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Donald Davies
DONALD WATTS DAVIES, CBE , FRS (7 June 1924 – 28 May 2000) was a Welsh computer scientist who was employed at the UK National Physical Laboratory (NPL) . In 1965 he developed the concept of packet switching in computer networking , and implemented it in the NPL network . This was independent of the work of Paul Baran
Paul Baran
in the United States who had a similar idea in the early 1960s. The ARPANET project credited Davies primarily for his influence. CONTENTS * 1 Early life * 2 Career history * 2.1 National Physical Laboratory * 2.2 Packet switched network design * 2.3 Later work * 3 Awards and honours * 4 Family * 5 Books * 6 References * 7 External links EARLY LIFEDavies was born in Treorchy
Treorchy
in the Rhondda
Rhondda
Valley, Wales
Wales

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Universal Turing Machine
In computer science , a UNIVERSAL TURING MACHINE (UTM) is a Turing machine that can simulate an arbitrary Turing machine
Turing machine
on arbitrary input. The universal machine essentially achieves this by reading both the description of the machine to be simulated as well as the input thereof from its own tape. Alan Turing
Alan Turing
introduced this machine in 1936–1937. This model is considered by some (for example, Martin Davis (2000)) to be the origin of the stored program computer —used by John von Neumann
John von Neumann
(1946) for the "Electronic Computing Instrument" that now bears von Neumann's name: the von Neumann architecture . It is also known as UNIVERSAL COMPUTING MACHINE, UNIVERSAL MACHINE (UM), MACHINE U, U. In terms of computational complexity , a multi-tape universal Turing machine need only be slower by logarithmic factor compared to the machines it simulates
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Special
SPECIAL or SPECIALS may refer to: CONTENTS * 1 Music * 2 Film and television * 3 Other uses * 4 See also MUSIC * Special (album) , a 1992 album by Vesta Williams * "Special" (Garbage song) , 1998 * "Special" (Mew song) , 2005 * "Special" (Stephen Lynch song) , 2000 * The Specials
The Specials
, a British band * "Special", a song by Violent Femmes on The Blind Leading the Naked * "Special", a song on
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English Electric DEUCE
The DEUCE (Digital Electronic Universal Computing Engine) was one of the earliest British commercially available computers , built by English Electric from 1955. It was the production version of the Pilot ACE , itself a cut down version of Alan Turing 's ACE . CONTENTS * 1 Hardware description * 2 Software * 3 Programming * 4 Production * 5 See also * 6 References * 7 External links HARDWARE DESCRIPTIONThe DEUCE had 1450 thermionic valves , and used mercury delay lines for its main memory ; each of the 12 delay lines could store 32 instructions or data words of 32 bits. It adopted the then high 1 megahertz clock rate of the Pilot ACE. Input–output was via Hollerith 80-column punch-card equipment. The reader read cards at the rate of 200 per minute, while the card punch rate was 100 cards per minute. The DEUCE also had an 8192-word magnetic drum for main storage
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Software Bug
A SOFTWARE BUG is an error, flaw, failure or fault in a computer program or system that causes it to produce an incorrect or unexpected result, or to behave in unintended ways. Most bugs arise from mistakes and errors made in either a program's source code or its design , or in components and operating systems used by such programs. A few are caused by compilers producing incorrect code. A program that contains a large number of bugs, and/or bugs that seriously interfere with its functionality, is said to be buggy (defective). Bugs trigger errors that may have ripple effects . Bugs may have subtle effects or cause the program to crash or freeze the computer. Others qualify as security bugs and might, for example, enable a malicious user to bypass access controls in order to obtain unauthorized privileges . Bugs in code that controls the Therac-25 radiation therapy machine were directly responsible for patient deaths in the 1980s
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Automatic Computing Engine
The AUTOMATIC COMPUTING ENGINE (ACE) was an early electronic stored-program computer designed by Alan Turing . The project was managed by John R. Womersley , superintendent of the Mathematics Division of the National Physical Laboratory (NPL). The use of the word Engine was in homage to Charles Babbage and his Difference Engine and Analytical Engine . Turing's technical design Proposed Electronic Calculator was the product of his theoretical work in 1936 "On Computable Numbers" and his wartime experience at Bletchley Park where the Colossus computers had been successful in breaking German military codes. In his 1936 paper, Turing described his idea as a "universal computing machine", but it is now known as the Universal Turing machine . On 19 February 1946 Turing presented a detailed paper to the National Physical Laboratory (NPL) Executive Committee, giving the first reasonably complete design of a stored-program computer
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Klaus Fuchs
EMIL JULIUS KLAUS FUCHS (29 December 1911 – 28 January 1988) was a German theoretical physicist and atomic spy who, in 1950, was convicted of supplying information from the American, British, and Canadian Manhattan Project
Manhattan Project
to the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
during and shortly after the Second World War
Second World War
. While at the Los Alamos National Laboratory , Fuchs was responsible for many significant theoretical calculations relating to the first nuclear weapons , and later, early models of the hydrogen bomb . The son of a Lutheran
Lutheran
pastor, Fuchs attended the University of Leipzig , where his father was a professor of theology , and became involved in student politics, joining the student branch of the Social Democratic Party of Germany (SPD), and the Reichsbanner Schwarz-Rot-Gold , the SPD's paramilitary organisation
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Tube Alloys
TUBE ALLOYS was a codename of the clandestine research and development programme, authorised by the United Kingdom, with participation from Canada, to develop nuclear weapons during the Second World War
Second World War
. Starting before the Manhattan Project
Manhattan Project
in the United States, the British efforts were kept classified and as such had to be referred to by code even within the highest circles of government. The possibility of nuclear weapons was acknowledged early in the war. At the University of Birmingham
