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Durango City
DURANGO, officially VICTORIA DE DURANGO and also known as CIUDAD DE DURANGO, is the capital and largest city of the Mexican state
Mexican state
of Durango
Durango
. It stands at an altitude of 1,880 metres (6,168 feet). The city was founded on July 8, 1563, by the Spanish Basque explorer Francisco de Ibarra . During the Spanish colonial era the city was the capital of the Nueva Vizcaya
Nueva Vizcaya
province of New Spain
Spain
, which consisted mostly of the present day states of Durango
Durango
and Chihuahua . In 2010, the city had a population of 518,709, up from 463,830 in 2005. It is the municipal seat of Durango
Durango
Municipality
Municipality
which had a population of 582,267 in 2010
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Subtropical Ridge
The SUBTROPICAL RIDGE, also known as the SUBTROPICAL HIGH or HORSE LATITUDES, is a significant belt of atmospheric high pressure situated around the latitudes of 30°N in the Northern Hemisphere
Northern Hemisphere
and 30°S in the Southern Hemisphere
Southern Hemisphere
. It is the product of the global air circulation cell known as the Hadley Cell
Hadley Cell
. The subtropical ridge is characterized by mostly calm winds, which act to reduce air quality under its axis by causing fog overnight, and haze during daylight hours as a result of the stable atmosphere found near its location. The air descending from the upper troposphere flows out from its center at surface level toward the upper and lower latitudes of each hemisphere, creating both the trade winds and the westerlies
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Precipitation (meteorology)
In meteorology , PRECIPITATION is any product of the condensation of atmospheric water vapor that falls under gravity . The main forms of precipitation include drizzle , rain , sleet , snow , graupel and hail . Precipitation
Precipitation
occurs when a portion of the atmosphere becomes saturated with water vapor, so that the water condenses and "precipitates". Thus, fog and mist are not precipitation but suspensions, because the water vapor does not condense sufficiently to precipitate. Two processes, possibly acting together, can lead to air becoming saturated: cooling the air or adding water vapor to the air. Precipitation
Precipitation
forms as smaller droplets coalesce via collision with other rain drops or ice crystals within a cloud
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North American Monsoon
The NORTH AMERICAN MONSOON, variously known as the SOUTHWEST MONSOON , the MEXICAN MONSOON, the NEW MEXICAN MONSOON, or the ARIZONA MONSOON, is a pattern of pronounced increase in thunderstorms and rainfall over large areas of the southwestern United States and northwestern Mexico
Mexico
, typically occurring between July and mid September. During the monsoon, thunderstorms are fueled by daytime heating and build up during the late afternoon-early evening. Typically, these storms dissipate by late night, and the next day starts out fair, with the cycle repeating daily. The monsoon typically loses its energy by mid-September when drier and cooler conditions are reestablished over the region. Geographically, the North American monsoon precipitation region is centered over the Sierra Madre Occidental in the Mexican states of Sinaloa
Sinaloa
, Durango
Durango
, Sonora
Sonora
and Chihuahua
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Precipitation
In meteorology , PRECIPITATION is any product of the condensation of atmospheric water vapor that falls under gravity . The main forms of precipitation include drizzle , rain , sleet , snow , graupel and hail . Precipitation
Precipitation
occurs when a portion of the atmosphere becomes saturated with water vapor, so that the water condenses and "precipitates". Thus, fog and mist are not precipitation but suspensions, because the water vapor does not condense sufficiently to precipitate. Two processes, possibly acting together, can lead to air becoming saturated: cooling the air or adding water vapor to the air. Precipitation
Precipitation
forms as smaller droplets coalesce via collision with other rain drops or ice crystals within a cloud
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Relative Humidity
RELATIVE HUMIDITY (RH) is the ratio of the partial pressure of water vapor to the equilibrium vapor pressure of water at a given temperature. Relative humidity
Relative humidity
depends on temperature and the pressure of the system of interest. It requires less water vapor to attain high relative humidity at low temperatures; more water vapour is required to attain high relative humidity in warm or hot air
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Temperature
TEMPERATURE is a physical quantity expressing hot and cold . Temperature
Temperature
is measured with a thermometer , historically calibrated in various temperature scales and units of measurement . The most commonly used scales are the Celsius scale , denoted in °C (informally, degrees centigrade), the Fahrenheit scale (°F), and the Kelvin scale . The kelvin (K) is the unit of temperature in the International System of Units
International System of Units
(SI), in which temperature is one of the seven fundamental base quantities . The coldest theoretical temperature is absolute zero , at which the thermal motion of all fundamental particles in matter reaches a minimum. Although classically described as motionless, particles still possess a finite zero-point energy in the quantum mechanical description
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Köppen Climate Classification
KöPPEN CLIMATE CLASSIFICATION is one of the most widely used climate classification systems. It was first published by Russian German climatologist Wladimir Köppen in 1884, with several later modifications by Köppen, notably in 1918 and 1936. Later, German climatologist Rudolf Geiger (1954, 1961) collaborated with Köppen on changes to the classification system, which is thus sometimes called the KöPPEN–GEIGER CLIMATE CLASSIFICATION SYSTEM. The Köppen climate classification
Köppen climate classification
system has been further modified, within the Trewartha climate classification
Trewartha climate classification
system in the middle 1960s (revised in 1980). The Trewartha system sought to create a more refined middle latitude climate zone, which was one of the criticisms of the Köppen system (the C climate group was too broad)
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Municipality
