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Dominicus Gundissalinus
Dominicus Gundissalinus, also known as Domingo Gundisalvi or Gundisalvo (c. 1115 – post 1190), was a philosopher and translator of Arabic to Medieval Latin
Medieval Latin
active in Toledo
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Arabic Language
Arabic
Arabic
(Arabic: العَرَبِيَّة‎) al-ʻarabiyyah [ʔalʕaraˈbijːah] ( listen) or (Arabic: عَرَبِيّ‎) ʻarabī [ˈʕarabiː] ( listen) or [ʕaraˈbij]) is a Central Semitic language that first emerged in Iron Age northwestern Arabia and is now the lingua franca of the Arab world.[4] It is named after the Arabs, a term initially used to describe peoples living from Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia
in the east to the Anti- Lebanon
Lebanon
mountains in the west, in northwestern Arabia, and in the Sinai peninsula. Arabic
Arabic
is classified as a macrolanguage comprising 30 modern varieties, including its standard form (Modern Standard Arabic) [5]. The modern written language (Modern Standard Arabic) is derived from Classical Arabic
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Segovia
Segovia
Segovia
(/sɪˈɡoʊviə/; Spanish pronunciation: [seˈɣoβja][1]) is a city in the autonomous region of Castile and León, Spain, famous for its magnificent Roman aqueduct and for its cathedral, one of the last Gothic temples to be built in Europe. It is the capital of Province of Segovia.Contents1 Etymology 2 Geography2.1 Location 2.2 Climate 2.3 Population centers3 History 4 Demographics 5 Heritage5.1 World Heritage City 5.2 Religious architecture5.2.1 Churches and chapels 5.2.2 Monasteries and convents5.3 Civil architecture 5.4 Urban sculpture 5.5 Parks and gardens6 Economy 7 Education 8 Culture8.1 Museums 8.2 MUCES 8.3 Festivities8.3.1 Holy Week9 Notable people 10 Twin towns – sister cities 11 Antipode 12 References 13 External linksEtymology[edit] The name of Segovia
Segovia
is of Celtiberian origin
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Consilience
In science and history, consilience (also convergence of evidence or concordance of evidence) refers to the principle that evidence from independent, unrelated sources can "converge" to strong conclusions. That is, when multiple sources of evidence are in agreement, the conclusion can be very strong even when none of the individual sources of evidence is significantly so on its own. Most established scientific knowledge is supported by a convergence of evidence: if not, the evidence is comparatively weak, and there will not likely be a strong scientific consensus. The principle is based on the unity of knowledge; measuring the same result by several different methods should lead to the same answer. For example, it should not matter whether one measures the distance between the Giza pyramid complex
Giza pyramid complex
by laser rangefinding, by satellite imaging, or with a meter stick – in all three cases, the answer should be approximately the same
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Medieval Latin
Medieval Latin
Latin
was the form of Latin
Latin
used in the Middle Ages, primarily as a medium of scholarly exchange, as the liturgical language of Chalcedonian Christianity[dubious – discuss] and the Roman Catholic Church, and as a language of science, literature, law, and administration. Despite the clerical origin of many of its authors, medieval Latin
Latin
should not be confused with Ecclesiastical Latin. There is no real consensus on the exact boundary where Late Latin
Latin
ends and medieval Latin
Latin
begins
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Special
Special
Special
or specials may refer to:Contents1 Music 2 Film and television 3 Other uses 4 See alsoMusic[edit] Special
Special
(album), a 1992 album by Vesta Williams "Special" (Garbage song), 1998 "Special
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International Standard Book Number
"ISBN" redirects here. For other uses, see ISBN (other).International Standard Book
Book
NumberA 13-digit ISBN, 978-3-16-148410-0, as represented by an EAN-13 bar codeAcronym ISBNIntroduced 1970; 48 years ago (1970)Managing organisation International ISBN AgencyNo. of digits 13 (formerly 10)Check digit Weighted sumExample 978-3-16-148410-0Website www.isbn-international.orgThe International Standard Book
Book
Number (ISBN) is a unique[a][b] numeric commercial book identifier. Publishers purchase ISBNs from an affiliate of the International ISBN Agency.[1] An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation (except reprintings) of a book. For example, an e-book, a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, and 10 digits long if assigned before 2007
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International Standard Serial Number
An International Standard Serial Number
International Standard Serial Number
(ISSN) is an eight-digit serial number used to uniquely identify a serial publication.[1] The ISSN is especially helpful in distinguishing between serials with the same title. ISSN are used in ordering, cataloging, interlibrary loans, and other practices in connection with serial literature.[2] The ISSN system was first drafted as an International Organization for Standardization (ISO) international standard in 1971 and published as ISO 3297 in 1975.[3] ISO subcommittee TC 46/SC 9 is responsible for maintaining the standard. When a serial with the same content is published in more than one media type, a different ISSN is assigned to each media type. For example, many serials are published both in print and electronic media
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Digital Object Identifier
In computing, a Digital Object Identifier or DOI is a persistent identifier or handle used to uniquely identify objects, standardized by the International Organization for Standardization
International Organization for Standardization
