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Double Fault
On the x86 architecture, a DOUBLE FAULT exception occurs if the processor encounters a problem while trying to service a pending interrupt or exception . An example situation when a double fault would occur is when an interrupt is triggered but the segment in which the interrupt handler resides is invalid. If the processor encounters a problem when calling the double fault handler, a triple fault is generated and the processor shuts down. As double faults can only happen due to kernel bugs, they are rarely caused by user space programs in a modern protected mode operating system , unless the program somehow gains kernel access (some viruses and also some low-level DOS
DOS
programs). Other processors like PowerPC or SPARC
SPARC
generally save state to predefined and reserved machine registers
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PowerPC
POWERPC (a backronym for PERFORMANCE OPTIMIZATION WITH ENHANCED RISC – PERFORMANCE COMPUTING, sometimes abbreviated as PPC) is a RISC instruction set architecture created by the 1991 Apple –IBM – Motorola
Motorola
alliance, known as AIM . PowerPC, as an evolving instruction set, has since 2006 been named Power ISA , while the old name naturally lives on, as a legacy trademark for some implementations of Power Architecture based processors, and in software package identifiers. PowerPC
PowerPC
was the cornerstone of AIM's PReP
PReP
and Common Hardware Reference Platform initiatives in the 1990s. Originally intended for personal computers , the architecture is well known for being used by Apple's Power Macintosh , PowerBook , iMac , iBook , and Xserve lines from 1994 until 2006, when Apple migrated to Intel\'s x86
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DOS
DOS
DOS
/dɒs/ is a family of disk operating systems primarily consisting of MS-DOS
MS-DOS
and a rebranded version under the name IBM PC DOS which were introduced in 1981, as well as some later compatible systems from other manufacturers: DR-DOS (1988), ROM-DOS (1989), PTS-DOS (1993), and FreeDOS (1998). MS-DOS
MS-DOS
dominated the x86-based IBM PC compatible market between 1981 and 1995. Dozens of other operating systems also use the acronym "DOS", including the mainframe DOS/360 from 1966. Others are Apple DOS , Apple ProDOS , Atari DOS , Commodore DOS , TRSDOS , and AmigaDOS
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Virus (computing)
A COMPUTER VIRUS is a type of malicious software program ("malware ") that, when executed, replicates itself by modifying other computer programs and inserting its own code. When this replication succeeds, the affected areas are then said to be "infected" with a computer virus. Virus writers use social engineering deceptions and exploit detailed knowledge of security vulnerabilities to initially infect systems and to spread the virus. The vast majority of viruses target systems running Microsoft Windows , employing a variety of mechanisms to infect new hosts, and often using complex anti-detection/stealth strategies to evade antivirus software
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SPARC
The SCALABLE PROCESSOR ARCHITECTURE (SPARC) is a reduced instruction set computing (RISC) instruction set architecture (ISA) originally developed by Sun Microsystems . Since the establishment of SPARC International, Inc. in 1989, the SPARC
SPARC
architecture has been developed by its members. SPARC
SPARC
International is also responsible for licensing and promoting the SPARC
SPARC
architecture, managing SPARC
SPARC
trademarks (including SPARC, which it owns), and providing conformance testing . SPARC
SPARC
International was intended to open the SPARC
SPARC
architecture to create a larger ecosystem; and SPARC
SPARC
has been licensed to several manufacturers, including Atmel
Atmel
, Cypress Semiconductor , Fujitsu
Fujitsu
, and Texas Instruments
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Register Window
In computer engineering , REGISTER WINDOWS are a feature in some instruction set architectures to improve the performance of procedure calls , a very common operation. Register windows were one of the main features of the Berkeley RISC design, which would later be commercialized as the AMD Am29000 , Intel i960 , and Sun Microsystems SPARC . CONTENTS * 1 Abstract * 2 Implementation * 3 Application in CPUs * 4 Criticism * 5 References ABSTRACTMost CPU designs include a small amount of very high-speed memory known as registers . Registers are used by the CPU in order to hold temporary values while working on longer strings of instructions. Considerable performance can be added to a design with more registers. However, since the registers are a visible piece of the CPU's instruction set , the number cannot typically be changed after the design has been released. While registers are almost a universal solution to performance, they do have a drawback
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Special
SPECIAL or SPECIALS may refer to: CONTENTS * 1 Music * 2 Film and television * 3 Other uses * 4 See also MUSIC * Special (album) , a 1992 album by Vesta Williams * "Special" (Garbage song) , 1998 * "Special" (Mew song) , 2005 * "Special" (Stephen Lynch song) , 2000 * The Specials
The Specials
, a British band * "Special", a song by Violent Femmes on The Blind Leading the Naked * "Special", a song on
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MSDN Blogs
MICROSOFT DEVELOPER NETWORK (MSDN) is the portion of Microsoft responsible for managing the firm's relationship with developers and testers, such as hardware developers interested in the operating system (OS), and software developers developing on the various OS platforms or using the API or scripting languages of Microsoft's applications. The relationship management is situated in assorted media: web sites , newsletters , developer conferences , trade media, blogs and DVD
DVD
distribution. The life cycle of the relationships ranges from legacy support through evangelizing potential offerings
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Operating System
An OPERATING SYSTEM (OS) is system software that manages computer hardware and software resources and provides common services for computer programs . Time-sharing
Time-sharing
