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Donoghue V Stevenson
Donoghue v Stevenson
Donoghue v Stevenson
[1932] UKHL
UKHL
100 was a foundational decision in Scots delict law and English tort law
English tort law
by the House of Lords. It created the modern concept of negligence, by setting out general principles whereby one person would owe a duty of care to another person. Also known as the "Paisley snail"[5][6] or "snail in the bottle" case, the case involved Mrs Donoghue drinking a bottle of ginger beer in a café in Paisley, Renfrewshire. A dead snail was in the bottle. She fell ill, and she sued the ginger beer manufacturer, Mr Stevenson
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Judicial Functions Of The House Of Lords
The House of Lords, in addition to having a legislative function, historically also had a judicial function. It functioned as a court of first instance for the trials of peers, for impeachment cases, and as a court of last resort within the United Kingdom. In the latter case the House's jurisdiction was essentially limited to the hearing of appeals from the lower courts. Appeals were technically not to the House of Lords, but rather to the Queen-in-Parliament. By constitutional convention, only those lords who were legally qualified (Lords of Appeal in Ordinary, or Law Lords) heard the appeals, since World War II
World War II
usually in what was known as the Appellate Committee of the House of Lords[1][2] rather than in the chamber of the House. During the 20th and early 21st centuries, the judicial functions were gradually removed
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Condescendences
In law, an allegation (also called adduction) is a claim of a fact by a party in a pleading, charge, or defense. Until they can be proved, allegations remain merely assertions.[1] There are also marital allegations: marriage bonds and allegations exist for couples who applied to marry by licence. They do not exist for couples who married by banns. The marriage allegation was the document in which the couple alleged (or frequently just the groom alleged on behalf of both of them) that there were no impediments to the marriage. Generally, in a civil complaint, a plaintiff alleges facts sufficient to establish all the elements of the claim and thus states a cause of action
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Renfrewshire (historic)
Renfrewshire or the County of Renfrew (Latin: Praefectura Renfroana)[2] is a historic county and lieutenancy area in the west central Lowlands of Scotland. The area is occasionally known as Greater Renfrewshire to distinguish it from the modern local authority area.[3][4] For the purposes of local government, Renfrewshire is now divided into three council areas called Renfrewshire, East Renfrewshire and Inverclyde. The county borders the city of Glasgow and Lanarkshire to the east and Ayrshire to the south and west. The Firth of Clyde forms its northern boundary, with Dunbartonshire and Argyllshire on the opposing banks. Renfrewshire's early history is marked by ancient British and Roman settlement. Renfrewshire can trace its origin to the feudal lands at Strathgryfe granted to Walter Fitzalan, the first High Steward of Scotland
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Pear
About 30 species; see textMany varieties, such as the Nashi pear, are not "pear-shaped".The pear is any of several tree and shrub species of genus Pyrus /ˈpaɪrəs/, in the family Rosaceae. It is also the name of the pomaceous fruit of the trees. Several species of pear are valued for their edible fruit and juices, while others are cultivated as trees.Contents1 Etymology 2 Description 3 History 4 Major recognized taxa 5 Cultivation5.1 Harvest 5.2 Diseases and pests6 Production 7 Storage 8 Uses 9 Nutrition 10 Cultural references 11 See also 12 References 13 Further reading 14 External linksEtymology[edit] The word pear is probably from Germanic pera as a loanword of Vulgar Latin pira, the plural of pirum, akin to Greek apios (from Mycenaean ápisos),[1] of Semitic origin (pirâ), meaning "fruit"
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Ice
Ice
Ice
is water frozen into a solid state. Depending on the presence of impurities such as particles of soil or bubbles of air, it can appear transparent or a more or less opaque bluish-white color. In the Solar System, ice is abundant and occurs naturally from as close to the Sun as Mercury to as far away as the Oort cloud
Oort cloud
objects. Beyond the Solar System, it occurs as interstellar ice. It is abundant on Earth's surface – particularly in the polar regions and above the snow line[2] – and, as a common form of precipitation and deposition, plays a key role in Earth's water cycle and climate. It falls as snowflakes and hail or occurs as frost, icicles or ice spikes. Ice
Ice
molecules can exhibit seventeen or more different phases (packing geometries) that depend on temperature and pressure
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Ice Cream Soda
