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Drug Reaction Testing
Drug reaction testing uses a genetic test to predict how a particular person will respond to various prescription and non-prescription medications. It checks for genes that code for specific liver enzymes which activate, deactivate, or are influenced by various drugs. There are currently four genetic markers commonly tested for: 2D6, 2C9, 2C19, and 1A2. This testing has been done for some time by drug companies working on new drugs, but is relatively newly available to the general public. Strattera
Strattera
is the first drug to mention the test in the official documentation, although it doesn't specifically recommend that patients get the test before taking the medication. There are four possible categories for each marker: poor metabolizer, intermediate metabolizer, extensive metabolizer, or ultra-extensive metabolizer. Different testing companies may call these by different names
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Genetic Test
Genetic testing, also known as DNA
DNA
testing, allows the determination of bloodlines and the genetic diagnosis of vulnerabilities to inherited diseases. In agriculture, a form of genetic testing known as progeny testing can be used to evaluate the quality of breeding stock. In population ecology, genetic testing can be used to track genetic strengths and vulnerabilities of species populations. In humans, genetic testing can be used to determine a child's parentage (genetic mother and father) or in general a person's ancestry or biological relationship between people
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Extensive Metabolizer
Pharmacogenomics
Pharmacogenomics
is the study of the role of the genome in drug response. Its name (pharmaco- + genomics) reflects its combining of pharmacology and genomics. Pharmacogenomics
Pharmacogenomics
analyzes how the genetic makeup of an individual affects his/her response to drugs.[1] It deals with the influence of acquired and inherited genetic variation on drug response in patients by correlating gene expression or single-nucleotide polymorphisms with pharmacokinetics (drug absorption, distribution, metabolism, and elimination) and pharmacodynamics (effects mediated through a drug's biological targets).[2][3][4] The term pharmacogenomics is often used interchangeably with pharmacogenetics
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Special
Special
Special
or specials may refer to:Contents1 Music 2 Film and television 3 Other uses 4 See alsoMusic[edit] Special
Special
(album), a 1992
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PubMed Identifier
PubMed
PubMed
is a free search engine accessing primarily the MEDLINE database of references and abstracts on life sciences and biomedical topics. The United States National Library of Medicine
United States National Library of Medicine
(NLM) at the National Institutes of Health
National Institutes of Health
maintains the database as part of the Entrez
Entrez
system of information retrieval. From 1971 to 1997, MEDLINE online access to the MEDLARS Online computerized database primarily had been through institutional facilities, such as university libraries
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Digital Object Identifier
In computing, a Digital Object Identifier or DOI is a persistent identifier or handle used to uniquely identify objects, standardized by the International Organization for Standardization
International Organization for Standardization
(ISO).[1] An implementation of the Handle System,[2][3] DOIs are in wide use mainly to identify academic, professional, and government information, such as journal articles, research reports and data sets, and official publications though they also have been used to identify other types of information resources, such as commercial videos. A DOI aims to be "resolvable", usually to some form of access to the information object to which the DOI refers. This is achieved by binding the DOI to metadata about the object, such as a URL, indicating where the object can be found. Thus, by being actionable and interoperable, a DOI differs from identifiers such as ISBNs and ISRCs which aim only to uniquely identify their referents
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Drug Metabolism
Drug
Drug
metabolism is the metabolic breakdown of drugs by living organisms, usually through specialized enzymatic systems. More generally, xenobiotic metabolism (from the Greek xenos "stranger" and biotic "related to living beings") is the set of metabolic pathways that modify the chemical structure of xenobiotics, which are compounds foreign to an organism's normal biochemistry, such as any drug or poison. These pathways are a form of biotransformation present in all major groups of organisms, and are considered to be of ancient origin. These reactions often act to detoxify poisonous compounds (although in some cases the intermediates in xenobiotic metabolism can themselves cause toxic effects). The study of drug metabolism is called pharmacokinetics. The metabolism of pharmaceutical drugs is an important aspect of pharmacology and medicine. For example, the rate of metabolism determines the duration and intensity of a drug's pharmacologic action
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Cytochrome P450
Cytochromes P450 (CYPs) are proteins of the superfamily containing heme as a cofactor and, therefore, are hemoproteins.[1] CYPs use a variety of small and large molecules as substrates in enzymatic reactions. They are, in general, the terminal oxidase enzymes in electron transfer chains, broadly categorized as P450-containing systems. The term "P450" is derived from the spectrophotometric peak at the wavelength of the absorption maximum of the enzyme (450 nm) when it is in the reduced state and complexed with carbon monoxide. CYP enzymes have been identified in all kingdoms of life: animals, plants, fungi, protists, bacteria, archaea, and even in viruses.[2] However, they are not omnipresent; for example, they have not been found in Escherichia coli.[3][4] More than 50,000 distinct CYP proteins are known.[5] Most CYPs require a protein partner to deliver one or more electrons to reduce the iron (and eventually molecular oxygen)
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Contraindication
