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Dual Graviton
In theoretical physics , the DUAL GRAVITON is a hypothetical elementary particle that is a dual of the graviton under electric-magnetic duality predicted by some formulations of supergravity in eleven dimensions. The dual graviton was first hypothesized in 1980 (in a paper received by the journal on Einstein's 101st birthday). It was theoretically modeled in 2000s, which was then predicted in eleven-dimensional mathematics of SO(8) supergravity in the framework of electric-magnetic duality. It again emerged in the E11 generalized geometry in eleven dimensions, and the E7 generalized vielbeine-geometry in eleven dimensions. While there is no local coupling between graviton and dual graviton, the field introduced by dual graviton may be coupled to a BF model as non-local gravitational fields in extra dimensions
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Michael Duff (physicist)
Imperial College London
Imperial College London
European Organization for Nuclear Research International Centre for Theoretical Physics Queen Mary College, London Texas A the University of California, Santa Barbara , the University of Kyoto and the Isaac Newton Institute, University of Cambridge
University of Cambridge
. He took up his professorship at Texas A"> * ^ Curriculum Vitae * ^ Duff, Michael (May 2010). "Black holes and qubits". CERN Courier. 50 (4): 14–16
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Willy Fischler
WILLY FISCHLER (born in 1949 in Antwerpen
Antwerpen
, Belgium) is a theoretical physicist . He is the Jane and Roland Blumberg Centennial Professor of Physics at the University of Texas at Austin
University of Texas at Austin
, where he is affiliated with the Weinberg theory group. His contributions to physics include: * Early computation of the force between heavy quarks. * The invisible axion (see Axion ), (with Michael Dine and Mark Srednicki) as a solution to the strong CP problem. * The cosmological effects of the invisible axion (with Michael Dine ) and its role as a candidate for dark matter. * Pioneering work (with Michael Dine and Mark Srednicki) on the use of supersymmetry to solve outstanding problems in the standard model of particle physics. * The first formulation of what became known as the “moduli problem in cosmology” (with G.D
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Sylvester James Gates
SYLVESTER JAMES GATES JR. (born December 15, 1950), known as S. JAMES GATES JR. or JIM GATES, is an American theoretical physicist who works on supersymmetry , supergravity , and superstring theory . He is currently a professor in the physics department at the University of Maryland College of Computer, Mathematical, and Natural Sciences , a University of Maryland
University of Maryland
Regents Professor and served on former President Barack Obama
Barack Obama
's Council of Advisors on Science and Technology . CONTENTS * 1 Biography * 2 Awards and recognition * 3 Media appearances * 4 Publications * 5 Notes * 6 External links BIOGRAPHYGates received BS (1973) and PhD (1977) degrees from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Massachusetts Institute of Technology
. His doctoral thesis was the first at MIT on supersymmetry . With M. T. Grisaru , M
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Ferdinando Gliozzi
Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare University of Turin FERDINANDO GLIOZZI (Italian: ; born 1940) is a string theorist at the Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare . Along with David Olive and Joel Scherk , he proposed the GSO projection to map out the tachyonic states in the Neveu–Schwarz sector. REFERENCES * ^ Gliozzi, Ferdinando; Scherk, Joel; Olive, David I. (1977). "Supersymmetry, Supergravity Theories And The Dual Spinor Model". Nuclear Physics B . 122 (2): 253–290. Bibcode :1977NuPhB.122..253G. doi :10.1016/0550-3213(77)90206-1 . * ^ A B Polchinski, Joseph (1998). String Theory: Volume 2. Cambridge University Press
Cambridge University Press
. p. 45. ISBN 978-0-521-63304-8 . This string theory -related article is a stub . You can help by expanding it
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Robbert Dijkgraaf
ROBERTUS HENRICUS "ROBBERT" DIJKGRAAF (Dutch : ; born 24 January 1960) is a Dutch mathematical physicist and string theorist . He is tenured professor at the University of Amsterdam
University of Amsterdam
, and director and Leon Levy professor at the Institute for Advanced Study
