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Dongxiangs
The Dongxiang people (autonym: Sarta or Santa (撒尔塔); simplified Chinese: 东乡族; traditional Chinese: 東鄉族; pinyin: Dōngxiāngzú; Xiao'erjing: دْوݣسِيْاݣذُ) are one of 56 ethnic groups officially recognized by the People's Republic of China. Most of the Dongxiang live in the Linxia Hui Autonomous Prefecture
Linxia Hui Autonomous Prefecture
and surrounding areas of Gansu
Gansu
Province in northwestern China. According to the 2010 census, their population numbers 621,500.Contents1 Origin and development1.1 Miscegenation2 Economy 3 Language and education 4 Genetics 5 Famous Dongxiang people 6 References 7 External linksOrigin and development[edit] The Dongxiang are closely related to other Mongolic peoples like the Monguor and Bonan
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Gansu
Gansu
Gansu
(Chinese: 甘肃, Tibetan: ཀན་སུའུ་ Kan su'u[4]) is a province of the People's Republic of China, located in the northwest of the country. It lies between the Tibetan and Loess plateaus, and borders Mongolia, Inner Mongolia, and Ningxia
Ningxia
to the north, Xinjiang
Xinjiang
and Qinghai
Qinghai
to the west, Sichuan
Sichuan
to the south, and Shaanxi
Shaanxi
to the east. The Yellow River passes through the southern part of the province. Gansu
Gansu
has a population of 26 million (as of 2009) and covers an area of 425,800 square kilometres (164,400 sq mi). The capital is Lanzhou, located in the southeast part of the province. The State of Qin
State of Qin
originated in what is now southeastern Gansu, and went on to form the first dynasty of Imperial China
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Afaqi Khoja Revolts
During the early and mid-19th century in China, the Afaqi Khojas in the Khanate of Kokand
Khanate of Kokand
(descended from Khoja Burhanuddin and ultimately from Afaq Khoja) unsuccessfully tried to invade Kashgar
Kashgar
and regain Altishahr
Altishahr
from the Qing
Qing
dynasty.Contents1 History 2 The khojas 3 Legacy 4 See also 5 References 6 BibliographyHistory[edit] See also: Dzungar conquest of Altishahr Hui merchants fought for the Qing dynasty
Qing dynasty
in 1826 against Turkic Muslim rebels led by the Jahangir Khoja. The Muslim Khojas and Khanate of Kokand were resisted by the Qing
Qing
army and Dungan merchants
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Hui Liangyu
Hui Liangyu
Hui Liangyu
(Chinese: 回良玉; pinyin: Huí Liángyù, Xiao'erjing: ﺧُﻮِ ﻟِﯿْﺎ ﻳُﻮْْ‎ ; born October 1944) was a Vice Premier of the People's Republic of China
Vice Premier of the People's Republic of China
in charge of agriculture. Biography[edit] Hui was born in Yushu, Jilin
Yushu, Jilin
Province. He is a member of the Hui ethnic minority. Starting in 1969, he worked in a number of Communist Party and government positions, rising to full membership in the Politburo of the CPC Central Committee
CPC Central Committee
in November 2002. He was the CPC party chief
CPC party chief
in Jiangsu
Jiangsu
from 2000 to 2002
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Uyghur Arabic Alphabet
U+0600 to U+06FF U+0750 to U+077F U+FB50 to U+FDFF U+FE70 to U+FEFFThis article contains IPA phonetic symbols. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Unicode
Unicode
characters
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Xiao'erjing
Egyptian hieroglyphs
Egyptian hieroglyphs
32 c. BCE Hieratic
Hieratic
32 c. BCEDemotic 7 c. BCEMeroitic 3 c. BCEProto-Sinaitic 19 c. BCEUgaritic 15 c. BCE Epigraphic South Arabian 9 c. BCEGe’ez 5–6 c. BCEPhoenician 12 c. BCEPaleo-Hebrew 10 c. BCESamaritan 6 c. BCE Libyco-Berber
Libyco-Berber
3 c. BCETifinaghPaleohispanic (semi-syllabic) 7 c. BCE Aramaic 8 c. BCE Kharoṣṭhī
Kharoṣṭhī
4 c. BCE Brāhmī 4 c. BCE Brahmic family
Brahmic family
(see)E.g. Tibetan 7 c. CE Devanagari 13 c. CECanadian syllabics 1840Hebrew 3 c. BCE Pahlavi 3 c. BCEAvestan 4 c. CEPalmyrene 2 c. BCE Syriac 2 c. BCENabataean 2 c. BCEArabic 4 c. CEN'Ko 1949 CESogdian 2 c. BCEOrkhon (old Turkic) 6 c. CEOld Hungarian c. 650 CEOld UyghurMongolian 1204 CEMandaic 2 c. CEGreek 8 c. BCEEtruscan 8 c. BCELatin 7 c
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Islam During The Tang Dynasty
A dynasty (UK: /ˈdɪnəsti/, US: /ˈdaɪnəsti/) is a sequence of rulers from the same family,[1] usually in the context of a feudal or monarchical system, but sometimes also appearing in elective republics. The dynastic family or lineage may be known as a "house",[2] which may be styled as "royal", "princely", "ducal", "comital", etc., depending upon the chief or present title borne by its members. Historians periodize the histories of many sovereign states, such as Ancient Egypt, the Carolingian Empire
Carolingian Empire
and Imperial China, using a framework of successive dynasties. As such, the term "dynasty" may be used to delimit the era during which the family reigned and to describe events, trends, and artifacts of that period ("a Ming-dynasty vase")
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Dynasties In Chinese History
