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Dream
A dream is a succession of images, ideas, emotions, and sensations that usually occur involuntarily in the mind during certain stages of sleep.[1] The content and purpose of dreams are not fully understood, though they have been a topic of scientific, philosophical and religious interest throughout recorded history. Dream
Dream
interpretation is the attempt at drawing meaning from dreams and searching for an underlying message. The scientific study of dreams is called oneirology.[2] Dreams mainly occur in the rapid-eye movement (REM) stage of sleep—when brain activity is high and resembles that of being awake. REM sleep
REM sleep
is revealed by continuous movements of the eyes during sleep
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Animist
Animism
Animism
(from Latin
Latin
anima, "breath, spirit, life")[1][2] is the religious belief that objects, places and creatures all possess a distinct spiritual essence.[3][4][5][6] Potentially, animism perceives all things—animals, plants, rocks, rivers, weather systems, human handiwork and perhaps even words—as animated and alive. Animism
Animism
is used in the anthropology of religion as a term for the belief system of many indigenous peoples,[7] especially in contrast to the relatively more recent development of organised religions.[8] Although each culture has its own different mythologies and rituals, "animism" is said to describe the most common, foundational thread of indigenous peoples' "spiritual" or "supernatural" perspectives
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Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia
is a historical region in West Asia
West Asia
situated within the Tigris– Euphrates
Euphrates
river system, in modern days roughly corresponding to most of Iraq, Kuwait, parts of Northern Saudi Arabia, the eastern parts of Syria, Southeastern Turkey, and regions along the Turkish–Syrian and Iran– Iraq
Iraq
borders.[1] The Sumerians and Akkadians
Akkadians
(including Assyrians and Babylonians) dominated Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia
from the beginning of written history (c. 3100 BC) to the fall of Babylon
Babylon
in 539 BC, when it was conquered by the Achaemenid Empire
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Sumer
Sumer
Sumer
(/ˈsuːmər/)[note 1] is the earliest known civilization in the historical region of southern Mesopotamia, modern-day southern Iraq, during the Chalcolithic
Chalcolithic
and Early Bronze
Bronze
ages, and arguably the first civilization in the world with Ancient Egypt
Ancient Egypt
and the Indus Valley.[1] Living along the valleys of the Tigris
Tigris
and Euphrates, Sumerian farmers were able to grow an abundance of grain and other crops, the surplus of which enabled them to settle in one place. Proto-writing
Proto-writing
in the prehistory dates back to c. 3000 BC
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Depression (mood)
Depression is a state of low mood and aversion to activity that can affect a person's thoughts, behavior, feelings, and sense of well-being. A depressed mood is a normal temporary reaction to life events such as loss of a loved one. It is also a symptom of some physical diseases and a side effect of some drugs and medical treatments. Depressed mood is also a symptom of some mood disorders such as major depressive disorder or dysthymia.[1] People with a depressed mood may be notably sad, anxious, or empty; they may also feel notably hopeless, helpless, dejected, or worthless. Other symptoms expressed may include senses of guilt, irritability, or anger.[2][3] Further feelings expressed by these individuals may include feeling ashamed or an expressed restlessness. These individuals may notably lose interest in activities that they once considered pleasurable or experience either loss of appetite or overeating
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Magical (paranormal)
Magic represents a category used in the study of religion and the social sciences to define various practices and ideas considered separate to both religion and science. The category developed in Western culture although has since been applied to practices in other societies, particularly those regarded as being non-modern and Other. Various different definitions of magic have been proposed, with much contemporary scholarship regarding the concept to be so problematic that it is better to reject it altogether as a useful analytic construct. The concept of magic has been an issue of debate among academics in various disciplines. Scholars have defined magic in different ways and used the term to refer to different things. One approach, associated with the anthropologists Edward Tylor
Edward Tylor
and James G. Frazer, suggests that magic and science are opposites, with the former based on hidden sympathies between objects that allow one to influence the other
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Fear
Fear
Fear
is a feeling induced by perceived danger or threat that occurs in certain types of organisms, which causes a change in metabolic and organ functions and ultimately a change in behavior, such as fleeing, hiding, or freezing from perceived traumatic events. Fear
Fear
in human beings may occur in response to a specific stimulus occurring in the present, or in anticipation or expectation of a future threat perceived as a risk to body or life. The fear response arises from the perception of danger leading to confrontation with or escape from/avoiding the threat (also known as the fight-or-flight response), which in extreme cases of fear (horror and terror) can be a freeze response or paralysis. In humans and animals, fear is modulated by the process of cognition and learning. Thus fear is judged as rational or appropriate and irrational or inappropriate. An irrational fear is called a phobia. Psychologists such as John B
