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Drosophila
Oinopota Kirby tephritids feed primarily on unripe or ripe fruit , with many species being regarded as destructive agricultural pests, especially the Mediterranean fruit fly . One species of Drosophila
Drosophila
in particular, D. melanogaster , has been heavily used in research in genetics and is a common model organism in developmental biology . The terms "fruit fly" and "Drosophila" are often used synonymously with D. melanogaster in modern biological literature. The entire genus, however, contains more than 1,500 species and is very diverse in appearance, behavior, and breeding habitat
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Latin
LATIN (Latin: lingua latīna, IPA: ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages
Indo-European languages
. The Latin alphabet is derived from the Etruscan and Greek alphabets , and ultimately from the Phoenician alphabet
Phoenician alphabet
. Latin
Latin
was originally spoken in Latium
Latium
, in the Italian Peninsula
Italian Peninsula
. Through the power of the Roman Republic
Roman Republic
, it became the dominant language, initially in Italy and subsequently throughout the Roman Empire . Vulgar Latin developed into the Romance languages
Romance languages
, such as Italian , Portuguese , Spanish , French , and Romanian
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Greek Language
GREEK ( Modern Greek : ελληνικά , elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα ( listen ), ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece
Greece
and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean . It has the longest documented history of any living Indo-European language, spanning 34 centuries of written records. Its writing system has been the Greek alphabet for the major part of its history; other systems, such as Linear B and the Cypriot syllabary , were used previously. The alphabet arose from the Phoenician script and was in turn the basis of the Latin
Latin
, Cyrillic
Cyrillic
, Armenian , Coptic , Gothic and many other writing systems
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DEW
DEW is water in the form of droplets that appears on thin, exposed objects in the morning or evening due to condensation . As the exposed surface cools by radiating its heat, atmospheric moisture condenses at a rate greater than that at which it can evaporate , resulting in the formation of water droplets. When temperatures are low enough, dew takes the form of ice; this form is called frost . Because dew is related to the temperature of surfaces, in late summer it forms most easily on surfaces that are not warmed by conducted heat from deep ground, such as grass, leaves, railings, car roofs, and bridges. Dew
Dew
should not be confused with guttation , which is the process by which plants release excess water from the tips of their leaves
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Deserts
A DESERT is a barren area of landscape where little precipitation occurs and consequently living conditions are hostile for plant and animal life. The lack of vegetation exposes the unprotected surface of the ground to the processes of denudation . About one third of the land surface of the world is arid or semi-arid. This includes much of the polar regions where little precipitation occurs and which are sometimes called polar deserts or "cold deserts". Deserts can be classified by the amount of precipitation that falls, by the temperature that prevails, by the causes of desertification or by their geographical location. Deserts are formed by weathering processes as large variations in temperature between day and night put strains on the rocks which consequently break in pieces. Although rain seldom occurs in deserts, there are occasional downpours that can result in flash floods
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Mediterranean Fruit Fly
CERATITIS CAPITATA, the MEDITERRANEAN FRUIT FLY, or MEDFLY for short, is a species of fruit fly capable of causing extensive damage to a wide range of fruit crops. It is native to sub-Saharan Africa, but has spread invasively to many parts of the world, including Australasia and North and South America . CONTENTS* 1 Biology * 1.1 Life cycle * 1.2 Genetics * 2 Distribution * 3 Invasions * 3.1 California medfly crises * 3.2 Australia * 4 References * 5 Further reading * 6 External links BIOLOGYLIFE CYCLE Larva of the medfly Adult medflies lay their eggs under the skins of fruit, particularly where the skin is already broken. The eggs hatch within three days, and the larvae develop inside the fruit
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Fruit
In botany , a FRUIT is the seed -bearing structure in flowering plants (also known as angiosperms) formed from the ovary after flowering . Fruits are the means by which angiosperms disseminate seeds . Edible fruits, in particular, have propagated with the movements of humans and animals in a symbiotic relationship as a means for seed dispersal and nutrition ; in fact, humans and many animals have become dependent on fruits as a source of food. Accordingly, fruits account for a substantial fraction of the world's agricultural output, and some (such as the apple and the pomegranate ) have acquired extensive cultural and symbolic meanings. In common language usage, "fruit" normally means the fleshy seed-associated structures of a plant that are sweet or sour, and edible in the raw state, such as apples , bananas , grapes , lemons , oranges , and strawberries
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Family (biology)
In biological classification , FAMILY (Latin : familia, plural familiae) is one of the eight major taxonomic ranks ; it is classified between order and genus . A family may be divided into subfamilies , which are intermediate ranks above the rank of genus . In vernacular usage , a family may be named after one of its common members; for example, walnuts and hickory trees belong to the family Juglandaceae , commonly known as the walnut family. What does or does not belong to a family—or whether a described family should be recognized at all—are proposed and determined by practicing taxonomists. There are no hard rules for describing or recognizing a family, or any taxa. Taxonomists often take different positions about descriptions of taxa, and there may be no broad consensus across the scientific community for some time
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Pomace
POMACE (/ˈpʌməs/ PUM-əs ), or MARC (/ˈmɑːrk/ ; from French marc ), is the solid remains of grapes , olives , or other fruit after pressing for juice or oil. It contains the skins, pulp, seeds, and stems of the fruit. Grape
Grape
