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Doublespeak
DOUBLESPEAK is a language that deliberately obscures , disguises, distorts, or reverses the meaning of words. Doublespeak may take the form of euphemisms (e.g., "downsizing" for layoffs , "servicing the target" for bombing ), in which case it is primarily meant to make the truth sound more palatable. It may also refer to intentional ambiguity in language or to actual inversions of meaning. In such cases, doublespeak disguises the nature of the truth. Doublespeak is most closely associated with political language
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Linguistic Purism
LINGUISTIC PURISM or LINGUISTIC PROTECTIONISM is the practice of defining or recognizing one variety of a language as being purer or of intrinsically higher quality than other varieties. Linguistic purism was institutionalized through language academies (of which the 1572 Accademia della Crusca
Accademia della Crusca
set a model example in Europe), and their decisions often have the force of law. The perceived or actual decline identified by the purists may take the form of change of vocabulary, syncretism of grammatical elements, or loanwords . Linguistic purism
Linguistic purism
is a form of prescriptive linguistics . The unwanted similarity is often with a neighboring language whose speakers are culturally or politically dominant. The abstract ideal may invoke logic, clarity, or the grammar of "classic" languages
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Jacques Ellul
JACQUES ELLUL (French: ; January 6, 1912 – May 19, 1994) was a French philosopher , sociologist , lay theologian , and professor who was a noted Christian anarchist . Ellul was a longtime Professor of History and the Sociology
Sociology
of Institutions on the Faculty of Law and Economic Sciences at the University of Bordeaux
Bordeaux
. A prolific writer, he authored 58 books and more than a thousand articles over his lifetime, many of which discussed propaganda , the impact of technology on society , and the interaction between religion and politics . The dominant theme of his work proved to be the threat to human freedom and religion created by modern technology. Among his most influential books are The Technological Society and Propaganda: The Formation of Men\'s Attitudes . Considered by many a philosopher, Ellul was by training a sociologist who approached the question of technology and human action from a dialectical viewpoint
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Irony
IRONY (from Ancient Greek εἰρωνεία eirōneía, meaning 'dissimulation, feigned ignorance' ), in its broadest sense, is a rhetorical device , literary technique , or event in which what appears, on the surface, to be the case, differs radically from what is actually the case. Irony
Irony
may be divided into categories such as VERBAL , DRAMATIC , and SITUATIONAL . Verbal, dramatic, and situational irony are often used for emphasis in the assertion of a truth. The ironic form of simile , used in sarcasm , and some forms of litotes can emphasize one's meaning by the deliberate use of language which states the opposite of the truth, denies the contrary of the truth, or drastically and obviously understates a factual connection. Other forms, as identified by historian Connop Thirlwall , include dialectic and practical irony
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Yes Minister
YES MINISTER is a satirical British sitcom
British sitcom
written by Sir Antony Jay and Jonathan Lynn that was first transmitted by BBC Television
BBC Television
between 1980 and 1984, split over three seven-episode series. The sequel, YES, PRIME MINISTER, ran from 1986 to 1988. In total there were 38 episodes, of which all but one lasted half an hour. Most episodes ended with a variation of the title of the series spoken as the answer to a question posed by Hacker. Several episodes were adapted for BBC Radio , and a stage play was produced in 2010, the latter leading to a new television series on UKTV Gold
UKTV Gold
in 2013
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C-SPAN
AMC11 at 131.0°W * 7: C-SPAN
C-SPAN
(Analog) (SD) CABLE VERIZON FIOS 109: C-SPAN
C-SPAN
(SD) 110: C-SPAN2 (SD) 111: C-SPAN3 (SD) WAVE BROADBAND 16 (C-SPAN) 99 (C-SPAN2) AVAILABLE ON MOST OTHER U.S. CABLE SYSTEMS Consult your local cable provider for channel availability SATELLITE RADIO XM 120 IPTV AT"> Sen. Robert Byrd (right), C-SPAN's founder Brian Lamb (left) and Paul FitzPatrick flip the switch for C-SPAN2 on June 2, 1986. FitzPatrick was C-SPAN
C-SPAN
president at the time. In 2004, C-SPAN
C-SPAN
celebrated its 25th anniversary, by which time the flagship network was viewed in 86 million homes, C-SPAN2 was in 70 million homes and C-SPAN3 was in eight million homes
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Manufacturing Consent
MANUFACTURING CONSENT: THE POLITICAL ECONOMY OF THE MASS MEDIA (1988), by Edward S. Herman and Noam Chomsky
Noam Chomsky
, proposes that the mass communication media of the U.S. "are effective and powerful ideological institutions that carry out a system-supportive propaganda function, by reliance on market forces, internalized assumptions, and self-censorship , and without overt coercion", by means of the propaganda model of communication. The title derives from the phrase "the manufacture of consent," employed in the book Public Opinion (1922), by Walter Lippmann
Walter Lippmann
(1889–1974). Chomsky credits the origin of the book to the impetus of Alex Carey , the Australian social psychologist , to whom he and co-author E. S. Herman dedicated the book
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Commodity Fetishism
In Karl Marx 's critique of political economy , COMMODITY FETISHISM is the perception of the social relationships involved in production, not as relationships among people, but as economic relationships among the money and commodities exchanged in market trade. As such, commodity fetishism transforms the subjective, abstract aspects of economic value into objective, real things that people believe have intrinsic value. The theory of commodity fetishism is presented in the first chapter of Capital: Critique of Political Economy (1867), at the conclusion of the analysis of the value-form of commodities, to explain that the social organization of labor is mediated through market exchange, the buying and the selling of commodities (goods and services)
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Noam Chomsky
