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Durruti Column
The Durruti Column (Spanish: Columna Durruti), with about 6,000 people, was the largest anarchist column (or military unit) formed during the Spanish Civil War.[1] During the first months of the war, it became the most recognized and popular military organisation fighting against Franco, and it is a symbol of the Spanish anarchist movement and its struggle to create an egalitarian society with elements of individualism and collectivism. The column included people from all over the world. Philosopher Simone Weil
Simone Weil
fought alongside Buenaventura Durruti
Buenaventura Durruti
in the Durruti Column, and her memories and experiences from the war can be found in her book, Écrits historiques et politiques
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Century (military Unit)
Centuria (Latin plural centuriae) is a Latin term (from the stem centum meaning one hundred) denoting military units consisting of (originally only approximately) 100 men (80 soldiers and 20 auxiliary servants). It is sometimes anglicized as century. A centuria is also a Roman unit of land area corresponding to 100 heredia.Contents1 Roman use1.1 Political 1.2 Military2 Other uses 3 See alsoRoman use[edit] Political[edit] In the political context the centuria was the constituent voting unit in the centuriate comices (Latin comitia centuriata), an old form of popular assembly in the Roman Republic, the members of which cast one collective vote. Its origin seems to be the homonymous military unit, as citizens could serve in both until Gaius Marius' reform shifted the main form of military recruitment from conscription to professional contracts. Military[edit] The centuria was the pivotal tactical Roman legion unit after the Marian reforms of 107 BC
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POUM
1 New Caledonia
New Caledonia
Land Register (DITTT) data, which exclude lakes and ponds larger than 1 km² (0.386 sq mi or 247 acres) as well as the estuaries of rivers. 2 Population without double counting: residents of multiple communes (e.g., students and military personnel) only counted once. Poum
Poum
is a commune in the North Province of New Caledonia, an overseas territory of France
France
in the Pacific Ocean. The town of Poum
Poum
(Latitude: 20° 13' 59 south, longitude: 164° 1' 23 east) is located in the far northwest, located on the southern part of Banare Bay, with Mouac Island just offshore. Geography[edit] The Poum
Poum
massif south of Poum
Poum
and Titch rises to 414 m and is rich in nickel. Other minerals like cobalt have been mined out
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International Standard Book Number
"ISBN" redirects here. For other uses, see ISBN (other).International Standard Book
Book
NumberA 13-digit ISBN, 978-3-16-148410-0, as represented by an EAN-13 bar codeAcronym ISBNIntroduced 1970; 48 years ago (1970)Managing organisation International ISBN AgencyNo. of digits 13 (formerly 10)Check digit Weighted sumExample 978-3-16-148410-0Website www.isbn-international.orgThe International Standard Book
Book
Number (ISBN) is a unique[a][b] numeric commercial book identifier. Publishers purchase ISBNs from an affiliate of the International ISBN Agency.[1] An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation (except reprintings) of a book. For example, an e-book, a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, and 10 digits long if assigned before 2007
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Antony Beevor
Sir Antony James Beevor, FRSL (born 14 December 1946) is an English military historian. He has published several popular histories on the Second World War
Second World War
and the 20th century in general.Contents1 Early life and career 2 Personal life 3 Reception of written works 4 Honours 5 Awards 6 Published works 7 References 8 External linksEarly life and career[edit] Born in Kensington,[1] Beevor was educated at two independent schools; Abberley Hall School
Abberley Hall School
in Worcestershire, followed by Winchester College in Hampshire
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Spanish Foreign Legion
The Spanish Legion
Spanish Legion
(Spanish: Legión Española, La Legión), informally known as the Tercio
Tercio
or the Tercios, is a unit of the Spanish Army
Spanish Army
and Spain's Rapid Reaction Force. It was raised in the 1920s to serve as part of Spain's Army of Africa. The unit, which was established in January 1920 as the Spanish equivalent of the French Foreign Legion, was initially known as the Tercio
Tercio
de Extranjeros (" Tercio
Tercio
of foreigners"), the name under which it began fighting in the Rif War
Rif War
of 1920–1926. Although it recruited some foreigners mostly from Spanish-speaking nations, it recruited predominantly from Spaniards. As a result, and since it existed to serve in Spanish Morocco, it was soon renamed Tercio
Tercio
de Marruecos (" Tercio
Tercio
of Morocco")
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Iron Column
The Iron Column (Spanish: Columna de Hierro) was a Spanish anarchist militia column formed during the Spanish Civil War to fight against the military forces of the Nationalist Faction that had rebelled against the Second Spanish Republic.Contents1 History 2 See also 3 References 4 External linksHistory[edit] The Iron Column was formed in Valencia at the start of the Spanish Revolution by local anarchists including Rafael Martí (nicknamed 'Pancho Villa' after the Mexican revolutionary), José and Pedro Pellicer, Elias Manzanera and José Segarra. The Iron Column fought on the Teruel front. [1] The Iron Column stood for defense (and extension) of the popular revolution rather than defense of the Republic. Among its earliest acts were the liberation of convicts from the San Miguel de los Reyes prison and the burning of judicial archives
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ETA (separatist Group)
ETA (Basque: [eta]; Spanish: [ˈeta]), an acronym for Euskadi Ta Askatasuna
Askatasuna