In medicine, a contraindication is a condition or factor that serves as a reason to withhold a certain medical treatment due to the harm that it would cause the patient.[1][2] Contraindication is the opposite of indication, which is a reason to use a certain treatment. Absolute contraindications are contraindications for which there are no reasonable circumstances for undertaking a course of action. For example, children and teenagers with viral infections should not be given aspirin because of the risk of Reye's syndrome,[3] and a person with an anaphylactic food allergy should never eat the food to which they are allergic. Similarly, a person with hemochromatosis should not be administered iron preparations. Relative contraindications are contraindications for circumstances in which the patient is at higher risk of complications from treatment, but these risks may be outweighed by other considerations or mitigated by other measures
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Medical Prescription
A prescription is a health-care program implemented by a physician or other qualified health care practitioner in the form of instructions that govern the plan of care for an individual patient.[1] The term often refers to a health care provider's written authorization for a patient to purchase a prescription drug from a pharmacist.Contents1 Format and definition 2 Contents 3 Writing prescriptions3.1 Who can write prescriptions (that may legally be filled with prescription-only items) 3.2 Legibility 3.3 Conventions for avoiding ambiguity 3.4 Abbreviations4 In continental Europe4.1 Parts of a European prescription 4.2 Examples 4.3 Other conventions5 Non-prescription drug prescriptions 6 Related usage of the term prescription 7 History 8 Use of technology 9 See also 10 Notes 11 ReferencesFormat and definition[edit] The format of a prescription falls in to seven parts
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Codeine
Codeine
Codeine
is an opiate used to treat pain, as a cough medicine, and for diarrhea.[2][3] It is typically used to treat mild to moderate degrees of pain.[2] Greater benefit may occur when combined with paracetamol (acetaminophen) or a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) such as aspirin or ibuprofen.[2] Evidence does not support its use for acute cough suppression in children or adults.[4][5] In Europe it is not recommended as a cough medicine in those under twelve years of age.[2] It is generally taken by mouth.[2] It typically starts working after half an hour with maximum effect at two hours.[
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Metabolism
Metabolism
Metabolism
(from Greek: μεταβολή metabolē, "change") is the set of life-sustaining chemical transformations within the cells of organisms. The three main purposes of metabolism are the conversion of food/fuel to energy to run cellular processes, the conversion of food/fuel to building blocks for proteins, lipids, nucleic acids, and some carbohydrates, and the elimination of nitrogenous wastes. These enzyme-catalyzed reactions allow organisms to grow and reproduce, maintain their structures, and respond to their environments
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Intermediate Metabolizer
Pharmacogenomics
Pharmacogenomics
is the study of the role of the genome in drug response. Its name (pharmaco- + genomics) reflects its combining of pharmacology and genomics. Pharmacogenomics
Pharmacogenomics
analyzes how the genetic makeup of an individual affects his/her response to drugs.[1] It deals with the influence of acquired and inherited genetic variation on drug response in patients by correlating gene expression or single-nucleotide polymorphisms with pharmacokinetics (drug absorption, distribution, metabolism, and elimination) and pharmacodynamics (effects mediated through a drug's biological targets).[2][3][4] The term pharmacogenomics is often used interchangeably with pharmacogenetics
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Medication
A medication (also referred to as medicine, pharmaceutical drug, or simply as drug) is a drug used to diagnose, cure, treat, or prevent disease.[1][2][3] Drug
Drug
therapy (pharmacotherapy) is an important part of the medical field and relies on the science of pharmacology for continual advancement and on pharmacy for appropriate management. Drugs are classified in various ways. One of the key divisions is by level of control, which distinguishes prescription drugs (those that a pharmacist dispenses only on the order of a physician, physician assistant, or qualified nurse) from over-the-counter drugs (those that consumers can order for themselves)
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Poor Metabolizer
Pharmacogenomics
Pharmacogenomics
is the study of the role of the genome in drug response. Its name (pharmaco- + genomics) reflects its combining of pharmacology and genomics. Pharmacogenomics
Pharmacogenomics
analyzes how the genetic makeup of an individual affects his/her response to drugs.[1] It deals with the influence of acquired and inherited genetic variation on drug response in patients by correlating gene expression or single-nucleotide polymorphisms with pharmacokinetics (drug absorption, distribution, metabolism, and elimination) and pharmacodynamics (effects mediated through a drug's biological targets).[2][3][4] The term pharmacogenomics is often used interchangeably with pharmacogenetics
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Strattera
Atomoxetine, sold under the brand name Strattera among others, is a norepinephrine (noradrenaline) reuptake inhibitor which is approved for the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).[6] As of 2017, it is available as a generic medication in the United States.[7]Contents1 Medical uses1.1 Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder2 Contraindications 3 Adverse effects 4 Overdose 5 Interactions 6 Pharmacology6.1 Pharmacodynamics 6.2 Pharmacokinetics6.2.1 Pharmacogenomics7 Chemistry7.1 Synthesis 7.2 Detection in biological fluids8 History 9 Society and culture9.1 Brand names10 Research 11 See also 12 References 13 External linksMedical uses[edit] Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder[edit] Atomoxetine
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