An ice cream float or ice cream soda (United States, United Kingdom, Canada, South Africa and East Asia), coke float (United Kingdom), or spider (Australia and New Zealand),[1] is a chilled beverage that consists of ice cream in either a soft drink or in a mixture of flavored syrup and carbonated water. When root beer and ice cream are used together to make the beverage, it is typically referred to as a root beer float (United States,[2] Canada).Contents1 Origins 2 Regional names 3 Variations3.1 Chocolate ice cream soda 3.2 Root beer float 3.3 Black Cow 3.4 Boston Cooler 3.5 Butterbeer 3.6 Snow White 3.7 Purple cow 3.8 Sherbet cooler 3.9 Vaca Preta 3.10 Vaca Dourada 3.11 Helado Flotante 3.12 Orange float 3.13 Beer Float (a.k.a
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Ice Cream
Ice
Ice
cream (derived from earlier iced cream or cream ice[1]) is a sweetened frozen food typically eaten as a snack or dessert. It is usually made from dairy products, such as milk and cream, and often combined with fruits or other ingredients and flavors. It is typically sweetened with sugar or sugar substitutes. Typically, flavourings and colourings are added in addition to stabilizers. The mixture is stirred to incorporate air spaces and cooled below the freezing point of water to prevent detectable ice crystals from forming. The result is a smooth, semi-solid foam that is solid at very low temperatures (< 2 °C or 35 °F). It becomes more malleable as its temperature increases. The meaning of the phrase "ice cream" varies from one country to another. Phrases such as "frozen custard", "frozen yogurt", "sorbet", "gelato" and others are used to distinguish different varieties and styles
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Opacity (optics)
Opacity is the measure of impenetrability to electromagnetic or other kinds of radiation, especially visible light. In radiative transfer, it describes the absorption and scattering of radiation in a medium, such as a plasma, dielectric, shielding material, glass, etc. An opaque object is neither transparent (allowing all light to pass through) nor translucent (allowing some light to pass through). When light strikes an interface between two substances, in general some may be reflected, some absorbed, some scattered, and the rest transmitted (also see refraction). Reflection can be diffuse, for example light reflecting off a white wall, or specular, for example light reflecting off a mirror. An opaque substance transmits no light, and therefore reflects, scatters, or absorbs all of it. Both mirrors and carbon black are opaque. Opacity depends on the frequency of the light being considered
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Decomposition
Decomposition
Decomposition
is the process by which organic substances are broken down into simpler matter. The process is a part of the nutrient cycle and is essential for recycling the finite matter that occupies physical space in the biosphere. Bodies of living organisms begin to decompose shortly after death. Animals, such as worms, also help decompose the organic materials. Organisms that do this are known as decomposers. Although no two organisms decompose in the same way, they all undergo the same sequential stages of decomposition. The science which studies decomposition is generally referred to as taphonomy from the Greek word taphos, meaning tomb. One can differentiate abiotic from biotic decomposition (biodegradation)
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Snail
Snail
Snail
is a common name loosely applied to shelled gastropods. The name is most often applied to land snails, terrestrial pulmonate gastropod molluscs. However, the common name snail is also used for most of the members of the molluscan class Gastropoda
Gastropoda
that have a coiled shell that is large enough for the animal to retract completely into. When the word "snail" is used in this most general sense, it includes not just land snails but also numerous species of sea snails and freshwater snails. Gastropods
Gastropods
that naturally lack a shell, or have only an internal shell, are mostly called slugs, and land snails that have only a very small shell (that they cannot retract into) are often called semi-slugs. Snails have considerable human relevance, including as food items, as pests, as vectors of disease, and their shells are used as decorative objects and are incorporated into jewelry
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Abdominal Pain
Abdominal pain, also known as a stomach ache, is a symptom associated with both non-serious and serious medical issues. Common causes of pain in the abdomen include gastroenteritis and irritable bowel syndrome.[1] About 10% of people have a more serious underlying condition such as appendicitis, leaking or ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm, diverticulitis, or ectopic pregnancy.[1] In a third of cases the exact cause is unclear.[1] Given that a variety of diseases can cause some form of abdominal pain, a systematic approach to examination of a person and the formulation of a differential diagnosis remains important.Contents1 Diagnostic approach 2 Differential diagnosis2.1 Acute abdominal pain2.1.1 Selected causes2.2 By location3 Management 4 Epidemiology 5 References 6 External linksDiagnostic approach[edit] In order to better understand the underlying cause of abdominal pain, one can perform a thorough history and physical examination.
