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Double Fault
On the x86 architecture, a double fault exception occurs if the processor encounters a problem while trying to service a pending interrupt or exception. An example situation when a double fault would occur is when an interrupt is triggered but the segment in which the interrupt handler resides is invalid. If the processor encounters a problem when calling the double fault handler, a triple fault is generated and the processor shuts down. As double faults can only happen due to kernel bugs, they are rarely caused by user space programs in a modern protected mode operating system, unless the program somehow gains kernel access (some viruses and also some low-level DOS
DOS
programs). Other processors like PowerPC or SPARC
SPARC
generally save state to predefined and reserved machine registers
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Protected Mode
In computing, protected mode, also called protected virtual address mode,[1] is an operational mode of x86-compatible central processing units (CPUs)
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MSDN Blogs
Microsoft Developer Network (MSDN) is the portion of Microsoft responsible for managing the firm's relationship with developers and testers, such as hardware developers interested in the operating system (OS), and software developers developing on the various OS platforms or using the API or scripting languages of Microsoft's applications. The relationship management is situated in assorted media: web sites, newsletters, developer conferences, trade media, blogs and DVD distribution
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Central Processing Unit
A central processing unit (CPU) is the electronic circuitry within a computer that carries out the instructions of a computer program by performing the basic arithmetic, logical, control and input/output (I/O) operations specified by the instructions. The computer industry has used the term "central processing unit" at least since the early 1960s.[1] Traditionally, the term "CPU" refers to a processor, more specifically to its processing unit and control unit (CU), distinguishing these core elements of a computer from external components such as main memory and I/O
I/O
circuitry.[2] The form, design, and implementation of CPUs have changed over the course of their history, but their fundamental operation remains almost unchanged
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Interrupt
In system programming, an interrupt is a signal to the processor emitted by hardware or software indicating an event that needs immediate attention. An interrupt alerts the processor to a high-priority condition requiring the interruption of the current code the processor is executing. The processor responds by suspending its current activities, saving its state, and executing a function called an interrupt handler (or an interrupt service routine, ISR) to deal with the event
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Exception Handling
Exception handling is the process of responding to the occurrence, during computation, of exceptions – anomalous or exceptional conditions requiring special processing – often changing the normal flow of program execution. It is provided by specialized programming language constructs, computer hardware mechanisms like interrupts or operating system IPC facilities like signals. In general, an exception breaks the normal flow of execution and executes a pre-registered exception handler. The details of how this is done depends on whether it is a hardware or software exception and how the software exception is implemented
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Interrupt Handler
In computer systems programming, an interrupt handler, also known as an interrupt service routine or ISR, is a special block of code associated with a specific interrupt condition. Interrupt
Interrupt
handlers are initiated by hardware interrupts, software interrupt instructions, or software exceptions, and are used for implementing device drivers or transitions between protected modes of operation, such as system calls. The traditional form of interrupt handler is the hardware interrupt handler. Hardware interrupts arise from electrical conditions or low-level protocols implemented in digital logic, are usually dispatched via a hard-coded table of interrupt vectors, asynchronously to the normal execution stream (as interrupt masking levels permit), often using a separate stack, and automatically entering into a different execution context (privilege level) for the duration of the interrupt handler's execution
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Special
Special
Special
or specials may refer to:Contents1 Music 2 Film and television 3 Other uses 4 See alsoMusic[edit] Special
Special
(album), a 1992 album by Vesta Williams "Special" (Garbage song), 1998 "Special
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Kernel (computing)
