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Dominicus Gundissalinus
DOMINICUS GUNDISSALINUS, also known as DOMINGO GUNDISALVI or GUNDISALVO (c. 1115 - post 1190 ), was a philosopher and translator of Arabic to Medieval Latin
Medieval Latin
active in Toledo . Among his translations, Gundissalinus worked on Avicenna
Avicenna
's Liber de philosophia prima and De anima, Ibn Gabirol 's Fons vitae, and al-Ghazali 's Summa theoricae philosophiae, in collaboration with the Jewish philosopher Abraham Ibn Daud and Johannes Hispanus. As a philosopher, Gundissalinus crucially contributed to the Latin assimilation of Arabic philosophy , being the first Latin thinker in receiving and developing doctrines, such as Avicenna
Avicenna
's modal ontology or Ibn Gabirol 's universal hylomorphism, that would soon be integrated into the thirteenth-century philosophical debate
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1162
Year 1162 (MCLXII ) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar
Julian calendar
. CONTENTS* 1 Events * 1.1 By place * 1.1.1 Africa * 1.1.2 Asia * 1.1.3 Europe * 2 Births * 3 Deaths * 4 References EVENTSBY PLACEAfrica * The Almohad
Almohad
emir, Abd al-Mu\'min , prepares a gigantic fleet of some four hundred ships to invade Spain
Spain
. He dies the following year, before the fleet is completed
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1166
Year 1166 (MCLXVI ) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar . CONTENTS * 1 Events * 2 Births * 3 Deaths * 4 References EVENTS * July – Henry II of England conquers Brittany , granting the territory to his son Geoffrey . * July 5 – The town of Bad Kleinkirchheim , Austria is first mentioned (in an ecclesiastical document). * Henry II of England enacts the Assize of Clarendon , reforming English law and defining the legal duties of sheriffs
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1178
Year 1178 (MCLXXVIII ) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar . CONTENTS* 1 Events * 1.1 By area * 1.1.1 Europe * 1.2 By topic * 1.2.1 Art and science * 2 Births * 3 Deaths * 4 References EVENTSBY AREAEurope * July 17 – Provence : Saracen pirates, from the Balearic Islands , raid the Benedictine monastery of Saint Honorat on the Lérins Islands , and the city of Toulon , killing an estimated 300 and taking captives. The surviving captives are freed from the Balearic Islands in 1185 . * George III of Georgia defeats a nobles' revolt, and proclaims his daughter Tamar coregent. * The Portuguese troops conquer Beja from the Almohads
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1161
Year 1161 (MCLXI ) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar . CONTENTS* 1 Events * 1.1 By area * 1.1.1 Asia * 1.1.2 Europe * 2 Births * 3 Deaths * 4 References EVENTSBY AREAAsia * The Battle of Tangdao (November 16 ) and Battle of Caishi (November 26 –27 ) on the Yangtze river, during the Jin–Song Wars between the Jin Dynasty and the Song Dynasty in China, result in two pivotal Song naval victories. * December 15 – The Prince of Hailing is assassinated while on campaign. He is succeeded by Emperor Shizong .Europe * c. April – Bartholomew Iscanus becomes Bishop of Exeter in England . * Godfrey Ua Raghallaigh, king of East Breifne in Ireland, dies; his son Cathal succeeds him. * Eric Jedvardsson\'s murderer Magnus Henriksen is himself murdered by Karl Sverkersson , who then becomes king of Sweden. * A Muslim offensive against the young Portuguese kingdom reaches Almada
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Cuéllar
CUéLLAR (Spanish pronunciation: ) is a small Town and Municipality in the Province of Segovia , in the autonomous community of Castile and León , in Spain. It had a population of 9,725 in 2011. The town is settled on a hill, and it is 60 km north-east of the capital city of Segovia , and 50 km south of Valladolid . It has an extension of 272 km² and it is 857 m above sea level. Flowing though the town are the rivers Cerquilla and Cega. To the north, the town borders the municipality of Bahabón (province of Valladolid ); to the south it borders Sanchonuño ; to the east is Frumales ; and to the west are the municipalities of San Cristóbal de Cuéllar and Vallelado . Cuéllar has a long-standing agriculture tradition. Specific crops are cereals , vegetables , chicory , legumes , and beet . Specific livestock raised are pigs, sheep and cows. Many years ago, forestry and resin production were important economic resources too
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Castile (historical Region)
CASTILE (/kæˈstiːl/ ; Spanish : Castilla ) is a vaguely defined historical region of Spain
Spain
. There are different conceptions and definitions of Castile, and since it lacks modern day official recognition, it has no clearly defined borders. Historically, the Kingdom of Castile
Kingdom of Castile
occupied the area. After the kingdom merged with its neighbours to become the Crown of Castile
Crown of Castile
and later the Kingdom of Spain
Spain
, when it united with the Crown of Aragon
Crown of Aragon
and the Kingdom of Navarre , the definition of what constituted Castile gradually began to change. Its historical capital was Burgos
Burgos

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Segovia
SEGOVIA (/sɪˈɡoʊviə/ ; Spanish pronunciation: ) is a city in the autonomous region of Castile and León
Castile and León
, Spain. It is the capital of Segovia Province . CONTENTS * 1 Etymology * 2 Geography * 2.1 Location * 2.2 Climate * 2.3 Population centers * 3 History * 4 Demographics * 5 Heritage * 5.1 World Heritage City * 5.2 Religious architecture * 5.2.1 Churches and chapels * 5.2.2 Monasteries and convents * 5.3 Civil architecture * 5.4 Urban sculpture * 5.5 Parks and gardens * 6 Economy * 7 Education * 8 Culture * 8.1 Museums * 8.2 MUCES * 8.3 Festivities * 8.3.1 Holy Week * 9 Notable people * 10 Twin towns – Sister cities * 11 Antipode * 12 References * 13 External links ETYMOLOGYThe name of Segovia
Segovia