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Physician
A physician, medical practitioner, medical doctor, or simply doctor is a professional who practises medicine, which is concerned with promoting, maintaining, or restoring health through the study, diagnosis, and treatment of disease, injury, and other physical and mental impairments. Physicians may focus their practice on certain disease categories, types of patients and methods of treatment—known as specialities—or they may assume responsibility for the provision of continuing and comprehensive medical care to individuals, families, and communities—known as general practice.[3] Medical practice properly requires both a detailed knowledge of the academic disciplines (such as anatomy and physiology) underlying diseases and their treatment—the science of medicine—and also a decent competence in its applied practice—the art or craft of medicine. Both the role of the physician and the meaning of the word itself vary around the world
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Gilmour Street Station
Paisley Gilmour Street railway station is the largest of the four stations serving the town of Paisley, Renfrewshire, Scotland (Gilmour Street, St. James, Paisley Canal and Hawkhead), and acts as the town's principal railway station. The station is managed by Abellio ScotRail and is on the Ayrshire Coast Line, 7 1⁄4 miles (11.7 km) west of Glasgow Central. The station is protected as a category B listed building.[3]Contents1 History1.1 Twentieth century2 Operations2.1 British Transport Police3 Services3.1 20164 Rail & Sea Connections4.1 Northern Ireland 4.2 Argyll and Bute 4.3 Isle of Arran5 References5.1 Notes 5.2 SourcesHistory[edit]Railway Clearing House diagram of lines through Paisley in 1908The station was opened on 14 July 1840 on the Glasgow, Paisley, Kilmarnock and Ayr Railway (GPK&AR).[2] The station was used jointly by the GPK&AR and the Glasgow, Paisley and Greenock Railway (GP&GR)
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Glasgow Royal Infirmary
The Glasgow Royal Infirmary (GRI) is a large teaching hospital, operated by NHS Greater Glasgow and Clyde,[2][3] With a capacity of around 1000 beds, the hospital campus covers an area of around 8 hectares (20 acres), situated on the north-eastern edge of the city centre of Glasgow, Scotland.Contents1 History1.1 New building 1.2 Post-war redevelopment2 Notable staff and research 3 References 4 Footnotes 5 External linksHistory[edit]Etching of a view of the infirmary by James Fittler in Scotia Depicta, published 1804Designed by Robert and James Adam, the original Royal Infirmary building was opened in December 1794. The infirmary was built beside Glasgow Cathedral on land that held the ruins of the Bishop's Castle, which dated from at least the 13th century but had been allowed to fall into disrepair. A Royal Charter was obtained in 1791, that granted the Crown-owned land to the hospital
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Gastroenteritis
Gastroenteritis, also known as infectious diarrhea, is inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract that involves the stomach and small intestine.[8] Symptoms may include diarrhea, vomiting, and abdominal pain.[1] Fever, lack of energy, and dehydration may also occur.[2][3] This typically lasts less than two weeks.[8] It is not related to influenza though it has been called the "stomach flu".[9] Gastroenteritis
Gastroenteritis
can be due to infections by viruses, bacteria, parasites, and fungus.[2][4] The most common cause is viruses.[4] In children rotavirus is the most common cause of severe disease.[10] In adults, norovirus and
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