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Dobunni
The Dobunni
Dobunni
were one of the Iron Age tribes living in the British Isles prior to the Roman invasion of Britain. There are seven known references to the tribe in Roman histories and inscriptions.[1][2] Various historians and archaeologists have examined the Dobunni, including Stephen J
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Battle Of Deorham
The Battle of Deorham
Battle of Deorham
(or Dyrham) was a decisive military encounter between the West Saxons and the Britons of the West Country
West Country
in 577. The battle, which was a major victory for the Wessex
Wessex
forces led by Ceawlin and his son, Cuthwine, resulted in the capture of the Brythonic cities of Glevum
Glevum
(Gloucester), Corinium
Corinium
Dobunnorum (Cirencester) and Aquae Sulis
Aquae Sulis
(Bath). It also led to the permanent cultural and ethnic separation of Dumnonia
Dumnonia
( Devon
Devon
and Cornwall) from Wales. The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle
Anglo-Saxon Chronicle
is the only source that carries a mention of the battle. Although it gives few details, it describes it as a major engagement
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Blaise Castle
Blaise Castle
Blaise Castle
is a folly built in 1766 near Henbury
Henbury
in Bristol, England. The castle sits within the Blaise Castle
Blaise Castle
Estate, which also includes Blaise Castle
Blaise Castle
House, a Grade II* listed 18th-century mansion house. The folly castle is also Grade II* listed and ancillary buildings including the orangery and dairy also have listings. Along with Blaise Hamlet, a group of nine small cottages around a green built in 1811 for retired employees, and various subsidiary buildings, the parkland is listed Grade II* on the Register of Historic Parks and Gardens of special historic interest in England. The site has signs of occupation during the Neolithic, Bronze Age, Iron Age
Iron Age
and Roman periods. After the Dissolution of the Monasteries the site was sold
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Roman Currency
Roman currency
Roman currency
for most of Roman history
Roman history
consisted of gold, silver, bronze, orichalcum and copper coinage.[1] (See: Roman metallurgy) From its introduction to the Republic, during the third century BC, well into Imperial times, Roman currency
Roman currency
saw many changes in form, denomination, and composition. A persistent feature was the inflationary debasement and replacement of coins over the centuries. Notable examples of this followed the reforms of Diocletian. This trend continued into Byzantine times.Contents1 Authority to mint coins 2 History2.1 Roman Republic: c
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Battle Of Cirencester
The Battle of Cirencester
Cirencester
was fought in 628 at Cirencester
Cirencester
in modern-day England. The conflict involved the armies of Mercia, under King Penda, and the Gewisse (predecessors of the West Saxons), under Kings Cynegils
Cynegils
and Cwichelm. The Mercians defeated the Gewisse and, according to Bede, "after reaching an agreement", took control of the Severn valley and the minor kingdom of the Hwicce, which had been under the influence of the Gewisse since the Battle of Dyrham
Battle of Dyrham
in 577.[1][2] References[edit]^ The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle ^ Palmer, Alan; Palmer, Veronica (1992). The Chronology of British History. London: Century Ltd
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Maes Knoll
Maes Knoll
Maes Knoll
(sometimes Maes tump or Maes Knoll
Maes Knoll
tump) is an Iron Age hill fort in Somerset, England, located at the eastern end of the Dundry Down
Dundry Down
ridge, south of the city of Bristol
Bristol
and north of the village of Norton Malreward
Norton Malreward
near the eastern side of Dundry
Dundry
Hill
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Burgh Walls Camp
Burgh Walls Camp
Burgh Walls Camp
is a multivallate Iron Age
Iron Age
hill fort in the North Somerset
Somerset
district of Somerset, England
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West Saxons
Wessex
Wessex
(/ˈwɛsɪks/; Old English: Westseaxna rīce [westsæɑksnɑ riːt͡ʃe], "kingdom of the West Saxons") was an Anglo-Saxon
Anglo-Saxon
kingdom in the south of Great Britain, from 519 until England was unified by Æthelstan
Æthelstan
in the early 10th century. The Anglo-Saxons
Anglo-Saxons
believed that Wessex
Wessex
was founded by Cerdic and Cynric, but this may be a legend. The two main sources for the history of Wessex
Wessex
are the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle
Anglo-Saxon Chronicle
and the West Saxon Genealogical Regnal List, which sometimes conflict. Wessex
Wessex
became a Christian kingdom after Cenwalh was baptised and was expanded under his rule. Cædwalla
Cædwalla
later conquered Sussex, Kent
Kent
and the Isle of Wight
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Mercia
Mercia (/ˈmɜːrʃiə, -ʃə/;[1] Old English: Miercna rīce) was one of the kingdoms of the Anglo-Saxon Heptarchy. The name is a Latinisation of the Old English Mierce or Myrce, meaning "border people" (see March). The kingdom was centred on the valley of the River Trent and its tributaries, in the region now known as the English Midlands. The kingdom's "capital" was the town of Tamworth, which was the seat of the Mercian Kings from at least c. 584, when King Creoda built a fortress at the town. For 300 years (between 600 and 900), having annexed or gained submissions from five of the other six kingdoms of the Heptarchy (East Anglia, Essex, Kent, Sussex and Wessex), Mercia dominated England south of the River Humber: this period is known as the Mercian Supremacy. The reign of King Offa, who is best remembered for his Dyke that designated the boundary between Mercia and the Welsh kingdoms, is sometimes known as the "Golden Age of Mercia"
