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Dobunni
The DOBUNNI were one of the Iron Age tribes living in the British Isles prior to the Roman invasion of Britain
Roman invasion of Britain
. There are seven known references to the tribe in Roman histories and inscriptions. Various historians and archaeologists have examined the Dobunni, including Stephen J. Yeates in his book The Tribe of Witches (2008), where he suggests that the latter part of the name possibly derives from *bune, a cup or vessel, with a similar meaning to the later tribal name Hwicce; both being related to the recognisable cult of a Romano-British
Romano-British
goddess. This view has been sharply criticised by several archaeologists. Archaeologist Miles Russell suggests that their original name may have been "Bodunni", connecting this with the Celtic word *bouda meaning "Victorious", in the sense of "The Victorious Ones"
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Maes Knoll
MAES KNOLL (sometimes MAES TUMP or MAES KNOLL TUMP) is an Iron Age hill fort in Somerset, England, located at the eastern end of the Dundry Down ridge, south of the city of Bristol and north of the village of Norton Malreward near the eastern side of Dundry Hill . It is a Scheduled Ancient Monument . CONTENTS * 1 Background * 2 Description * 3 History * 4 See also * 5 References * 6 External links BACKGROUND Further information: Hill fort Hill forts developed in the Late Bronze and Early Iron Age, roughly the start of the first millennium BC . The reason for their emergence in Britain, and their purpose, has been a subject of debate. It has been argued that they could have been military sites constructed in response to invasion from continental Europe, sites built by invaders, or a military reaction to social tensions caused by an increasing population and consequent pressure on agriculture
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Burgh Walls Camp
BURGH WALLS CAMP is a multivallate Iron Age hill fort in the North Somerset district of Somerset , England. The hill fort is situated within Leigh Woods approximately 1.6 miles (2.6 km) north-east from the village of Long Ashton near Bristol , above the banks of the River Avon . The hillfort has some alternative names such as Bower Walls Camp, Burwalls, or Bowre Walls. Burgh Walls Camp is one of three Iron Age fortifications overlooking the Avon Gorge , the others being Stokeleigh Camp and Clifton Camp on the opposite side of the gorge, on Clifton Down near the Observatory . SEE ALSO * List of hill forts and ancient settlements in Somerset REFERENCES * ^ A B "Burgh Walls Camp". National Monuments Record. English Heritage . Archived from the original on 2 October 2012. Retrieved 6 March 2011. * ^ Morgan, C. Lloyd. "Notes on the Clifton, Burwalls and Stokeleigh Camps" (PDF). Clifton Antiquarian Club
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Mercia
MERCIA ( Old English
Old English
: Miercna rīce) was one of the kingdoms of the Anglo-Saxon
Anglo-Saxon
Heptarchy
Heptarchy
. The name is a Latinisation of the Old English Mierce or Myrce, meaning "border people" (see March ). The kingdom was centred on the valley of the River Trent
River Trent
and its tributaries, in the region now known as the English Midlands
English Midlands
. The kingdom's "capital" was the town of Tamworth , which was the seat of the Mercian Kings from at least around AD 584, when King Creoda built a fortress at the town
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West Saxons
WESSEX (/ˈwɛsɪks/ ; Old English
Old English
: Westseaxna rīce , "kingdom of the West Saxons") was an Anglo-Saxon
Anglo-Saxon
kingdom in the south of Great Britain , from 519 until England was unified by Æthelstan
Æthelstan
in the early 10th century. The Anglo-Saxons
Anglo-Saxons
believed that Wessex
Wessex
was founded by Cerdic and Cynric , but this may be a legend . The two main sources for the history of Wessex
Wessex
are the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle
Anglo-Saxon Chronicle
and the West Saxon Genealogical Regnal List, which sometimes conflict. Wessex
Wessex
became a Christian kingdom after Cenwalh was baptised and was expanded under his rule. Cædwalla later conquered Sussex
Sussex
, Kent
Kent
and the Isle of Wight
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Battle Of Cirencester
The BATTLE OF CIRENCESTER was fought in 628 at Cirencester
Cirencester
in modern-day England
England
. The conflict involved the armies of Mercia
Mercia
, under King Penda
Penda