AVRAM NOAM CHOMSKY (US : /æˈvrɑːm ˈnoʊm ˈtʃɒmski/ ( listen ) a-VRAHM NOHM CHOM-skee ; born December 7, 1928) is an American linguist , philosopher , cognitive scientist , historian , social critic , and political activist . Sometimes described as "the father of modern linguistics", Chomsky is also a major figure in analytic philosophy and one of the founders of the field of cognitive science . He is Institute Professor Emeritus at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), where he has worked since 1955, and is the author of over 100 books on topics such as linguistics , war, politics, and mass media . Ideologically, he aligns with anarcho-syndicalism and libertarian socialism . Born to middle-class Ashkenazi Jewish immigrants in Philadelphia
Philadelphia
, Chomsky developed an early interest in anarchism from alternative bookstores in New York City
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Social Welfare
WELFARE is the provision of a minimal level of well-being and social support for citizens without current means to support basic needs. In most developed countries, welfare is largely provided by the government from tax income, and to a lesser extent by NGOs , charities , informal social groups, religious groups, and inter-governmental organizations. Social security
Social security
expands on this concept, especially in welfare states , by providing all inhabitants with various social services such as universal healthcare , unemployment insurance , student financial aid (in addition to free post-secondary education ), and others. In its 1952 Social Security (Minimum Standards) Convention (nr. 102) , the International Labour Organization
International Labour Organization
(ILO) defined the traditional contingencies covered by social security
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Oscar Wilde
OSCAR FINGAL O\'FLAHERTIE WILLS WILDE (16 October 1854 – 30 November 1900) was a prolific Irish writer who wrote plays, fiction, essays and poetry. After writing in different forms throughout the 1880s, he became one of London's most popular playwrights in the early 1890s. He is best remembered for his epigrams and plays, the novel The Picture of Dorian Gray , as well as the circumstances of his imprisonment and early death. Wilde's parents were successful Anglo-Irish
Anglo-Irish
, Dublin
Dublin
intellectuals . Their son became fluent in French and German early in life. At university, Wilde read Greats ; he proved himself to be an outstanding classicist, first at Dublin
Dublin
, then at Oxford . He became known for his involvement in the rising philosophy of aestheticism , led by two of his tutors, Walter Pater and John Ruskin
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Business Speak
CORPORATE JARGON, variously known as CORPORATE SPEAK, CORPORATE LINGO, BUSINESS SPEAK, BUSINESS JARGON, MANAGEMENT SPEAK, WORKPLACE JARGON, or COMMERCIALESE, is the jargon often used in large corporations , bureaucracies , and similar workplaces. The use of corporate jargon, also known as "corporatese", is criticised for its lack of clarity as well as for its tedium, making meaning and intention opaque and understanding difficult. The tone is associated with managers of large corporations, business management consultants, and occasionally government. Reference to such jargon is typically derogatory, implying the use of long, complicated, or obscure words, abbreviations, euphemisms , and acronyms. For that reason some of its forms may be considered as an argot . Some of these words may be actually new inventions, designed purely to fit the specialized meaning of a situation or even to "spin " negative situations as positive situations
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JSTOR
JSTOR
JSTOR
(/ˈdʒeɪstɔːr/ JAY-stor ; short for Journal Storage) is a digital library founded in 1995. Originally containing digitized back issues of academic journals , it now also includes books and primary sources, and current issues of journals. It provides full-text searches of almost 2,000 journals. As of 2013, more than 8,000 institutions in more than 160 countries had access to JSTOR; most access is by subscription, but some older public domain content is freely available to anyone. JSTOR's revenue was $69 million in 2014. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Content * 3 Access * 3.1 Aaron Swartz incident * 3.2 Limitations * 3.3 Increasing public access * 4 Use * 5 See also * 6 References * 7 Further reading * 8 External links HISTORY William G. Bowen , president of Princeton University from 1972 to 1988, founded JSTOR
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Friedrich Engels
FRIEDRICH ENGELS (English: /ˈɛŋɡəlz/ or /ˈɛŋəlz/ ; German: ; 28 November 1820 – 5 August 1895) was a German philosopher , social scientist , journalist , and businessman . He founded Marxist theory together with Karl Marx
Karl Marx
. In 1845, he published The Condition of the Working Class in England
England
, based on personal observations and research in Manchester
Manchester
. In 1848, he co-authored The Communist Manifesto with Marx, though he also authored and co-authored (primarily with Marx) many other works, and later he supported Marx
Marx
financially to do research and write Das Kapital . After Marx's death, Engels edited the second and third volumes. Additionally, Engels organised Marx's notes on the Theories of Surplus Value , which he later published as the "fourth volume" of Capital. He also made contributions to family economics
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Digital Object Identifier
In computing, a DIGITAL OBJECT IDENTIFIER or DOI is a persistent identifier or handle used to uniquely identify objects, standardized by the International Organization for Standardization
International Organization for Standardization
( ISO
ISO
). An implementation of the Handle System , DOIs are in wide use mainly to identify academic, professional, and government information, such as journal articles, research reports and data sets, and official publications though they also have been used to identify other types of information resources, such as commercial videos. A DOI aims to be "resolvable", usually to some form of access to the information object to which the DOI refers. This is achieved by binding the DOI to metadata about the object, such as a URL , indicating where the object can be found
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Special
SPECIAL or SPECIALS may refer to: CONTENTS * 1 Music * 2 Film and television * 3 Other uses * 4 See also MUSIC * Special (album) , a 1992 album by Vesta Williams * "Special" (Garbage song) , 1998 * "Special" (Mew song) , 2005 * "Special" (Stephen Lynch song) , 2000 * The Specials
The Specials
, a British band * "Special", a song by Violent Femmes on The Blind Leading the Naked * "Special", a song on
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