A MUNICIPALITY is usually a single urban administrative division having corporate status and powers of self-government or jurisdiction as granted by national and state laws to which it is subordinate. It is to be distinguished from the county , which may encompass rural territory or numerous small communities such as towns , villages and hamlets . The term municipality may also mean the governing or ruling body of a given municipality. A municipality is a general-purpose administrative subdivision, as opposed to a special-purpose district . The term is derived from French municipalité and Latin municipalis
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Lengths
In geometric measurements , LENGTH is the most extended dimension of an object. In the International System of Quantities
International System of Quantities
, length is any quantity with dimension distance . In other contexts, length is a measured dimension of an object. For example, it is possible to cut a length of wire shorter than the wire's width . Length
Length
may be distinguished from height , which is vertical extent, and width or breadth, which are the distance from side to side, measuring across the object at right angles to the length. Length
Length
is a measure of one dimension, whereas area is a measure of two dimensions (length squared) and volume is a measure of three dimensions (length cubed). In most systems of measurement , the unit of length is a base unit , from which other units are derived. The metric length of one kilometre is equivalent to the imperial measurement of 0.62137 miles
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Kilometers
The KILOMETRE (International spelling as used by the International Bureau of Weights and Measures ; SI symbol: KM; /ˈkɪləmiːtər/ or /kɪˈlɒmɪtər/ ) or KILOMETER (American spelling ) is a unit of length in the metric system , equal to one thousand metres (kilo- being the SI prefix
SI prefix
for 7003100000000000000♠1000). It is now the measurement unit used officially for expressing distances between geographical places on land in most of the world; notable exceptions are the United States and the road network of the United Kingdom where the statute mile is the official unit used. k (pronounced /keɪ/ ) is occasionally used in some English-speaking countries as an alternative for the word kilometre in colloquial writing and speech. A slang term for the kilometre in the US military is klick
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Semi-arid Climate
A SEMI-ARID CLIMATE or STEPPE CLIMATE is the climate of a region that receives precipitation below potential evapotranspiration , but not extremely. There are different kinds of semi-arid climates, depending on such variables as temperature, and they give rise to different classes of ecology. Regions with semi-arid climates BSh BSk CONTENTS * 1 Defining attributes of semi-arid climates * 2 Hot semi-arid climates * 3 Cold semi-arid climates * 4 Regions of varying classification * 5 See also * 6 Charts of selected cities * 7 References * 8 External links DEFINING ATTRIBUTES OF SEMI-ARID CLIMATESA more precise definition is given by the Köppen climate classification , which treats steppe climates (BSk and BSh) as intermediates between desert climates (BW) and humid climates in ecological characteristics and agricultural potential
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Sunshine Duration
SUNSHINE DURATION or SUNSHINE HOURS is a climatological indicator, measuring duration of sunshine in given period (usually, a day or a year) for a given location on Earth, typically expressed as an averaged value over several years. It is a general indicator of cloudiness of a location, and thus differs from insolation , which measures the total energy delivered by sunlight over a given period. Sunshine
Sunshine
duration is usually expressed in hours per year, or in (average) hours per day. The first measure indicates the general sunniness of a location compared with other places, while the latter allows for comparison of sunshine in various seasons in the same location. Another often-used measure is percentage ratio of recorded bright sunshine duration and daylight duration in the observed period. An important use of sunshine duration data is to characterize the climate of sites, especially of health resorts
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Deutscher Wetterdienst
The DEUTSCHER WETTERDIENST, German pronunciation: , or DWD for short, is the GERMAN METEOROLOGICAL OFFICE, based in Offenbach am Main , Germany, which monitors weather and meteorological conditions over Germany
Germany
and provides weather services for the general public and for nautical, aviational or agricultural purposes. It is attached to the Federal Ministry of Transport and Digital Infrastructure . The DWDs principal tasks include warning against weather-related dangers and monitoring and rating climate changes affecting Germany. The organization runs atmospheric models on their supercomputer for precise weather forecasting . The DWD also manages the national climate archive and one of the largest specialized libraries on weather and climate worldwide
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Voissoir
A VOUSSOIR /vuˈswɑːr/ is a wedge-shaped element, typically a stone, which is used in building an arch or vault . Although each unit in an arch or vault is a voussoir, two units are of distinct functional importance: the keystone and the springer . The keystone is the centre stone or masonry unit at the apex of an arch. The springer is the lowest voussoir on each side, located where the curve of the arch springs from the vertical support or abutment of the wall or pier . The keystone is often decorated or enlarged. An enlarged and sometimes slightly dropped keystone is often found in Mannerist arches of the 16th century, beginning with the works of Giulio Romano
Giulio Romano
, who also began the fashion for using voussoirs above rectangular openings, rather than a lintel (Palazzo Stati Maccarani, Rome, circa 1522)
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Colonia (Mexico)
In general, COLONIAS (Spanish pronunciation: ) are neighborhoods in Mexican cities, which have no jurisdictional autonomy or representation. It is plausible that the name, which literally means colony, arose in the late 19th, early 20th centuries, when one of the first urban developments outside Mexico City
Mexico City
's core was inhabited by a French colony in the city. Usually colonias are assigned a specific postal code ; nonetheless, in recent urban developments, gated communities are also defined as colonias and share the postal code with adjacent neighborhoods. In spite of this, the name of the colonia must be specified when writing an address in large urban areas in Mexico. It is similar to the barangays of the Philippines
Philippines

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