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Dual Graviton
In theoretical physics, the dual graviton is a hypothetical elementary particle that is a dual of the graviton under electric-magnetic duality predicted by some formulations of supergravity in eleven dimensions.[3] The dual graviton was first hypothesized in 1980 (in a paper received by the journal on Einstein's 101st birthday).[4] It was theoretically modeled in 2000s,[1][2] which was then predicted in eleven-dimensional mathematics of SO(8) supergravity in the framework of electric-magnetic duality.[3] It again emerged in the E11 generalized geometry in eleven dimensions,[5] and the E7 generalized vielbeine-geometry in eleven dimensions.[6] While there is no local coupling between graviton and dual graviton, the field introduced by dual graviton may be coupled to a BF model as non-local gravitational fields in extra
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Igor Klebanov
Igor Romanovich Klebanov (Russian: И́горь Романович Клеба́нов; 29 March 1962) is a theoretical physicist whose research is centered on relations between string theory and quantum gauge field theory. Since 1989, he has been a Professor at Princeton University where he is currently a Eugene Higgins Professor of Physics.[1] In 2016, he was elected to the National Academy of Sciences.[2] Born in the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
in 1962, he emigrated to the U.S. as a teenager. He received his undergraduate education at MIT
MIT
(class of 1982), and his Ph.D. degree at Princeton University
Princeton University
as a student of Curtis Callan
Curtis Callan
in 1986. In his thesis he made advances in the Skyrme model of hadrons. Klebanov worked as a post-doc at SLAC
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Willy Fischler
Willy Fischler
Willy Fischler
(born in 1949 in Antwerpen, Belgium) is a theoretical physicist. He is the Jane and Roland Blumberg Centennial Professor of Physics at the University of Texas at Austin, where he is affiliated with the Weinberg theory group. His contributions to physics include:Early computation of the force between heavy quarks. The invisible axion (see Axion), (with Michael Dine and Mark Srednicki) as a solution to the strong CP problem. The cosmological effects of the invisible axion (with Michael Dine) and its role as a candidate for dark matter. Pioneering work (with Michael Dine and Mark Srednicki) on the use of supersymmetry to solve outstanding problems in the standard model of particle physics. The first formulation of what became known as the “moduli problem in cosmology” (with G.D
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Conformal Field Theory
A conformal field theory (CFT) is a quantum field theory that is invariant under conformal transformations. In two dimensions, there is an infinite-dimensional algebra of local conformal transformations, and conformal field theories can sometimes be exactly solved or classified. Conformal field theory has important applications[1] to condensed matter physics, statistical mechanics, quantum statistical mechanics, and string theory. Statistical and condensed matter systems are indeed often conformally invariant at their thermodynamic or quantum critical points.Contents1 Scale invariance vs. conformal invariance 2 Dimensional considerations2.1 Two dimensions 2.2 More than two dimensions3 Conformal symmetry 4 See also 5 References 6 Further reading Scale invariance vs
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Twistor String Theory
Twistor string theory
Twistor string theory
is an equivalence between N = 4 supersymmetric Yang–Mills theory and the perturbative topological B model string theory in twistor space.[1] It was initially proposed by Edward Witten
Edward Witten
in 2003. Twistor theory
Twistor theory
was introduced by Roger Penrose
Roger Penrose
from the 1960s as a new approach to the unification of quantum theory with gravity. Twistor space is a three-dimensional complex projective space in which physical quantities appear as certain structural deformations. Spacetime and the familiar physical fields emerge as consequences of this description. But twistor space is chiral (handed) with left- and right-handed objects treated differently
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N = 4 Supersymmetric Yang–Mills Theory
N = 4 supersymmetric Yang–Mills (SYM) theory is a mathematical and physical model created to study particles through a simple system, similar to string theory, with conformal symmetry. It is a simplified toy theory based on Yang–Mills theory
Yang–Mills theory
that does not describe the real world, but is useful because it can act as a proving ground for approaches for attacking problems in more complex theories.[1] It describes a universe containing boson fields and fermion fields which are related by 4 supersymmetries (this means that swapping boson, fermion and scalar fields in a certain way leaves the predictions of the theory invariant). It is one of the simplest (because it has no free parameters except for the gauge group) and one of the few finite quantum field theories in 4 dimensions
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Nima Arkani-Hamed
Nima Arkani-Hamed
Nima Arkani-Hamed
(Persian: نیما ارکانی حامد‎; born April 5, 1972) is an American-Canadian[1] theoretical physicist of Iranian descent, with interests in high-energy physics, string theory and cosmology
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Tom Banks (physicist)
Thomas "Tom" Banks (born April 19,[1] 1949 in New York City[2]) is a theoretical physicist at University of California, Santa Cruz
University of California, Santa Cruz
and a professor at Rutgers University. Work[edit] Banks' work centers around string theory and its applications to high energy particle physics and cosmology. He received his Ph.D. in Physics
Physics
from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Massachusetts Institute of Technology
in 1973
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Miranda Cheng
