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Dual EC DRBG
Dual_EC_DRBG (Dual Elliptic Curve Deterministic Random Bit Generator)[1] is an algorithm that was presented as a cryptographically secure pseudorandom number generator (CSPRNG) using methods in elliptic curve cryptography
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Security Claim
In cryptography, security level is a measure of the strength that a cryptographic primitive — such as a cipher or hash function — achieves. Security level is usually expressed in "bits", where n-bit security means that the attacker would have to perform 2n operations to break it,[1] but other methods have been proposed that more closely model the costs for an attacker.[2] This allows for convenient comparison between algorithms and is useful when combining multiple primitives in a hybrid cryptosystem, so there is no clear weakest link
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Computational Hardness Assumption
In cryptography, a major goal is to create cryptographic primitives with provable security. In some cases, cryptographic protocols are found to have information theoretic security; the one-time pad is a common example. However, information theoretic security cannot always be achieved; in such cases, cryptographers fall back to computational security. Roughly speaking, this means that these systems are secure assuming that any adversaries are computationally limited, as all adversaries are in practice. Because hardness of a problem is difficult to prove, in practice certain problems are "assumed" to be difficult.Contents1 Common cryptographic hardness assumptions 2 Non-cryptographic hardness assumptions 3 See also 4 ReferencesCommon cryptographic hardness assumptions[edit] There are many common cryptographic hardness assumptions
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Windows Vista
Windows Vista
Windows Vista
(codenamed Longhorn[7]) is an operating system by Microsoft
Microsoft
for use on personal computers, including home and business desktops, laptops, tablet PCs and media center PCs. Development was completed on 8 November 2006,[2] and over the following three months, it was released in stages to computer hardware and software manufacturers, business customers and retail channels. On 30 January 2007, it was released worldwide[3] and was made available for purchase and download from the Windows Marketplace.[8] The release of Windows Vista came more than five years after the introduction of its predecessor, Windows XP, the longest time span between successive releases of Microsoft
Microsoft
Windows desktop operating systems
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John Kelsey (cryptanalyst)
John Kelsey is a cryptographer who works at NIST. His research interests include cryptanalysis and design of symmetric cryptography primitives (block ciphers, stream ciphers, cryptographic hash functions, MACs), analysis and design of cryptographic protocols, cryptographic random number generation, electronic voting, side-channel attacks on cryptography implementations, and anonymizing communications systems. He previously worked at Certicom
Certicom
and Counterpane Internet Security. See also[edit]Yarrow algorithm, a family of cryptographic pseudorandom number generators Twofish, a symmetric key block cipherExternal links[edit]John Kelsey at DBLP John Kelsey at NISTThis article about a cryptographer is a stub
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Advantage (cryptography)
In cryptography, an adversary's advantage is a measure of how successfully it can attack a cryptographic algorithm, by distinguishing it from an idealized version of that type of algorithm. Note that in this context, the "adversary" is itself an algorithm and not a person. A cryptographic algorithm is considered secure if no adversary has a non-negligible advantage, subject to specified bounds on the adversary's computational resources (see concrete security). "Negligible" usually means "within O(2−p)" where p is a security parameter associated with the algorithm. For example, p might be the number of bits in a block cipher's key.Contents1 Description of concept 2 Examples2.1 Example 1: Guess at random 2.2 Example 2: Brute force search3 See also 4 ReferencesDescription of concept[edit] Let F be an oracle for the function being studied, and let G be an oracle for an idealized function of that type
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Microsoft
Microsoft
Microsoft
Corporation (/ˈmaɪkrəˌsɒft/,[2][3] abbreviated as MS) is an American multinational technology company with headquarters in Redmond, Washington. It develops, manufactures, licenses, supports and sells computer software, consumer electronics, personal computers, and services. Its best known software products are the Microsoft
Microsoft
Windows line of operating systems, the Microsoft Office
Microsoft Office
suite, and the Internet
Internet
Explorer and Edge web browsers. Its flagship hardware products are the Xbox
Xbox
video game consoles and the Microsoft
Microsoft
Surface lineup of touchscreen personal computers
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Wired (magazine)
Wired is a monthly American magazine, published in print and online editions, that focuses on how emerging technologies affect culture, the economy, and politics. Owned by Condé Nast, it is headquartered in San Francisco, California, and has been in publication since March/April 1993.[2] Several spin-offs have been launched, including Wired UK, Wired Italia, Wired Japan, and Wired Germany. In its earliest colophons, Wired credited Canadian media theorist Marshall McLuhan
Marshall McLuhan
as its "patron saint." From its beginning, the strongest influence on the magazine's editorial outlook came from techno-utopian cofounder Stewart Brand
Stewart Brand
and his associate Kevin Kelly.[3] From 1998 to 2006, Wired magazine
Wired magazine
and Wired News
Wired News
(which publishes at Wired.com) had separate owners
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RSA Conference
The RSA Conference
RSA Conference
is a series of IT security conferences. Approximately 45,000 people attend one of the conferences each year. It was founded in 1991 as a small cryptography conference. RSA conferences take place in the United States, Europe, Asia, and the United Arab Emirates
United Arab Emirates