pomace has traditionally been used to produce pomace brandy (such as grappa , orujo , törkölypálinka , zivania ). Today, it is mostly used as fodder , as fertilizer , or to extract bioactive compounds like polyphenols from it. CONTENTS* 1 History * 1.1 Piquette * 2 Uses * 2.1 Winemaking
Winemaking
* 2.2 Other uses * 3 Legal Regulations * 4 See also * 5 References * 6 Further reading HISTORY"Pomace" is derived from the Latin
Latin
"pomum" (fruit and fruit tree). The English were the first to use the term "pomace" to refer to the byproduct of cider production
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Wine
WINE (from Latin
Latin
vinum) is an alcoholic beverage made from grapes , generally Vitis vinifera , fermented without the addition of sugars , acids , enzymes , water , or other nutrients . Yeast consumes the sugar in the grapes and converts it to ethanol and carbon dioxide . Different varieties of grapes and strains of yeasts produce different styles of wine. These variations result from the complex interactions between the biochemical development of the grape, the reactions involved in fermentation, the terroir , and the production process. Many countries enact legal appellations intended to define styles and qualities of wine. These typically restrict the geographical origin and permitted varieties of grapes, as well as other aspects of wine production. Wines not made from grapes include rice wine and fruit wines such as plum , cherry , pomegranate and elderberry . Wine
Wine
has been produced for thousands of years
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Tropical Rainforest
TROPICAL RAINFORESTS occur in areas of tropical rainforest climate in which there is no dry season – all months have an average precipitation of at least 60 mm – and may also be referred to as lowland equatorial evergreen rainforest. True rainforests are typically found between 10 degrees north and south of the equator (see map); they are a sub-set of the tropical forest biome that occurs roughly within the 28 degree latitudes (in the equatorial zone between the Tropic of Cancer
Tropic of Cancer
and Tropic of Capricorn ). Within the World Wildlife Fund 's biome classification, tropical rainforests are a type of tropical moist broadleaf forest (or tropical wet forest) that also includes the more extensive tropical seasonal forests
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Cities
A CITY is a large and permanent human settlement . CITIES generally have extensive systems for housing , transportation , sanitation , utilities , land use , and communication . Their density facilitates interaction between people and businesses, sometimes benefiting both parties in the process. Historically citydwellers have been a small proportion of humanity overall, but today, following two centuries of unprecedented and rapid urbanization , half of the world population is said to live in cities. Present-day cities usually form the core of larger metropolitan areas and urban areas , creating numerous commuters traveling towards city centers for employment, entertainment, and edification. The most populated city proper is Shanghai
Shanghai
while the largest metropolitan areas also include the Greater Tokyo Area
Greater Tokyo Area
and Jabodetabek ( Jakarta
Jakarta
)
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Slime Flux
SLIME FLUX is a bacterial disease of certain trees, primarily elm , cottonwood , poplar , boxelder , ash , aspen , fruitless mulberry and oak . A wound to the bark , caused by pruning, insects, poor branch angles or natural cracks and splits, causes sap to ooze from the wound. Bacteria may infect this sap causing it to darken and stain the bark, eventually taking on a foamy appearance and unpleasant odor. This slimy ooze becomes toxic to the bark and eats into the tree. Additionally, the fermented sap attracts insects like flies, ants, and maggots. CONTENTS* 1 Treatment * 1.1 Background * 1.1.1 Significance * 2 References TREATMENTThere is no cure, but the bark of a tree is like skin. The wound should be disinfected with rubbing alcohol or a household bleach solution of one part bleach to nine parts water. The excess sap should be wiped from the tree to discourage hungry insects. With prompt and continuous treatment, the tree should survive
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Flower
A FLOWER, sometimes known as a BLOOM or BLOSSOM , is the reproductive structure found in flowering plants (plants of the division Magnoliophyta , also called angiosperms). The biological function of a flower is to effect reproduction, usually by providing a mechanism for the union of sperm with eggs. Flowers may facilitate outcrossing (fusion of sperm and eggs from different individuals in a population) or allow selfing (fusion of sperm and egg from the same flower). Some flowers produce diaspores without fertilization (parthenocarpy ). Flowers contain sporangia and are the site where gametophytes develop. Many flowers have evolved to be attractive to animals, so as to cause them to be vectors for the transfer of pollen . After fertilization, the ovary of the flower develops into fruit containing seeds
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Mushroom
A MUSHROOM (or TOADSTOOL) is the fleshy, spore -bearing fruiting body of a fungus , typically produced above ground on soil or on its food source. The standard for the name "mushroom" is the cultivated white button mushroom, Agaricus bisporus ; hence the word "mushroom" is most often applied to those fungi ( Basidiomycota , Agaricomycetes ) that have a stem (stipe ), a cap (pileus ), and gills (lamellae, sing. lamella ) on the underside of the cap. These gills produce microscopic spores that help the fungus spread across the ground or its occupant surface. "Mushroom" describes a variety of gilled fungi, with or without stems, and the term is used even more generally, to describe both the fleshy fruiting bodies of some Ascomycota and the woody or leathery fruiting bodies of some Basidiomycota, depending upon the context of the word
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Parasitism
In biology /ecology , PARASITISM is a non-mutual relationship between species , where one species, the PARASITE, benefits at the expense of the other, the host . Traditionally parasite (in biological usage) referred primarily to organisms visible to the naked eye, or macroparasites (such as helminths ). Parasites can be microparasites , which are typically smaller, such as protozoa , viruses , and bacteria . Examples of parasites include the plants mistletoe and cuscuta , and animals such as hookworms . Unlike predators , parasites typically do not kill their host, are generally much smaller than their host, and will often live in or on their host for an extended period. Both are special cases of consumer-resource interactions
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