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Duchy Of Livonia
Coat of arms Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth
Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth
with its major subdivisions after the 1618 Truce of Deulino, superimposed on present-day national borders. Livonia
Livonia
here is coloured dark grey, upper-right, over modern Estonia and Latvia
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Polish Language
Polish (język polski, polszczyzna) is a West Slavic language spoken primarily in Poland
Poland
and is the native language of the Poles. It belongs to the Lechitic subgroup of the West Slavic languages.[8] Polish is the official language of Poland, but it is also used throughout the world by Polish minorities in other countries. There are over 55 million Polish language
Polish language
speakers around the world and it is one of the official languages of the European Union. Its written standard is the Polish alphabet, which has 9 additions to the letters of the basic Latin script
Latin script
(ą, ć, ę, ł, ń, ó, ś, ź, ż)
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Henry III Of France
Henry III (19 September 1551 – 2 August 1589; born Alexandre Édouard de France, Polish: Henryk Walezy, Lithuanian: Henrikas Valua) was King of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth
Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth
from 1573 to 1575 and King of France
King of France
from 1574 until his death. He was the last French monarch of the House of Valois. As the fourth son of King Henry II of France, he was not expected to inherit the French throne and thus was a good candidate for the vacant throne of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, where he was elected King/Grand Duke in 1573. During his brief rule, he signed the Henrician Articles into law, recognizing the Polish nobility's right to freely elect their monarch
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Truce Of Altmark
The six-year Truce of Altmark
Truce of Altmark
(or Treaty of Stary Targ, German: Vertrag von Altmark, Swedish: Stillståndet i Altmark, Polish: Rozejm w Altmarku) was signed on 16 (O.S.)/26 (N.S.) September 1629 at the Altmark (Stary Targ), near Danzig
Danzig
(Gdańsk) by Sweden
Sweden
and the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth
Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth
during Thirty Years' War, ending the Polish–Swedish War (1626–1629). The conditions of the truce allowed Sweden
Sweden
to retain control of Livonia
Livonia
and the mouth of the Vistula
Vistula
river. Sweden
Sweden
also evacuated most of the Duchy of Prussia, but kept the coastal cities. the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth
Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth
got back other Swedish gains since the 1625 invasion
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Swedish Livonia
Swedish
Swedish
or svensk(a) may refer to:Anything from or related to Sweden, a country in Northern Europe Swedish
Swedish
language, a North Germanic language spoken primarily in Sweden and Finland
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Condominium (international Law)
In international law, a condominium (plural either condominia, as in Latin, or condominiums) is a political territory (state or border area) in or over which multiple sovereign powers formally agree to share equal dominium (in the sense of sovereignty) and exercise their rights jointly, without dividing it into "national" zones. Although a condominium has always been recognized as a theoretical possibility, condominia have been rare in practice. A major problem, and the reason so few have existed, is the difficulty of ensuring co-operation between the sovereign powers; once the understanding fails, the status is likely to become untenable. The word is recorded in English since c. 1714, from Modern Latin, apparently coined in Germany c. 1700 from Latin com- "together" + dominium "right of ownership" (compare domain)
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Secularization
Secularization
Secularization
(or secularisation)[1] is the transformation of a society from close identification and affiliation with religious values and institutions toward nonreligious values and secular institutions. The secularization thesis refers to the belief that as societies progress, particularly through modernization and rationalization, religion loses its authority in all aspects of social life and governance.[2] The term secularization is also used in the context of the lifting of the monastic restrictions from a member of the clergy.[3] Secularization
Secularization
refers to the historical process in which religion loses social and cultural significance. As a result of secularization the role of religion in modern societies becomes restricted
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Latvian Language
Latvian (latviešu valoda [ˈlatviɛʃu ˈvaluɔda])[tones?] is a Baltic language
Baltic language
spoken in the Baltic region. It is the language of Latvians
Latvians
and the official language of Latvia
Latvia
as well as one of the official languages of the European Union. It was previously known in English as Lettish, and cognates of the word remain the most commonly used name for the Latvian language
Latvian language
in Germanic languages
Germanic languages
other than English. There are about 1.3 million native Latvian speakers in Latvia and 100,000 abroad