each year. The conference also hosts educational, professional networking, and awards programs. Contents1 History1.1 Early history 1.2 Recent history2 Content 3 References 4 External linksHistory[edit] Early history[edit] The name RSA refers to the public-key encryption technology developed by RSA Data Security, Inc., which was founded in 1982. The abbreviation stands for Rivest, Shamir, and Adleman, the inventors of the technique
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Provable Security
Provable security refers to any type or level of security that can be proved. It is used in different ways by different fields. Usually, this refers to mathematical proofs, which are common in cryptography. In such a proof, the capabilities of the attacker are defined by an adversarial model (also referred to as attacker model): the aim of the proof is to show that the attacker must solve the underlying hard problem in order to break the security of the modelled system. Such a proof does not consider side-channel attacks or other implementation-specific attacks, because they are usually impossible to model without implementing the system (and thus, the proof only applies to this implementation). Outside of cryptography, the term is often used in conjunction with secure coding and security by design, both of which can rely on proofs to show the security of a particular approach. As with the cryptographic setting, this involves an attacker model and a model of the system
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Edward Snowden
Edward Joseph Snowden (born June 21, 1983) is an American computer professional, former Central Intelligence Agency
Central Intelligence Agency
(CIA) employee, and former contractor for the United States government who copied and leaked classified information from the National Security Agency
National Security Agency
(NSA) in 2013 without authorization
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FIPS 140-2
The Federal Information Processing Standard (FIPS) Publication 140-2, (FIPS PUB 140-2),[1][2] is a U.S. government computer security standard used to approve cryptographic modules. The title is Security Requirements for Cryptographic Modules. Initial publication was on May 25, 2001 and was last updated December 3, 2002.Contents1 Purpose 2 Security levels2.1 Level 1 2.2 Level 2 2.3 Level 3 2.4 Level 43 Operating platform 4 Cryptographic Module Validation Program 5 FIPS 140-2
FIPS 140-2
testing in this program 6 Laboratories doing the testing 7 Validation 8 Annexes 9 Reception 10 See also 11 References 12 External linksPurpose[edit] The National Institute of Standards and Technology
National Institute of Standards and Technology
(NIST) issued the FIPS 140 Publication Series to coordinate the requirements and standards for cryptography modules that include both hardware and software components
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OpenSSL
1.1.0h (March 27, 2018; 9 days ago (2018-03-27)[1]) [±] 1.0.2o (March 27, 2018; 9 days ago (2018-03-27)[1]) [±]Preview release 1.1.1 beta 2 (April 3, 2018; 2 days ago (2018-04-03)[2]) [±]Repositoryhttps://github.com/openssl/opensslWritten in C, assemblyType Security libraryLicense Apache License 1.0 and four-clause BSD
BSD
LicenseWebsite www.openssl.org OpenSSL
OpenSSL
is a software library for applications that secure communications over computer networks against eavesdropping or need to identify the party at the other end. It is widely used in internet web servers, serving a majority of all web sites. OpenSSL
OpenSSL
contains an open-source implementation of the SSL and TLS protocols. The core library, written in the C programming language, implements basic cryptographic functions and provides various utility functions
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Decisional Diffie–Hellman Assumption
The decisional Diffie–Hellman (DDH) assumption is a computational hardness assumption about a certain problem involving discrete logarithms in cyclic groups. It is used as the basis to prove the security of many cryptographic protocols, most notably the ElGamal and Cramer–Shoup cryptosystems.Contents1 Definition 2 Relation to other assumptions 3 Other properties 4 Groups for which DDH is assumed to hold 5 See also 6 ReferencesDefinition[edit] Consider a (multiplicative) cyclic group G displaystyle G of order q displaystyle q , and with generator g displaystyle g
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Cryptographic Nonce
In cryptography, a nonce is an arbitrary number that can only be used once. It is similar in spirit to a nonce word, hence the name. It is often a random or pseudo-random number issued in an authentication protocol to ensure that old communications cannot be reused in replay attacks. They can also be useful as initialization vectors and in cryptographic hash functions.Contents1 Definition 2 Usage2.1 Authentication 2.2 Initialization vectors 2.3 Hashing3 See also 4 References 5 External linksDefinition[edit] A nonce is an arbitrary number used only once in a cryptographic communication, in the spirit of a nonce word. They are often random or pseudo-random numbers. Many nonces also include a timestamp to ensure exact timeliness, though this requires clock synchronization between organizations. The addition of a client nonce ("cnonce") helps to improve the security in some ways as implemented in digest access authentication
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Passive Aggressive
Passive–aggressive behavior is characterized by indirect resistance to the demands of others and an avoidance of direct confrontation.[1]Contents1 Personality disorder 2 Concept in different areas2.1 Psychology 2.2 Conflict theory 2.3 Work3 History 4 See also 5 References 6 Bibliography 7 External linksPersonality disorder[edit] Main article: Passive–aggressive personality disorder The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders revision IV (DSM-IV) describes passive–aggressive personality disorder as a "pervasive pattern of negativistic attitudes and passive resistance to demands for adequate performance in social and occupational situations." Passive–aggressiveness may not be necessarily a personality disorder. Personality disorder includes deviation in affectivity, cognition, control over impulses and need for gratification, ways of perceiving and thinking, and inflexible, maladaptive, or otherwise dysfunctional behaviour
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