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Surrealism
Surrealism
Surrealism
is a cultural movement that began in the early 1920s in France, and is best known for its visual artworks and writings. Artists painted unnerving, illogical scenes with photographic precision, created strange creatures from everyday objects, and developed painting techniques that allowed the unconscious to express itself.[1] Its aim was to "resolve the previously contradictory conditions of dream and reality into an absolute reality, a super-reality".[2][3][4] Surrealist works feature the element of surprise, unexpected juxtapositions and non sequitur; however, many Surrealist artists and writers regard their work as an expression of the philosophical movement first and foremost, with the works being an artifact
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Assurbanipal
Ashurbanipal
Ashurbanipal
(Akkadian: Aššur-bāni-apli; Syriac: ܐܫܘܪ ܒܢܐ ܐܦܠܐ‎; 'Ashur is the creator of an heir'), also spelled Assurbanipal or Ashshurbanipal, was King of the Neo-Assyrian Empire from 668 BC to c
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Childhood Amnesia
Childhood amnesia, also called infantile amnesia, is the inability of adults to retrieve episodic memories (memories of situations or events) before the age of 2–4 years, as well as the period before age 10 of which adults retain fewer memories than might otherwise be expected given the passage of time.[1] The development of a cognitive self is also thought by some to have an effect on encoding and storing early memories.[2] Some research has demonstrated that children can remember events from the age of 1, but that these memories may decline as children get older.[3][4][5] Most psychologists differ in defining the offset of childhood amnesia. Some define it as the age from which a first memory can be retrieved
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Repressed Memory
Repressed memories are memories that have been unconsciously blocked due to the memory being associated with a high level of stress or trauma.[1] The theory postulates that even though the individual cannot recall the memory, it may still be affecting them consciously,[2] and that these memories can emerge later into the consciousness
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Gilgamesh
Gilgamesh
Gilgamesh
(/ˈɡɪlɡəˌmɛʃ/;[1] 𒄑𒂆𒈦, Gilgameš, originally Bilgamesh 𒄑𒉈𒂵𒈩) is the main character in the Epic of Gilgamesh, an Akkadian
Akkadian
poem that is considered the first great work of literature,[2] and in earlier Sumerian poems. In the epic, Gilgamesh
Gilgamesh
is a demigod of superhuman strength who builds the city walls of Uruk
Uruk
to defend his people and, after the death of his friend Enkidu, then travels to meet the sage Utnapishtim, who had survived the Great Flood.[3] His name translates roughly to mean "The Ancestor is a Young-man",[4] from Bil.ga "Ancestor", Elder[5]:33 and Mes/Mesh3 "Young-Man".[5]:174[n 1] Gilgamesh
Gilgamesh
is generally seen by scholars as a historical figure, since inscriptions have been found which confirm the existence of other figures associated with him in the epic
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Prediction
A prediction ( Latin
Latin
præ-, "before," and dicere, "to say"), or forecast, is a statement about an uncertain event. It is often, but not always, based upon experience or knowledge. There is no universal agreement about the exact difference between the two terms; different authors and disciplines ascribe different connotations. (Contrast with estimation.) Although guaranteed accurate information about the future is in many cases impossible, prediction can be useful to assist in making plans about possible developments; Howard H. Stevenson writes that prediction in business "..
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Ancient Rome
In historiography, ancient Rome
Rome
is Roman civilization from the founding of the city of Rome
Rome
in the 8th century BC to the collapse of the Western Roman Empire
Roman Empire
in the 5th century AD, encompassing the Roman Kingdom, Roman Republic
Roman Republic
and Roman Empire
Roman Empire
until the fall of the western empire.[1] The term is sometimes used to just refer to the kingdom and republic periods, excluding the subsequent empire.[2] The civilization began as an Italic settlement in the Italian peninsula, dating from the 8th century BC, that grew into the city of Rome
Rome
and which subsequently gave its name to the empire over which it ruled and to the widespread civilisation the empire developed
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Creativity
Creativity
Creativity
is a phenomenon whereby something new and somehow valuable is formed
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Clay Tablet
In the Ancient Near East, clay tablets (Akkadian ṭuppu(m) 𒁾)[1] were used as a writing medium, especially for writing in cuneiform, throughout the Bronze Age
Bronze Age
and well into the Iron Age. Cuneiform
Cuneiform
characters were imprinted on a wet clay tablet with a stylus often made of reed (reed pen). Once written upon, many tablets were dried in the sun or air, remaining fragile. Later, these unfired clay tablets could be soaked in water and recycled into new clean tablets. Other tablets, once written, were fired in hot kilns (or inadvertently, when buildings were burnt down by accident or during conflict) making them hard and durable. Collections of these clay documents made up the very first archives. They were at the root of first libraries
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