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Latin Language
Latin
Latin
(Latin: lingua latīna, IPA: [ˈlɪŋɡʷa laˈtiːna]) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. The Latin alphabet
Latin alphabet
is derived from the Etruscan and Greek alphabets, and ultimately from the Phoenician alphabet. Latin
Latin
was originally spoken in Latium, in the Italian Peninsula.[3] Through the power of the Roman Republic, it became the dominant language, initially in Italy and subsequently throughout the Roman Empire. Vulgar Latin
Vulgar Latin
developed into the Romance languages, such as Italian, Portuguese, Spanish, French, and Romanian. Latin, Greek and French have contributed many words to the English language
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Lithuanian Language
Lithuanian (Lithuanian: lietuvių kalba) is a Baltic language
Baltic language
spoken in the Baltic region. It is the language of Lithuanians
Lithuanians
and the official language of Lithuania
Lithuania
as well as one of the official languages of the European Union. There are about 2.9 million[3] native Lithuanian speakers in Lithuania
Lithuania
and about 200,000 abroad. As a Baltic language, Lithuanian is closely related to neighboring Latvian and more distantly to Slavic and other Indo-European languages. It is written in a Latin
Latin
alphabet
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First Partition Of Poland
The First Partition of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth
Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth
took place in 1772 as the first of three partitions that ended the existence of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth
Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth
by 1795. Growth in the Russian Empire's power, threatening the Kingdom of Prussia
Kingdom of Prussia
and the Habsburg Austrian Empire, was the primary motive behind this first partition. Frederick the Great
Frederick the Great
engineered the partition to prevent Austria, jealous of Russian successes against the Ottoman Empire, from going to war. The weakened Commonwealth's land, including what was already controlled by Russia, was apportioned among its more powerful neighbors—Austria, Russia and Prussia—so as to restore the regional balance of power in Central Europe
Central Europe
among those three countries
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Treaty Of Altmark
The six-year Truce of Altmark
Truce of Altmark
(or Treaty of Stary Targ, German: Vertrag von Altmark, Swedish: Stillståndet i Altmark, Polish: Rozejm w Altmarku) was signed on 16 (O.S.)/26 (N.S.) September 1629 at the Altmark (Stary Targ), near Danzig
Danzig
(Gdańsk) by Sweden
Sweden
and the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth
Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth
during Thirty Years' War, ending the Polish–Swedish War (1626–1629). The conditions of the truce allowed Sweden
Sweden
to retain control of Livonia
Livonia
and the mouth of the Vistula
Vistula
river. Sweden
Sweden
also evacuated most of the Duchy of Prussia, but kept the coastal cities. the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth
Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth
got back other Swedish gains since the 1625 invasion
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German Language
No official regulation ( German orthography
German orthography
regulated by the Council for German Orthography[4]). Language
Language
codesISO 639-1 deISO 639-2 ger
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Early Modern Age
The early modern period of modern history follows the late Middle Ages of the post-classical era. Although the chronological limits of the period are open to debate, the timeframe spans the period after the late portion of the post-classical age (c. 1500), known as the Middle Ages, through the beginning of the Age of Revolutions (c
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Governor
A governor is, in most cases, a public official with the power to govern the executive branch of a non-sovereign or sub-national level of government, ranking under the head of state. In federations, governor may be the title of a politician who governs a constituent state and may be either appointed or elected. The power of the individual governor can vary dramatically between political systems, with some governors having only nominal or largely ceremonial power, while others having a complete control over the entire government. Historically, the title can also apply to the executive officials acting as representatives of a chartered company which has been granted exercise of sovereignty in a colonial area, such as the British East India Company
East India Company
or the Dutch East India
India
Company
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Sigismund III Vasa
Sigismund III Vasa
Sigismund III Vasa
(also known as Sigismund III of Poland, Polish: Zygmunt III Waza, Swedish: Sigismund, Lithuanian: Žygimantas Vaza, English exonym: Sigmund; 20 June 1566 – 30 April 1632 N.S.) was King of Poland and Grand Duke of Lithuania, monarch of the united Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth
Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth
from 1587 to 1632, and King of Sweden (where he is known simply as Sigismund) from 1592 as a composite monarchy until he was deposed in 1599
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