Miranda Chih-Ning Cheng (Chinese: 程之寧; born 6 June 1979, Taipei)[1] is a Taiwanese-born and Dutch-educated mathematician and theoretical physicist who works as an assistant professor at the University of Amsterdam.[2] She is known for formulating the umbral moonshine conjectures[3][4] and for her work on the connections between K3 surfaces and string theory.[3]Contents1 Early Life 2 Education 3 Work with the Umbral Moonshine Conjecture 4 References 5 External linksEarly Life[edit] Cheng grew up in Taiwan, where she dropped out of school and left her parents' home to work at a record store and play in a punk rock band at the age of 16
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Robbert Dijkgraaf
Robertus Henricus "Robbert" Dijkgraaf (Dutch: [ roːˈbɛrtʏs  ɦɛnˈrikʏs  ˈrɔbərt  ˈdɛikɣraːf]; born 24 January 1960) is a Dutch mathematical physicist and string theorist. He is tenured professor at the University of Amsterdam, and director and Leon Levy professor at the Institute for Advanced Study
Institute for Advanced Study
in Princeton.Contents1 Biography 2 Awards and honors 3 Research 4 Bibliography 5 References 6 External linksBiography[edit] Robertus Henricus Dijkgraaf was born on 24 January 1960 in Ridderkerk, Netherlands. He lives in Princeton, New Jersey. Dijkgraaf is married to the author Pia de Jong (nl) and has three children.[1] Dijkgraaf went to Erasmiaans Gymnasium
Erasmiaans Gymnasium
in Rotterdam, Netherlands. He started his education in physics at Utrecht University
Utrecht University
in 1978
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Michael Duff (physicist)
Imperial College
Imperial College
London European Organization for Nuclear Research International Centre for Theoretical Physics Queen Mary College, London Texas A&M University University of MichiganDoctoral advisor Abdus SalamMichael James Duff FRS, FRSA is a British theoretical physicist and pioneering theorist of supergravity who is the Principal of the Faculty of Physical Sciences and Abdus Salam
Abdus Salam
Chair of Theoretical Physics at Imperial College
Imperial College
London.Contents1 Education 2 Academic career 3 Contributions 4 References 5 External linksEducation[edit] Duff completed his Bachelor of Science in Physics Queen Mary College, London in 1969. He then went on to his Doctor of Philosophy in theoretical physics in 1972 at Imperial College London
Imperial College London
supervised by the Nobel Laureate
Nobel Laureate
Abdus Salam
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Sylvester James Gates
Sylvester James Gates
Sylvester James Gates
Jr. (born December 15, 1950), known as S. James Gates the 6th or Jim Gates, is an American theoretical physicist who works on supersymmetry, supergravity, and superstring theory. He retired from the physics department at the University of Maryland College of Computer, Mathematical, and Natural Sciences in 2017,[2] and he is now the Ford Foundation Professor of Physics
Physics
at Brown University.[3] He was a University of Maryland
University of Maryland
Regents Professor and served on former President Barack Obama's Council of Advisors on Science and Technology.[4]Contents1 Biography 2 Awards and recognition 3 Media appearances 4 Publications 5 Notes 6 External linksBiography[edit] Gates received BS (1973) and PhD (1977) degrees from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. His doctoral thesis was the first at MIT on supersymmetry. With M. T. Grisaru, M. Rocek and W
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Monstrous Moonshine
In mathematics, monstrous moonshine, or moonshine theory, is the unexpected connection between the monster group M and modular functions, in particular, the j function. The term was coined by John Conway and Simon P. Norton in 1979. It is now known that lying behind monstrous moonshine is a vertex operator algebra called the moonshine module (or monster vertex algebra) constructed by Igor Frenkel, James Lepowsky, and Arne Meurman in 1988, having the monster group as symmetries. This vertex operator algebra is commonly interpreted as a structure underlying a two-dimensional conformal field theory, allowing physics to form a bridge between two mathematical areas
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Ferdinando Gliozzi
Ferdinando Gliozzi (Italian: [ferdiˈnando ˈʎɔttsi]; born 1940) is a string theorist at the Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare. Along with David Olive and Joel Scherk, he proposed the GSO projection[1][2] to map out the tachyonic states in the Neveu–Schwarz sector.[2] References[edit]^ Gliozzi, Ferdinando; Scherk, Joel; Olive, David I. (1977). "Supersymmetry, Supergravity Theories And The Dual Spinor Model". Nuclear Physics B. 122 (2): 253–290. Bibcode:1977NuPhB.122..253G. doi:10.1016/0550-3213(77)90206-1. [permanent dead link] ^ a b Polchinski, Joseph (1998). String Theory: Volume 2. Cambridge University Press. p. 45. ISBN 978-0-521-63304-8. This string theory-related article is a stub. You can help by expanding it.v t eThis article about an Italian physicist is a stub
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Michael Green (physicist)
Michael Boris Green FRS[5] (born 22 May 1946) is a British physicist and one of the pioneers of string theory. Currently a professor in the Department of Applied Mathematics and Theoretical Physics
Theoretical Physics
and a Fellow in Clare Hall, Cambridge
Cambridge
in England, he was Lucasian Professor of Mathematics from 2009 to 2015.[6][7][8][9]Contents1 Education and background 2 Career 3 Research 4 Awards and honours 5 Selected publications 6 References 7 External linksEducation and background[edit] Green was born the son of Genia Green and Absalom Green
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Brian Greene
Brian Randolph Greene[1] (born February 9, 1963) is an American theoretical physicist, mathematician, and string theorist. He has been a professor at Columbia University
Columbia University
since 1996 and chairman of the World Science Festival since co-founding it in 2008. Greene has worked on mirror symmetry, relating two different Calabi–Yau
Calabi–Yau
manifolds (concretely, relating the conifold to one of its orbifolds). He also described the flop transition, a mild form of topology change, showing that topology in string theory can change at the conifold point. Greene has become known to a wider audience through his books for the general public, The Elegant Universe, Icarus
Icarus
at the Edge of Time, The Fabric of the Cosmos, The Hidden Reality, and related PBS television specials
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