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Dio Cassius
Cassius Dio or Dio Cassius[note 2] (/ˈkæʃəs ˈdiːoʊ/; c. 155–235)[note 3] was a Roman statesman and historian of Greek origin. He published 80 volumes of history on Ancient Rome, beginning with the arrival of Aeneas
Aeneas
in Italy. The volumes documented the subsequent founding of Rome (753 BC), the formation of the Republic (509 BC), and the creation of the Empire (31 BC), up until 229 AD. Written in Ancient Greek over 22 years, Dio's work covers approximately 1,000 years of history. Many of his 80 books have survived intact, or as fragments, providing modern scholars with a detailed perspective on Roman history.Contents1 Biography 2 Roman History 3 Literary style 4 See also 5 Notes 6 References 7 Further reading 8 External linksBiography[edit] Lucius Cassius Dio was the son of Cassius Apronianus, a Roman senator, who was born and raised at Nicaea
Nicaea
in Bithynia
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International Standard Book Number
"ISBN" redirects here. For other uses, see ISBN (other).International Standard Book
Book
NumberA 13-digit ISBN, 978-3-16-148410-0, as represented by an EAN-13 bar codeAcronym ISBNIntroduced 1970; 48 years ago (1970)Managing organisation International ISBN AgencyNo. of digits 13 (formerly 10)Check digit Weighted sumExample 978-3-16-148410-0Website www.isbn-international.orgThe International Standard Book
Book
Number (ISBN) is a unique[a][b] numeric commercial book identifier. Publishers purchase ISBNs from an affiliate of the International ISBN Agency.[1] An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation (except reprintings) of a book. For example, an e-book, a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, and 10 digits long if assigned before 2007
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Caratacus
Caratacus
Caratacus
(Brythonic *Caratācos, Middle Welsh Caratawc; Welsh Caradog; Breton Karadeg; Greek Καράτακος; variants Latin Caractacus, Greek Καρτάκης) was a 1st-century AD British chieftain of the Catuvellauni
Catuvellauni
tribe, who led the British resistance to the Roman conquest. Before the Roman invasion Caratacus
Caratacus
is associated with the expansion of his tribe's territory. His apparent success led to Roman invasion, nominally in support of his defeated enemies. He resisted the Romans for almost a decade, mixing guerrilla warfare with set-piece battles, but was unsuccessful in the latter. After his final defeat he fled to the territory of Queen Cartimandua, who captured him and handed him over to the Romans
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Penda
Penda (died 15 November 655)[1] was a 7th-century King of Mercia, the Anglo-Saxon kingdom in what is today the English Midlands. A pagan at a time when Christianity
Christianity
was taking hold in many of the Anglo-Saxon kingdoms, Penda took over the Severn Valley in 628 following the Battle of Cirencester before participating in the defeat of the powerful Northumbrian king Edwin at the Battle of Hatfield Chase
Battle of Hatfield Chase
in 633.[2] Nine years later, he defeated and killed Edwin's eventual successor, Oswald, at the Battle of Maserfield; from this point he was probably the most powerful of the Anglo-Saxon rulers of the time, laying the foundations for the Mercian supremacy over the Anglo-Saxon Heptarchy. He repeatedly defeated the East Angles and drove Cenwalh the king of Wessex
Wessex
into exile for three years. He continued to wage war against the Bernicians of Northumbria
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Wales
Wales
Wales
(/ˈweɪlz/ ( listen); Welsh: Cymru [ˈkəmri] ( listen)) is a country that is part of the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
and the island of Great Britain.[8] It is bordered by England
England
to the east, the Irish Sea
Irish Sea
to the north and west, and the Bristol Channel
Bristol Channel
to the south. It had a population in 2011 of 3,063,456 and has a total area of 20,779 km2 (8,023 sq mi). Wales has over 1,680 miles (2,700 km) of coastline and is largely mountainous, with its higher peaks in the north and central areas, including Snowdon
Snowdon
(Yr Wyddfa), its highest summit
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Romano-British
Romano-British culture
Romano-British culture
is the culture that arose in Britain under the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
following the Roman conquest in AD 43 and the creation of the province of Britannia. It arose as a fusion of the imported Roman culture with that of the indigenous Britons, a people of Celtic language and custom
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Jupiter Column
A Jupiter Column
Jupiter Column
(German: Jupitergigantensäule or Jupitersäule) is an archaeological monument belonging to a type widespread in Roman Germania. Such pillars express the religious beliefs of their time. They were erected in the 2nd and 3rd centuries AD, mostly near Roman settlements or villas in the Germanic provinces. Some examples also occur in Gaul and Britain. The base of the monuments was normally formed by a Viergötterstein (four gods stone), in itself a common monument type, usually depicting Juno, Minerva, Mercury and Hercules. This would support a Wochengötterstein (a carving depicting the personifications of the seven days of the week), which, in turn, supported a column or pillar, normally decorated with a scale pattern. The column was crowned with a statue of Jupiter, usually on horseback, trampling a Giant (usually depicted as a snake). In some cases (e.g
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