(ISO).[1] An implementation of the Handle System,[2][3] DOIs are in wide use mainly to identify academic, professional, and government information, such as journal articles, research reports and data sets, and official publications though they also have been used to identify other types of information resources, such as commercial videos. A DOI aims to be "resolvable", usually to some form of access to the information object to which the DOI refers. This is achieved by binding the DOI to metadata about the object, such as a URL, indicating where the object can be found. Thus, by being actionable and interoperable, a DOI differs from identifiers such as ISBNs and ISRCs which aim only to uniquely identify their referents
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Latin Translations Of The 12th Century
Latin
Latin
translations of the 12th century were spurred by a major search by European scholars for new learning unavailable in western Europe at the time; their search led them to areas of southern Europe, particularly in central Spain and Sicily, which recently had come under Christian rule following their reconquest in the late 11th century. These areas had been under a Muslim
Muslim
rule for considerable time, and still had substantial Arabic-speaking populations to support their search. The combination of Muslim
Muslim
accumulated knowledge, substantial numbers of Arabic-speaking scholars, and the new Christian rulers made these areas intellectually attractive, as well as culturally and politically accessible to Latin
Latin
scholars.[2] A typical story is that of Gerard of Cremona
Gerard of Cremona
(c
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Burgos
Burgos
Burgos
(Spanish pronunciation: [ˈbuɾɣos], UK: /ˈbʊərɡɒs/, US: /ˈbʊərɡoʊs/) is a city in northern Spain
Spain
and the historic capital of Castile. It is situated on the confluence of the Arlanzón river tributaries, at the edge of the Iberian central plateau. It has about 180,000 inhabitants in the actual city and another 20,000 in the metropolitan area. It is the capital of the province of Burgos, in the autonomous community of Castile and León
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Cuéllar
Cuéllar
Cuéllar
(Spanish pronunciation: [ˈkweʎar]) is a small Town and Municipality in the Province of Segovia, in the autonomous community of Castile and León, in Spain. It had a population of 9,725 in 2011. The town is settled on a hill, and it is 60 km north-east of the capital city of Segovia, and 50 km south of Valladolid. It has an extension of 272 km² and it is 857 m above sea level. Flowing though the town are the rivers Cerquilla and Cega. To the north, the town borders the municipality of Bahabón
Bahabón
(province of Valladolid); to the south it borders Sanchonuño; to the east is Frumales; and to the west are the municipalities of San Cristóbal de Cuéllar and Vallelado. Cuéllar
Cuéllar
has a long-standing agriculture tradition. Specific crops are cereals, vegetables, chicory, legumes, and beet. Specific livestock raised are pigs, sheep and cows
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Testability
Testability, a property applying to an empirical hypothesis, involves two components:The logical property that is variously described as contingency, defeasibility, or falsifiability, which means that counterexamples to the hypothesis are logically possible. The practical feasibility of observing a reproducible series of such counterexamples if they do exist.In short, a hypothesis is testable if there is some real hope of deciding whether it is true or false of real experience. Upon this property of its constituent hypotheses rests the ability to decide whether a theory can be supported or falsified by the data of actual experience. If hypotheses are tested, initial results may also be labeled inconclusive. See also[edit]Philosophy of science portal Science portalLook up testability or testable in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.Confirmability Contingency Controllability Observability Scientific methodFurther reading[edit]Popper, Karl (2008)
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Castile (historical Region)
Castile (/kæˈstiːl/; Spanish: Castilla [kasˈtiʎa]) is a vaguely defined historical region of Spain. There are different conceptions and definitions of Castile, and since it lacks modern day official recognition, it has no clearly defined borders. Historically, the Kingdom of Castile
Kingdom of Castile
occupied the area. After the kingdom merged with its neighbours to become the Crown of Castile
Crown of Castile
and later the Kingdom of Spain, when it united with the Crown of Aragon
Crown of Aragon
and the Kingdom of Navarre, the definition of what constituted Castile gradually began to change. Its historical capital was Burgos
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William Of Conches
William of Conches (c. 1090 – after 1154) was a French scholastic philosopher who sought to expand the bounds of Christian humanism
Christian humanism
by studying secular works of the classics and fostering empirical science. He was a prominent member of the School of Chartres. John of Salisbury, a bishop of Chartres
Chartres
and former student of William's, refers to William as the most talented grammarian after Bernard of Chartres.Contents1 Life 2 Works 3 De philosophia mundi 4 Editions and translations 5 See also 6 Notes 7 Further reading 8 External linksLife[edit] He was born in Conches, Normandy. His teaching activity extended from c. 1120 to 1154, and about the year 1145 he became the tutor of Henry Plantagenet. It is possible, but uncertain, that he was teaching at Chartres
Chartres
before that
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Chartres
1 French Land Register data, which excludes lakes, ponds, glaciers > 1 km2 (0.386 sq mi or 247 acres) and river estuaries. 2 Population without double counting: residents of multiple communes (e.g., students and military personnel) only counted once. Chartres
Chartres
(French pronunciation: ​[ʃaʁtʁ]) is a commune and capital of the Eure-et-Loir
Eure-et-Loir
department in France. It is located 96 km (60 mi) southwest of Paris
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