The following is a chronology of the dynasties in Chinese History.Contents1 Background 2 Dynasties of China 3 See also 4 References 5 Sources 6 External linksBackground[edit] As one might incorrectly infer from viewing historical timelines, it is not usually the case that one dynasty transitions abruptly and smoothly into another. Rather, dynasties were often established before the complete overthrow of an existing reign, or continued for a time after they had been defeated. For example, the conventional date 1645 marks the year in which the Qing dynasty
Qing dynasty
armies overthrew the preceding Ming dynasty, according to the dynastic cycle of China. However, the Qing dynasty
Qing dynasty
was established in 1636 (or even 1616, albeit under a different name), while the last Ming dynasty
Ming dynasty
pretender was not deposed until 1663
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Great Mosque Of Xi'an
The Great Mosque
Mosque
of Xi'an
Xi'an
(Chinese: 西安大清真寺; pinyin: Xīān Dà Qīngzhēnsì) is the largest mosque in China.[1]:128 An active place of worship within Xi'an
Xi'an
Muslim Quarter, this courtyard complex is also a popular tourist site. The majority of the mosque was built during the early Ming dynasty.[2]:121 It now houses more than twenty buildings in its five courtyards, and covers 12,000 square meters.Contents1 Etymology 2 History 3 Architecture 4 Gallery 5 See also 6 References 7 External linksEtymology[edit] The mosque is also known as the Huajue Mosque
Mosque
(Chinese: 化觉巷清真寺; pinyin: Huàjué Xiàng Qīngzhēnsì), for its location on 30 Huajue Lane
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Hazaras
4,300[8] Indonesia3,800[9]Languages Hazaragi
Hazaragi
and Dari (eastern varieties of Persian)Religion Shia Islam
Shia Islam
(
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Sunni Islam
OthersZahiri Awza'i Thawri Laythi Jariri Sunni
Sunni
schools of theologyAsh'ari Maturidi TraditionalistOthers:Mu'tazila Murji'ahContemporary movementsAhl-i Hadith Al-Ahbash Barelvi Deobandi Islamic Modernism Salafi
Salafi
movement WahhabismHoly sitesJerusalem Mecca Medina Mount SinaiListsLiteratureKutub al-Sittah Islam
Islam
portalv t eThis article contains Arabic text. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols. Sunni
Sunni
Islam
Islam
(/ˈsuːni, ˈsʊni/) is the largest denomination of Islam
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Islam In China (1911–present)
Islam
Islam
(/ˈɪslɑːm/)[note 1] is an Abrahamic monotheistic religion teaching that there is only one God
God
(Allah)[1] and that Muhammad
Muhammad
is the messenger of God.[2][3] It is the world's second-largest religion[4] and the fastest-growing major religion in the world,[5][6][7] with over 1.8 billion followers or 24.1% of the global population,[8] known as Muslims.[9] Muslims make up a majority of the population in 50 countries.[4] Islam
Islam
teaches that God
God
is merciful, all-powerful, unique[10] and has guided mankind through prophets, revealed scriptures and natural signs.[3][11] The primary scriptures of Islam
Islam
are the Quran, viewed by Muslims as the verbatim word of God, and the teachings and normative example (called the sunnah, composed of accounts called hadith) of Muhammad
Muhammad
(c
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Santa Language
The Santa language, also known as Dongxiang (东乡语 Dōngxiāng yǔ), is a Mongolic language spoken by the Dongxiang people
Dongxiang people
in northwest China.Contents1 Phonology 2 Grammar 3 Writing system 4 Numerals 5 The Tangwang language 6 References6.1 Sources7 Further reading 8 External linksPhonology[edit] Dongxiang is a Mongolic language. Dongxiang has neither vowel harmony nor distinctions of vowel length.[2] Except for a limited number of cases there is no vowel harmony, and the harmonic rules governing the suffix pronunciation are by far not as strict as those of Mongolian. There are no dialects in strict sense, but three local varieties (tuyu) can be found: Suonanba (ca. 50% of all Dongxiang speakers), Wangjiaji (ca. 30% of all Dongxiang speakers) and Sijiaji (ca. 20% of all Dongxiang speakers). Grammar[edit]This section may require cleanup to meet's quality standards
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Ma Yize
Ma Yize
Ma Yize
(traditional: 馬依澤, simplified: 马依泽, ca
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Ma Qixi
Ma Qixi
Ma Qixi
(1857–1914; simplified Chinese: 马启西; traditional Chinese: 馬啟西; pinyin: Mǎ Qǐxī; Wade–Giles: Ma Chi-hsi, Xiao'erjing: ﻣَﺎ چِ ثِ‎), a Hui from Gansu, was the founder of the Xidaotang, a Chinese-Islamic school of thought.Part of a series on: Islam
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Ma Mingxin
Ma Mingxin
Ma Mingxin
(1719–1781) (simplified Chinese: 马明心、马明新; traditional Chinese: 馬明心、馬明新; pinyin: Mǎ Míngxīn; Wade–Giles: Ma Ming-hsin) was a Chinese Sufi
Sufi
master, the founder of the Jahriyya menhuan ( Naqshbandi
Naqshbandi
Sufi
Sufi
order).[1]Contents1 Names 2 Life 3 Legacy 4 ReferencesNames[edit] Ma Mingxin's Arabic
Arabic
given name was Ibrāhīm. After returning to China from Arabia he started calling himself 'Azīz.[2] He was also called Muhammad Emin (Arabic: محمد أمين‎).[3] Followers of the Jahriyyah sometimes refer to him by the title of Wiqāyatullāh (Arabic: وقاية الله)[4] Life[edit] A Chinese-speaking Muslim from Gansu,[2] Ma Mingxin
Ma Mingxin
spent 16 years[5] studying in Mecca[2] and Yemen
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