmental origin, structure and chemical composition. The adjective cutaneous means "of the skin" (from Latin
Latin
cutis, skin). In mammals, the skin is an organ of the integumentary system made up of multiple layers of ectodermal tissue, and guards the underlying muscles, bones, ligaments and internal organs. Skin
Skin
of a different nature exists in amphibians, reptiles, and birds.[1] All mammals have some hair on their skin, even marine mammals like whales, dolphins, and porpoises which appear to be hairless. The skin interfaces with the environment and is the first line of defense from external factors
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