University of Birmingham
, Rudolf Peierls and Otto Frisch co-wrote a memorandum explaining that a small mass of pure uranium-235 could be used to produce a chain reaction in a bomb with the power of thousands of tons of TNT
TNT
. This led to the formation of the MAUD Committee , which called for an all-out effort to develop nuclear weapons
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Alan Turing
ALAN MATHISON TURING OBE FRS (/ˈtjʊərɪŋ/ ; 23 June 1912 – 7 June 1954) was an English computer scientist , mathematician , logician , cryptanalyst , philosopher and theoretical biologist . He was highly influential in the development of theoretical computer science , providing a formalisation of the concepts of algorithm and computation with the Turing machine
Turing machine
, which can be considered a model of a general purpose computer . Turing is widely considered to be the father of theoretical computer science and artificial intelligence . During the Second World War
Second World War
, he worked for the Government Code and Cypher School (GC 1881–1976), daughter of Edward Waller Stoney, chief engineer of the Madras Railways
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English Electric Computers
The LEO I (Lyons Electronic Office I) was the first computer used for commercial business applications. The prototype LEO I was modelled closely on the Cambridge EDSAC . Its construction was overseen by Oliver Standingford, Raymond Thompson and David Caminer of J. Lyons and Co. . LEO I ran its first business application in 1951. In 1954 Lyons formed LEO Computers Ltd to market LEO I and its successors LEO II and LEO III to other companies. LEO Computers eventually became part of English Electric Company (EELM) and then International Computers Limited (ICL) and ultimately Fujitsu . LEO series computers were still in use until 1981. CONTENTS * 1 Origins and initial design * 2 Technical description * 3 Applications and successors * 3.1 Leo III * 4 Legacy * 5 See also * 6 References * 7 Bibliography * 7.1 Books * 7.2 Articles * 8 External links ORIGINS AND INITIAL DESIGNJ. Lyons and Co
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Teddington
TEDDINGTON is an affluent suburban area in south west London
London
in the London Borough of Richmond upon Thames
London Borough of Richmond upon Thames
. Until 1965, it was in the historic county of Middlesex
Middlesex
. Teddington
Teddington
is on the north bank of the Thames , just after the start of a long meander , between Hampton Wick and Strawberry Hill, Twickenham
Twickenham
. Mostly residential, it stretches from the Thames to Bushy Park
Bushy Park
with a long high street reaching down to pubs, restaurants, leisure premises, fields and fitness clubs by the riverside, having a pedestrian suspension bridge over the lowest non-tidal lock on the Thames, Teddington Lock
Teddington Lock
. Teddington's centre is mid-rise urban development
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Computer Security
COMPUTER SECURITY, also known as CYBER SECURITY or IT SECURITY, is the protection of computer systems from the theft or damage to their hardware , software or information , as well as from disruption or misdirection of the services they provide. Cyber security includes controlling physical access to the hardware, as well as protecting against harm that may come via network access , data and code injection
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Message Authentication Code
In cryptography , a MESSAGE AUTHENTICATION CODE (MAC), sometimes known as a tag, is a short piece of information used to authenticate a message —in other words, to confirm that the message came from the stated sender (its authenticity) and has not been changed. The MAC value protects both a message's data integrity as well as its authenticity , by allowing verifiers (who also possess the secret key) to detect any changes to the message content
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British Computer Society
The BRITISH COMPUTER SOCIETY is a professional body and a learned society that represents those working in Information Technology
Information Technology
both in the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
and internationally. Established in 1957, in 2009 it rebranded as BCS — THE CHARTERED INSTITUTE FOR IT, although this has not been reflected in a legal name change. CONTENTS * 1 Overview * 2 History * 3 Governance * 4 Chartered IT Professional * 5 Membership * 6 Qualifications * 6.1 BCS IT User Qualifications * 6.2 BCS Higher Education Qualifications (HEQs) * 6.3 Other certifications * 6.4 Retired qualifications * 7 Structure * 7.1 Regional branches * 7.2 International sections * 7.3 Specialist Groups * 8 Works * 9 References OVERVIEWWith a worldwide membership of over 82,000 members in over 100 countries, BCS is a registered charity and was incorporated by Royal Charter in 1984
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Blue Plaque
A BLUE PLAQUE is a permanent sign installed in a public place in the United Kingdom and elsewhere to commemorate a link between that location and a famous person or event, serving as a historical marker . The brainchild of British politician William Ewart in 1863, it is the oldest such scheme in the world. The world's first blue plaques were erected in London in the 19th century to mark the homes and workplaces of famous people. This scheme continues to the present day, having been administered successively by the Society of Arts (1867–1901), the London County Council (1901–1965), the Greater London Council
Greater London Council
(1965–1986), and English Heritage
English Heritage
(1986 to date). Many other plaque schemes have since been initiated in the United Kingdom. Some are restricted to a specific geographical area, others to a particular theme of historical commemoration
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Advanced Research Projects Agency
The DEFENSE ADVANCED RESEARCH PROJECTS AGENCY (DARPA) is an agency of the U.S. Department of Defense responsible for the development of emerging technologies for use by the military. Originally known as the ADVANCED RESEARCH PROJECTS AGENCY (ARPA), the agency was created in February 1958 by President Dwight D. Eisenhower in response to the Soviet launching of Sputnik 1
Sputnik 1
in 1957. Since its inception, the agency’s mission is ensuring that the United States avoids further technological surprise. By collaborating with academic, industry, and government partners, DARPA
DARPA
formulates and executes research and development projects to expand the frontiers of technology and science, often beyond immediate U.S. military requirements
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