, and the Gewisse (predecessors of the West Saxons ), under Kings Cynegils and Cwichelm . The Mercians defeated the Gewisse and, according to Bede
Bede
, "after reaching an agreement", took control of the Severn valley and the minor kingdom of the Hwicce , which had been under the influence of the Gewisse since the Battle of Dyrham
Battle of Dyrham
in 577. REFERENCES * ^ The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle * ^ Palmer, Alan; Palmer, Veronica (1992). The Chronology of British History. London: Century Ltd. pp. 30–34. ISBN 0-7126-5616-2
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Numismatics
NUMISMATICS is the study or collection of currency , including coins, tokens, paper money, and related objects. While NUMISMATISTS are often characterized as students or collectors of coins , the discipline also includes the broader study of money and other payment media used to resolve debts and the exchange of goods . Early money used by people is referred to as "Odd and Curious", but the use of other goods in barter exchange is excluded, even where used as a circulating currency (e.g., cigarettes in prison). The Kyrgyz people used horses as the principal currency unit and gave small change in lambskins ; the lambskins may be suitable for numismatic study, but the horse is not. Many objects have been used for centuries, such as cowry shells , precious metals , cocoa beans , large stones , and gems . Today, most transactions take place by a form of payment with either inherent, standardized, or credit value
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Roman Currency
ROMAN CURRENCY for most of Roman history consisted of gold , silver , bronze , orichalcum and copper coinage . (See: Roman metallurgy ) From its introduction to the Republic , during the third century BC, well into Imperial times, Roman currency
Roman currency
saw many changes in form, denomination, and composition. A persistent feature was the inflationary debasement and replacement of coins over the centuries. Notable examples of this followed the reforms of Diocletian
Diocletian
. This trend continued into Byzantine times . CONTENTS * 1 Authority to mint coins * 2 History * 2.1 Roman Republic: c
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Penda
PENDA (died 15 November 655) was a 7th-century King of Mercia , the Anglo-Saxon kingdom in what is today the English Midlands . A pagan at a time when Christianity was taking hold in many of the Anglo-Saxon kingdoms, Penda took over the Severn Valley in 628 following the Battle of Cirencester before participating in the defeat of the powerful Northumbrian king Edwin at the Battle of Hatfield Chase in 633. Nine years later, he defeated and killed Edwin's eventual successor, Oswald , at the Battle of Maserfield ; from this point he was probably the most powerful of the Anglo-Saxon rulers of the time, laying the foundations for the Mercian supremacy over the Anglo-Saxon Heptarchy . He repeatedly defeated the East Angles and drove Cenwalh the king of Wessex into exile for three years. He continued to wage war against the Bernicians of Northumbria
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Blaise Castle
BLAISE CASTLE is a folly built in 1766 near Henbury in Bristol , England. The castle sits within the Blaise Castle Estate, which also includes BLAISE CASTLE HOUSE, a Grade II* listed 18th-century mansion house. The folly castle is also Grade II* listed and ancillary buildings including the orangery and dairy also have listings. Along with Blaise Hamlet , a group of nine small cottages around a green built in 1811 for retired employees, and various subsidiary buildings, the parkland is listed Grade II* on the Register of Historic Parks and Gardens of special historic interest in England . The site has signs of occupation during the Neolithic , Bronze Age , Iron Age and Roman periods. After the Dissolution of the Monasteries the site was sold. In 1766 Thomas Farr commissioned Robert Mylne to build the sham castle in Gothic Revival style
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Romano-British
ROMANO-BRITISH CULTURE is the culture that arose in Britain under the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
following the Roman conquest in AD 43 and the creation of the province of Britannia
Britannia
. It arose as a fusion of the imported Roman culture with that of the indigenous Britons , a people of Celtic language and custom. It survived the 5th century Roman departure from Britain . Scholars such as Christopher Snyder believe that during the 5th and 6th centuries – approximately from AD 410 when the Roman legions withdrew, to AD 597 when St Augustine of Canterbury