(Basque: [eus̺kaði ta as̺katas̺una]; "Basque Homeland and Liberty"),[1] is a formerly armed leftist Basque nationalist and separatist organization in the Basque Country (in northern Spain
Spain
and southwestern France). The group was founded in 1959 and later evolved from a group promoting traditional Basque culture
Basque culture
to a paramilitary group engaged in a violent campaign of bombing, assassinations and kidnappings in the Southern Basque Country
Southern Basque Country
and throughout Spanish territory
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Caspe
Theo Caspe
Caspe
(Spanish: [ˈkaspe]) or Casp (Catalan: [ˈkasp]) is a historic town and municipality in the province of Zaragoza, in the autonomous community of Aragon, Spain. It is situated some 100 km to the east of the provincial capital, Zaragoza.Contents1 History 2 Main sights 3 Events 4 Economy 5 Twin towns 6 External linksHistory[edit] According to legend, Caspe
Caspe
was founded by Tubal, a grandson of Noah. Historically, the area was settled by the Sedetanos, an Iberian tribe. In 1169 Caspe
Caspe
was conquered from the Moors
Moors
by King Alfonso II of Aragon, thereby following the history of Aragon
Aragon
and later that of Spain. It was originally a settlement founded by the Knights Hospitaller (Knights of St
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Emilio Mola
Emilio Mola
Emilio Mola
y Vidal, 1st Duke of Mola, Grandee
Grandee
of Spain
Spain
(9 July 1887 – 3 June 1937) was a Spanish Nationalist commander during the Spanish Civil War. He was a veteran of the African wars where he rose to prominence serving with the Regulars. He led the military uprising that culminated in the Spanish Civil War. He coined the term "fifth column".Contents1 Early life and career 2 July Rebellion and Civil War 3 Death 4 See also 5 ReferencesEarly life and career[edit] Mola was born in Placetas, Cuba, at that time an overseas Spanish province, where his father, an army officer, was stationed. The Cuban War of Independence split his family; while his father served in the Spanish forces, his maternal uncle Leoncio Vidal was a leading revolutionary fighter. In Spain, he enrolled in the Infantry Academy of Toledo in 1907
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Zaragoza
Zaragoza
Zaragoza
(/ˌzærəˈɡoʊzə, ˌsærəˈɡoʊsə, ˌθærəˈɡoʊθə/; Spanish: [θaɾaˈɣoθa]), also called Saragossa (/ˌsærəˈɡɒsə/)[2] in English,[3] is the capital city of the Zaragoza
Zaragoza
province and of the autonomous community of Aragon, Spain. It lies by the Ebro
Ebro
river and its tributaries, the Huerva and the Gállego, roughly in the center of both Aragon
Aragon
and the Ebro
Ebro
basin. On 1 September 2010 the population of the city of Zaragoza
Zaragoza
was 701,090,[4] within its administrative limits on a land area of 1,062.64 square kilometres (410.29 square miles), ranking fifth in Spain. It is the 32nd most populous municipality in the European Union. The population of the metropolitan area was estimated in 2006 at 783,763 inhabitants
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Catalonia
Catalonia
Catalonia
(Catalan: Catalunya, Occitan: Catalonha, Spanish: Cataluña)[c] is an autonomous community of Spain
Spain
located on the northeastern extremity of the Iberian Peninsula. It is designated as a nationality by its Statute of Autonomy.[d][7] Catalonia
Catalonia
consists of four provinces: Barcelona, Girona, Lleida, and Tarragona. The capital and largest city is Barcelona, the second-most populated municipality in Spain
Spain
and the core of the seventh most populous urban area in the European Union. Catalonia
Catalonia
comprises most of the territory of the former Principality of Catalonia
Principality of Catalonia
(with the remainder Roussillon
Roussillon
now part of France's Pyrénées-Orientales)
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Erich Mühsam
Erich Mühsam
Erich Mühsam
(6 April 1878 – 10 July 1934) was a German-Jewish antimilitarist anarchist essayist, poet and playwright
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Spain
Coordinates: 40°N 4°W / 40°N 4°W / 40; -4Kingdom of Spain Reino de España  (Spanish)6 other official names[a][b]Aragonese: Reino d'EspanyaAsturian: Reinu d'EspañaBasque: Espainiako ErresumaCatalan: Regne d'EspanyaGalician: Reino de EspañaOccitan: Reiaume d'EspanhaFlagCoat of armsMotto: "Plus Ultra" (Latin) "Further Beyond"Anthem: "Marcha Real" (Spanish)[2] "Royal March"Location of  Spain  (dark green) – in Europe  (green & dark grey) – in the European Union  (green)Capital and largest city Madrid 40°26′N 3°42′W / 40.433°N 3.700°W / 40.433; -3.700Official language and national language Spanish[c]Co-official languages in certain autonomous communities Catalan Galician Basque OccitanEthnic groups (2015)89.9% Spanish 10.1% othersReligi
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BBC
The British Broadcasting
Broadcasting
Corporation (BBC) is a British public service broadcaster. Its headquarters are at Broadcasting House
Broadcasting House
in Westminster, London
London
and it is the world's oldest national broadcasting organisation[3] and the largest broadcaster in the world by number of employees
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Unified Socialist Party Of Catalonia
The Unified Socialist Party of Catalonia
Catalonia
(Catalan: Partit Socialista Unificat de Catalunya, PSUC) was a communist political party active in Catalonia
Catalonia
between 1936 and 1997. It was the Catalan referent of the Communist Party of Spain
Communist Party of Spain
and the only party not from a sovereign state to be a full member of the Third International.Contents1 History 2 Electoral performance2.1 Parliament of Catalonia 2.2 Cortes Generales3 See also 4 ReferencesHistory[edit] The PSUC was formed on 23 July 1936 through the unification of four left-wing groups; the Catalan Federation of Spanish Socialist Workers' Party (PSOE), the Partit Comunista de Catalunya (Communist Party of Catalonia, the Catalan branch of the Communist Party of Spain, PCE), the Unió Socialista de Catalunya (Socialist Union of Catalonia) and the Partit Català Proletari (Proletarian Catalan Party)
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