Institute for Advanced Study
in Princeton . CONTENTS * 1 Biography * 2 Awards and honors * 3 Research * 4 Bibliography * 5 References * 6 External links BIOGRAPHYRobertus Henricus Dijkgraaf was born on 24 January 1960 in Ridderkerk , Netherlands
Netherlands
. He lives in Princeton, New Jersey
Princeton, New Jersey
. Dijkgraaf is married to the author Pia de Jong (nl) and has three children
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Tom Banks (physicist)
THOMA "TOM" BANKS (born April 19, 1949 in New York City
New York City
) is a theoretical physicist at University of California, Santa Cruz and a professor at Rutgers University . WORKBanks' work centers around string theory and its applications to high energy particle physics and cosmology. He received his Ph.D. in Physics
Physics
from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in 1973. He was several times a visiting scholar at the Institute for Advanced Study in Princeton (1976–78, 1983–84, and in the fall of 2010)
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Quantum Gravity
QUANTUM GRAVITY (QG) is a field of theoretical physics that seeks to describe gravity according to the principles of quantum mechanics , and where quantum effects cannot be ignored. The current understanding of gravity is based on Albert Einstein
Albert Einstein
's general theory of relativity , which is formulated within the framework of classical physics . On the other hand, the other three fundamental forces of physics are described within the framework of quantum mechanics and quantum field theory , radically different formalisms for describing physical phenomena. It is sometimes argued that a quantum mechanical description of gravity is necessary on the grounds that one cannot consistently couple a classical system to a quantum one. However, Robert Wald appeared to refute that by providing an explicit construction of a consistent semiclassical theory
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Twistor String Theory
TWISTOR STRING THEORY is an equivalence between N = 4 supersymmetric Yang–Mills theory and the perturbative topological B model string theory in twistor space . It was initially proposed by Edward Witten
Edward Witten
in 2003. Twistor theory was introduced by Roger Penrose
Roger Penrose
from the 1960s as a new approach to the unification of quantum theory with gravity. Twistor space is a three-dimensional complex projective space in which physical quantities appear as certain structural deformations. Spacetime and the familiar physical fields emerge as consequences of this description. But twistor space is chiral (handed) with left- and right-handed objects treated differently. For example, the graviton for gravity and the gluon for the strong force are both right-handed. During this period, Edward Witten
Edward Witten
was a leading developer of string theory
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Theory Of Everything
A THEORY OF EVERYTHING (TOE), FINAL THEORY, ULTIMATE THEORY, or MASTER THEORY is a hypothetical single, all-encompassing, coherent theoretical framework of physics that fully explains and links together all physical aspects of the universe . :6 Finding a ToE is one of the major unsolved problems in physics . Over the past few centuries, two theoretical frameworks have been developed that, as a whole, most closely resemble a ToE. These two theories upon which all modern physics rests are general relativity (GR) and quantum field theory (QFT). GR is a theoretical framework that only focuses on gravity for understanding the universe in regions of both large-scale and high-mass: stars, galaxies, clusters of galaxies, etc. On the other hand, QFT is a theoretical framework that only focuses on three non-gravitational forces for understanding the universe in regions of both small scale and low mass: sub-atomic particles, atoms, molecules, etc
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Nima Arkani-Hamed
NIMA ARKANI-HAMED (Persian : نیما ارکانی حامد‎‎) (born April 5, 1972) is an American-Canadian theoretical physicist of Iranian descent, with interests in high-energy physics , string theory and cosmology . Arkani-Hamed is now on the faculty at the Institute for Advanced Study in Princeton, New Jersey
Princeton, New Jersey
, and director of The Center for Future High Energy Physics
Physics
(CFHEP) in China, Beijing
Beijing
. He was formerly a professor at Harvard University
Harvard University