is of Celtiberian origin. The first inhabitants named the city Segobriga
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1181
Year 1181 (MCLXXXI ) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar . CONTENTS* 1 Events * 1.1 Asia * 1.2 Europe * 1.3 By topic * 1.3.1 Science * 1.3.2 Religion * 2 Births * 3 Deaths * 4 References EVENTSASIA * Jayavarman VII defeats the Cham and assumes control of the Khmer Kingdom . * The Yowa era, marked by famine, begins in Japan .EUROPE * After a series of defeats, the Almohad navy, under the admiral Ahmad al-Siqilli, crushes the Portuguese fleet and reasserts its control over the Atlantic Ocean . * The word Albigensians is first used by chronicler Geoffroy du Breuil of Vigeois , to describe the inhabitants of Albi , France . * Philip Augustus annuls all loans made by Jews to Christians, and takes a percentage for himself. A year later, he confiscates all Jewish property and expels the Jews from Paris
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1115
Year 1115 (MCXV ) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar
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Special
SPECIAL or SPECIALS may refer to: CONTENTS * 1 Music * 2 Film and television * 3 Other uses * 4 See also MUSIC * Special (album) , a 1992 album by Vesta Williams * "Special" (Garbage song) , 1998 * "Special" (Mew song) , 2005 * "Special" (Stephen Lynch song) , 2000 * The Specials
The Specials
, a British band * "Special", a song by Violent Femmes on The Blind Leading the Naked * "Special", a song on
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Consilience
In science and history , CONSILIENCE (also CONVERGENCE OF EVIDENCE or CONCORDANCE OF EVIDENCE) refers to the principle that evidence from independent, unrelated sources can "converge" to strong conclusions. That is, when multiple sources of evidence are in agreement, the conclusion can be very strong even when none of the individual sources of evidence is significantly so on its own. Most established scientific knowledge is supported by a convergence of evidence: if not, the evidence is comparatively weak, and there will not likely be a strong scientific consensus . The principle is based on the unity of knowledge ; measuring the same result by several different methods should lead to the same answer. For example, it should not matter whether one measures the distance between the Great Pyramids of Giza by laser rangefinding , by satellite imaging , or with a meter stick – in all three cases, the answer should be approximately the same
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International Standard Book Number
The INTERNATIONAL STANDARD BOOK NUMBER (ISBN) is a unique numeric commercial book identifier. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation (except reprintings) of a book. For example, an e-book , a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, and 10 digits long if assigned before 2007. The method of assigning an ISBN is nation-based and varies from country to country, often depending on how large the publishing industry is within a country. The initial ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 based upon the 9-digit STANDARD BOOK NUMBERING (SBN) created in 1966. The 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO 2108 (the SBN code can be converted to a ten digit ISBN by prefixing it with a zero)
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Digital Object Identifier
In computing, a DIGITAL OBJECT IDENTIFIER or DOI is a persistent identifier or handle used to uniquely identify objects, standardized by the International Organization for Standardization
International Organization for Standardization
( ISO
ISO
). An implementation of the Handle System , DOIs are in wide use mainly to identify academic, professional, and government information, such as journal articles, research reports and data sets, and official publications though they also have been used to identify other types of information resources, such as commercial videos. A DOI aims to be "resolvable", usually to some form of access to the information object to which the DOI refers. This is achieved by binding the DOI to metadata about the object, such as a URL , indicating where the object can be found
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Latin Translations Of The 12th Century
LATIN (Latin: lingua latīna, IPA: ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages
Indo-European languages
. The Latin alphabet is derived from the Etruscan and Greek alphabets , and ultimately from the Phoenician alphabet
Phoenician alphabet
. Latin
Latin
was originally spoken in Latium
Latium
, in the Italian Peninsula
Italian Peninsula
. Through the power of the Roman Republic
Roman Republic
, it became the dominant language, initially in Italy and subsequently throughout the Roman Empire . Vulgar Latin
Vulgar Latin
developed into the Romance languages
Romance languages
, such as Italian , Portuguese , Spanish , French , and Romanian
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International Standard Serial Number
An INTERNATIONAL STANDARD SERIAL NUMBER (ISSN) is an eight-digit serial number used to uniquely identify a serial publication . The ISSN is especially helpful in distinguishing between serials with the same title. ISSN are used in ordering, cataloging, interlibrary loans, and other practices in connection with serial literature. The ISSN system was first drafted as an International Organization for Standardization (ISO) international standard in 1971 and published as ISO 3297 in 1975. ISO subcommittee TC 46/SC 9 is responsible for maintaining the standard. When a serial with the same content is published in more than one media type , a different ISSN is assigned to each media type. For example, many serials are published both in print and electronic media . The ISSN system refers to these types as PRINT ISSN (P-ISSN) and ELECTRONIC ISSN (E-ISSN), respectively
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