Augustine of Canterbury
arrived – southern Britain preserved an active sub- Roman culture that survived the attacks from the Anglo-Saxons
Anglo-Saxons
and even used a vernacular Latin when writing
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Jupiter Column
A JUPITER COLUMN (German : Jupitergigantensäule or Jupitersäule) is an archaeological monument belonging to a type widespread in Roman Germania . Such pillars express the religious beliefs of their time. They were erected in the 2nd and 3rd centuries AD, mostly near Roman settlements or villas in the Germanic provinces. Some examples also occur in Gaul and Britain . The base of the monuments was normally formed by a Viergötterstein (four gods stone), in itself a common monument type, usually depicting Juno , Minerva , Mercury and Hercules . This would support a Wochengötterstein (a carving depicting the personifications of the seven days of the week), which, in turn, supported a column or pillar, normally decorated with a scale pattern. The column was crowned with a statue of Jupiter , usually on horseback, trampling a Giant (usually depicted as a snake). In some cases (e.g
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Civitas
In the history of Rome
Rome
, the Latin term CIVITAS (plural CIVITATES), according to Cicero
Cicero
in the time of the late Roman Republic , was the social body of the CIVES, or citizens , united by law (concilium coetusque hominum jure sociati). It is the law that binds them together, giving them responsibilities (munera) on the one hand and rights of citizenship on the other. The agreement (concilium) has a life of its own, creating a res publica or "public entity" (synonymous with civitas), into which individuals are born or accepted, and from which they die or are ejected. The civitas is not just the collective body of all the citizens, it is the contract binding them all together, because of which each is a CIVIS. Civitas
Civitas
is an abstract formed from civis
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Wales
WALES (/ˈweɪlz/ ( listen ); Welsh : Cymru ( listen )) is a country that is part of the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
and the island of Great Britain . It is bordered by England
England
to the east , the Irish Sea to the north and west, and the Bristol Channel to the south. It had a population in 2011 of 3,063,456 and has a total area of 20,779 km2 (8,023 sq mi). Wales
Wales
has over 1,680 miles (2,700 km) of coastline and is largely mountainous, with its higher peaks in the north and central areas, including Snowdon (Yr Wyddfa), its highest summit. The country lies within the north temperate zone and has a changeable, maritime climate . Welsh national identity emerged among the Celtic Britons after the Roman withdrawal from Britain in the 5th century, and Wales
Wales
is regarded as one of the modern Celtic nations
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River Severn
The RIVER SEVERN (Welsh : Afon Hafren , Latin
Latin
: Sabrina) is a river in the United Kingdom. At about 220 miles (354 km), it is usually considered to be the longest in the UK. It rises at an altitude of 2,001 feet (610 m) on Plynlimon , close to the Ceredigion
Ceredigion
/Powys border near Llanidloes , in the Cambrian Mountains
Cambrian Mountains
of mid Wales
Wales
. It then flows through Shropshire
Shropshire
, Worcestershire
Worcestershire
and Gloucestershire
Gloucestershire
, with the county towns of Shrewsbury
Shrewsbury
, Worcester
Worcester
and Gloucester
Gloucester
on its banks
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Dio Cassius
CASSIUS DIO or DIO CASSIUS (/ˈkæʃəs ˈdiːoʊ/ ; c. 155–235) was a Roman statesman and historian of Greek origin. He published 80 volumes of history on Ancient Rome, beginning with the arrival of Aeneas in Italy. The volumes documented the subsequent founding of Rome (753 BC), the formation of the Republic (509 BC), and the creation of the Empire (31 BC), up until 229 AD. Written in Ancient Greek over 22 years, Dio's work covers approximately 1,000 years of history. Many of his 80 books have survived intact, or as fragments, providing modern scholars with a detailed perspective on Roman history. CONTENTS * 1 Biography * 2 Roman History
History
* 3 Literary style * 4 See also * 5 Notes * 6 References * 7 External links BIOGRAPHYLucius Cassius Dio was the son of Cassius Apronianus , a Roman senator , who was born and raised at Nicaea
Nicaea
in Bithynia
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