operating systems schedule tasks for efficient use of the system and may also include accounting software for cost allocation of processor time , mass storage , printing , and other resources. For hardware functions such as input and output and memory allocation , the operating system acts as an intermediary between programs and the computer hardware, although the application code is usually executed directly by the hardware and frequently makes system calls to an OS function or is interrupted by it. Operating systems are found on many devices that contain a computer – from cellular phones and video game consoles to web servers and supercomputers
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Protected Mode
In computing, PROTECTED MODE, also called PROTECTED VIRTUAL ADDRESS MODE, is an operational mode of x86 -compatible central processing units (CPUs). It allows system software to use features such as virtual memory , paging and safe multi-tasking designed to increase an operating system's control over application software . When a processor that supports x86 protected mode is powered on, it begins executing instructions in real mode , in order to maintain backward compatibility with earlier x86 processors. Protected mode may only be entered after the system software sets up several descriptor tables and enables the Protection Enable (PE) bit in the control register 0 (CR0). Protected mode
Protected mode
was first added to the x86 architecture in 1982, with the release of Intel
Intel
's 80286
80286
(286) processor, and later extended with the release of the 80386
80386
(386) in 1985
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Interrupt
In system programming , an INTERRUPT is a signal to the processor emitted by hardware or software indicating an event that needs immediate attention. An interrupt alerts the processor to a high-priority condition requiring the interruption of the current code the processor is executing. The processor responds by suspending its current activities, saving its state , and executing a function called an interrupt handler (or an interrupt service routine, ISR) to deal with the event. This interruption is temporary, and, after the interrupt handler finishes, the processor resumes normal activities. There are two types of interrupts: hardware interrupts and software interrupts. HARDWARE INTERRUPTS are used by devices to communicate that they require attention from the operating system
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Central Processing Unit
A CENTRAL PROCESSING UNIT (CPU) is the electronic circuitry within a computer that carries out the instructions of a computer program by performing the basic arithmetic , logical, control and input/output (I/O) operations specified by the instructions. The computer industry has used the term "central processing unit" at least since the early 1960s. Traditionally, the term "CPU" refers to a PROCESSOR, more specifically to its processing unit and control unit (CU), distinguishing these core elements of a computer from external components such as main memory and I/O circuitry. The form, design , and implementation of CPUs have changed over the course of their history, but their fundamental operation remains almost unchanged
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X86
X86
X86
is a family of backward-compatible instruction set architectures based on the Intel
Intel
8086 CPU and its Intel
Intel
8088
8088
variant. The 8086 was introduced in 1978 as a fully 16-bit extension of Intel's 8-bit -based 8080 microprocessor, with memory segmentation as a solution for addressing more memory than can be covered by a plain 16-bit address. The term "x86" came into being because the names of several successors to Intel's 8086 processor end in "86", including the 80186 , 80286 , 80386 and 80486
80486
processors. Many additions and extensions have been added to the x86 instruction set over the years, almost consistently with full backward compatibility
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Exception Handling
EXCEPTION HANDLING is the process of responding to the occurrence, during computation , of exceptions – anomalous or exceptional conditions requiring special processing – often changing the normal flow of program execution . It is provided by specialized programming language constructs, computer hardware mechanisms like interrupts or operating system IPC facilities like signals . In general, an exception breaks the normal flow of execution and executes a pre-registered exception handler. The details of how this is done depends on whether it is a hardware or software exception and how the software exception is implemented. Some exceptions, especially hardware ones, may be handled so gracefully that execution can resume where it was interrupted
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Interrupt Handler
In computer systems programming , an INTERRUPT HANDLER, also known as an INTERRUPT SERVICE ROUTINE or ISR, is a special block of code associated with a specific interrupt condition. Interrupt
Interrupt
handlers are initiated by hardware interrupts, software interrupt instructions, or software exceptions , and are used for implementing device drivers or transitions between protected modes of operation, such as system calls . The traditional form of interrupt handler is the hardware interrupt handler. Hardware interrupts arise from electrical conditions or low-level protocols implemented in digital logic , are usually dispatched via a hard-coded table of interrupt vectors, asynchronously to the normal execution stream (as interrupt masking levels permit), often using a separate stack, and automatically entering into a different execution context (privilege level) for the duration of the interrupt handler's execution
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User Space
A modern computer operating system usually segregates virtual memory into KERNEL SPACE and USER SPACE. Primarily, this separation serves to provide memory protection and hardware protection from malicious or errant software behaviour. Kernel space is strictly reserved for running a privileged operating system kernel , kernel extensions, and most device drivers . In contrast, user space is the memory area where application software and some drivers execute. CONTENTS * 1 Overview * 2 Implementation * 3 See also * 4 Notes * 5 References * 6 External links OVERVIEWThe term USERLAND (or user space) refers to all code that runs outside the operating system's kernel. Userland usually refers to the various programs and libraries that the operating system uses to interact with the kernel: software that performs input/output , manipulates file system objects, application software , etc
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