and the University of California, Berkeley . CONTENTS * 1 Early life * 2 Academic career * 3 Honors and awards * 4 Selected works * 5 Lectures * 6 See also * 7 References * 8 External links EARLY LIFEArkani-Hamed's parents, Jafargholi "Jafar" Arkani-Hamed and Hamideh Alasti are both physicists from Iran
Iran

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Michael Green (physicist)
MICHAEL BORIS GREEN FRS (born 22 May 1946) is a British physicist and one of the pioneers of string theory . Currently a professor in the Department of Applied Mathematics and Theoretical Physics and a Fellow in Clare Hall, Cambridge
Cambridge
in England, he was Lucasian Professor of Mathematics from 2009 to 2015. CONTENTS * 1 Education and background * 2 Career * 3 Research * 4 Awards and honours * 5 Selected publications * 6 References * 7 External links EDUCATION AND BACKGROUNDGreen was born the son of Genia Green and Absalom Green. He attended William Ellis School in London and Churchill College, Cambridge
Cambridge
where he graduated with a Bachelor of Arts with first class honours in theoretical physics (1967) and a PhD in elementary particle theory (1970)
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Brian Greene
BRIAN RANDOLPH GREENE (born February 9, 1963) is an American theoretical physicist , mathematician , and string theorist . He has been a professor at Columbia University
Columbia University
since 1996 and chairman of the World Science Festival since co-founding it in 2008. Greene has worked on mirror symmetry , relating two different Calabi–Yau manifolds (concretely, relating the conifold to one of its orbifolds ). He also described the flop transition , a mild form of topology change, showing that topology in string theory can change at the conifold point. Greene has become known to a wider audience through his books for the general public, The Elegant Universe , Icarus at the Edge of Time , The Fabric of the Cosmos , The Hidden Reality , and related PBS television specials
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Igor Klebanov
IGOR ROMANOVICH KLEBANOV (Russian : И́горь Романович Клеба́нов; 29 March 1962) is a theoretical physicist whose research is centered on relations between string theory and quantum gauge field theory . Since 1989, he has been a Professor at Princeton University where he is currently a Eugene Higgins Professor of Physics. In 2016, he was elected to the National Academy of Sciences . Born in the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
in 1962, he emigrated to the U.S. as a teenager. He received his undergraduate education at MIT
MIT
(class of 1982), and his Ph.D. degree at Princeton University
Princeton University
as a student of Curtis Callan in 1986. In his thesis he made advances in the Skyrme model of hadrons . Klebanov worked as a post-doc at SLAC
SLAC

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Maxim Kontsevich
MAXIM LVOVICH KONTSEVICH (Russian : Макси́м Льво́вич Конце́вич; (help ·info ); born 25 August 1964) is a Russian and French mathematician . He is a professor at the Institut des Hautes Études Scientifiques and a distinguished professor at the University of Miami
Miami
. He received the Henri Poincaré Prize in 1997, the Fields Medal
Fields Medal
in 1998, the Crafoord Prize in 2008, the Shaw Prize and Fundamental Physics Prize in 2012, and the Breakthrough Prize in Mathematics
Mathematics
in 2014. CONTENTS * 1 Biography * 2 Honors and awards * 3 See also * 4 Notes * 5 References * 6 External links BIOGRAPHYHe was born into the family of Lev Rafailovich Kontsevich, Soviet orientalist and author of the Kontsevich system
Kontsevich system

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Andrei Linde
ANDREI DMITRIYEVICH LINDE (Russian : Андре́й Дми́триевич Ли́нде; born March 2, 1948) is a Russian-American theoretical physicist and the Harald Trap Friis Professor of Physics at Stanford University
Stanford University
. Linde is one of the main authors of the inflationary universe theory , as well as the theory of eternal inflation and inflationary multiverse . He received his Bachelor of Science
Bachelor of Science
degree from Moscow
Moscow
State University . In 1975, Linde was awarded a Ph.D.
Ph.D.
from the Lebedev Physical Institute in Moscow
Moscow
. He worked at CERN
CERN
(European Organization for Nuclear Research) since 1989 and moved to the USA in 1990 where he became Professor of Physics at Stanford University
Stanford University

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