The kernel is a computer program that is the core of a computer's operating system, with complete control over everything in the system.[1] On most systems, it is one of the first programs loaded on start-up (after the bootloader). It handles the rest of start-up as well as input/output requests from software, translating them into data-processing instructions for the central processing unit. It handles memory and peripherals like keyboards, monitors, printers, and speakers.A kernel connects the application software to the hardware of a computer.The critical code of the kernel is usually loaded into a protected area of memory, which prevents it from being overwritten by applications or other, more minor parts of the operating system. The kernel performs its tasks, such as running processes and handling interrupts, in kernel space. In contrast, everything a user does is in user space: writing text in a text editor, running programs in a GUI, etc
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User Space
A modern computer operating system usually segregates virtual memory into kernel space and user space.[a] Primarily, this separation serves to provide memory protection and hardware protection from malicious or errant software behaviour. Kernel space is strictly reserved for running a privileged operating system kernel, kernel extensions, and most device drivers
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X86
x86 is a family of backward-compatible instruction set architectures[a] based on the Intel
Intel
8086
8086
CPU and its Intel
Intel
8088 variant. The 8086
8086
was introduced in 1978 as a fully 16-bit extension of Intel's 8-bit-based 8080 microprocessor, with memory segmentation as a solution for addressing more memory than can be covered by a plain 16-bit address
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Operating System
An operating system (OS) is system software that manages computer hardware and software resources and provides common services for computer programs. Time-sharing
Time-sharing
operating systems schedule tasks for efficient use of the system and may also include accounting software for cost allocation of processor time, mass storage, printing, and other resources. For hardware functions such as input and output and memory allocation, the operating system acts as an intermediary between programs and the computer hardware,[1][2] although the application code is usually executed directly by the hardware and frequently makes system calls to an OS function or is interrupted by it
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Virus (computing)
A computer virus is a type of malicious software program ("malware") that, when executed, replicates itself by modifying other computer programs and inserting its own code.[1] When this replication succeeds, the affected areas are then said to be "infected" with a computer virus.[2][3][4] Virus writers use social engineering deceptions and exploit detailed knowledge of security vulnerabilities to initially infect systems and to spread the virus
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DOS
DOS
DOS
(/dɒs/, /dɔːs/[1]) is a family of disk operating systems.[2] DOS
DOS
primarily consists of MS-DOS
MS-DOS
and a rebranded version under the name IBM PC
IBM PC
DOS, both of which were introduced in 1981. Other later compatible systems from other manufacturers include DR-DOS
DR-DOS
(1988), ROM-DOS (1989), PTS-DOS (1993), and FreeDOS
FreeDOS
(1998). MS-DOS
MS-DOS
dominated the x86-based IBM PC compatible
IBM PC compatible
market between 1981 and 1995. Dozens of other operating systems also use the acronym "DOS", including the mainframe DOS/360 from 1966
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PowerPC
PowerPC
PowerPC
(with the backronym Performance Optimization With Enhanced RISC
RISC
– Performance Computing, sometimes abbreviated as PPC) is a reduced instruction set computing (RISC) instruction set architecture (ISA) created by the 1991 Apple–IBM– Motorola
Motorola
alliance, known as AIM. PowerPC, as an evolving instruction set, has since 2006 been named Power ISA, while the old name lives on as a trademark for some implementations of Power Architecture-based processors. PowerPC
PowerPC
was the cornerstone of AIM's PReP
PReP
and Common Hardware Reference Platform initiatives in the 1990s. Originally intended for personal computers, the architecture is well known for being used by Apple's Power Macintosh, PowerBook, iMac, iBook, and Xserve
Xserve
lines from 1994 until 2006, when Apple migrated to Intel's x86
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SPARC
SPARC, for Scalable Processor Architecture, is a reduced instruction set computing (RISC) instruction set architecture (ISA) originally developed by Sun Microsystems. Its design was strongly influenced by the experimental Berkeley RISC system developed in the early 1980s. First released in 1987, SPARC
SPARC
was one of the most successful early commercial RISC systems, and its success led to the introduction of similar RISC designs from a number of vendors through the 1980s and 90s. The first implementation of the original 32-bit
32-bit
architecture (SPARC V7) was used in Sun's Sun-4 workstation and server systems, replacing their earlier Sun-3
Sun-3
systems based on the Motorola 68000 series
Motorola 68000 series
of processors
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