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Dnieper-Donets Culture
Pontic Steppe * Domestication of the horse
Domestication of the horse
* Kurgan
Kurgan
* Kurgan
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Proto-Indo-European Accent
PROTO-INDO-EUROPEAN ACCENT refers to the accentual system of Proto-Indo-European language . CONTENTS * 1 Description * 2 Reflexes * 3 Unaccented words * 4 Interpretation * 5 Modern theories * 6 See also * 7 Notes * 8 References DESCRIPTIONProto-Indo-European (PIE) is usually reconstructed as having had variable lexical stress : the placement of the stress in a word (the accent) was not predictable by its phonological rules . Stressed syllables received a higher pitch than unstressed ones so PIE is often said to have had pitch accent . (That must not be confused with the other meaning of the term "pitch accent" , which refers to a system of one or two syllables per word having one of at least two unpredictable tones , and the tones of any other syllables being predictable.) PIE accent could be mobile so it could change place throughout the inflectional paradigm
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Indo-European Ablaut
In linguistics , the INDO-EUROPEAN ABLAUT (pronounced /ˈæblaʊt/ ) is a system of apophony (regular vowel variations) in the Proto-Indo-European language . All modern Indo-European languages have inherited the feature, though its prevalence and productivity strongly varies. An example of ablaut in English is the strong verb sIng, sAng, sUng and its related noun sOng, a paradigm inherited directly from the Proto-Indo-European stage of the language
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Daco-Thracian
The linguistic classification of the ancient Thracian language has long been a matter of contention and uncertainty, and there are widely varying hypotheses regarding its position among other Paleo-Balkan languages . It is not contested, however, that the Thracian languages were Indo-European languages which had acquired satem characteristics by the time they are attested. The longer Thracian inscriptions that are known (if they are indeed examples of Thracian sentences and phrases, which has not been determined) are not apparently close to Baltic, Slavic, Albanian, or any other known language, and they have not been satisfactorily deciphered aside from perhaps a few words
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Graeco-Armenian
GRAECO-ARMENIAN (also HELLENO-ARMENIAN) is the hypothetical common ancestor of the Greek and Armenian languages that postdates the Proto-Indo-European language (PIE). Its status is comparable to that of the Italo-Celtic grouping: each is widely considered plausible without being accepted as established communis opinio . The hypothetical Proto- Graeco-Armenian stage would need to date to the 3rd millennium BC, only barely differentiated from either late PIE or Graeco-Armeno-Aryan . CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 See also * 3 References * 3.1 Citations * 3.2 Sources HISTORYThe Graeco- Armenian hypothesis originated in 1924 with Holger Pedersen , who noted that the number of Greek-Armenian lexical cognates is greater than that of agreements between Armenian and any other Indo-European language
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Indo-European Sound Laws
As the Proto-Indo-European language
Proto-Indo-European language
(PIE) broke up, its sound system diverged as well, according to various sound laws in the daughter Indo-European languages
Indo-European languages
. Especially notable is the palatalization that produced the satem languages , along with the associated ruki sound law . Other notable changes are Grimm\'s law and Verner\'s law in Proto-Germanic
Proto-Germanic
; an independent change similar to Grimm's law in Armenian ; loss of prevocalic *p- in Proto-Celtic ; Brugmann\'s law in Proto-Indo-Iranian ; Winter\'s law and Hirt\'s law in Balto-Slavic ; and merging of voiced and breathy-voiced stops, and /a/ and /o/, in various "northern" languages
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Proto-Indo-European Phonology
The phonology of the Proto-Indo-European language
Proto-Indo-European language
(PIE) has been reconstructed by linguists , based on the similarities and differences among current and extinct Indo-European languages
Indo-European languages
. Because PIE was not written, linguists must rely on the evidence of its earliest attested descendants, such as Hittite , Sanskrit
Sanskrit
, Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
, and Latin
Latin
, to reconstruct its phonology. The reconstruction of abstract units of PIE phonological systems (i.e. segments, or phonemes in traditional phonology) is mostly uncontroversial, although areas of dispute remain. Their phonetic interpretation is harder to establish; this pertains especially to the vowels, the so-called laryngeals , and the voiced stops
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Liburnian Language
The LIBURNIAN LANGUAGE is an extinct language which was spoken by the ancient Liburnians , who occupied Liburnia in classical times. Classification of the Liburnian language
Liburnian language
is not clearly established; it is reckoned as an Indo-European language with significant proportion of the Pre-Indo-European elements from wider area of the ancient Mediterranean . CONTENTS * 1 Classification * 2 Onomastics * 2.1 Anthroponyms * 2.2 Theonyms * 2.3 Toponyms * 3 See also * 4 References * 5 Sources CLASSIFICATIONNo writings in Liburnian are known. The only Liburnian linguistic remains are Liburnian toponyms and some family and personal names in Liburnia, in Latinized form from the 1st century AD. Smaller differences found in the archaeological material of narrower regions in Liburnia are in a certain measure reflected also in these scarce linguistic remains
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Eurasian Steppe
The EURASIAN STEPPE, also called the GREAT STEPPE or THE STEPPES, is the vast steppe ecoregion of Eurasia
Eurasia
in the temperate grasslands, savannas, and shrublands biome . It stretches from Romania
Romania
, Moldova through Ukraine
Ukraine
, Russia
Russia
, Kazakhstan
Kazakhstan
, Xinjiang
Xinjiang
and Mongolia
Mongolia
to Manchuria
Manchuria
, with one major exclave located mostly in Hungary
Hungary
, the Puszta
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Mysian Language
The MYSIAN LANGUAGE was spoken by Mysians inhabiting Mysia in north-west Anatolia
Anatolia
. Little is known about the Mysian language. Strabo noted that their language was, in a way, a mixture of the Lydian and Phrygian languages . As such, the Mysian language could be a language of the Anatolian group . However, a passage in Athenaeus suggests that the Mysian language was akin to the barely attested Paeonian language of Paeonia , north of Macedon . A short inscription that could be in Mysian and which dates from between the 5th and 3rd centuries BC was found in Üyücek village in the Tavşanlı district of Kütahya province, and seems to include Indo-European words. However, it is uncertain whether the inscription renders a text in the Mysian language or if it is simply a Phrygian dialect from the region of Mysia
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Paeonian Language
The PAEONIAN LANGUAGE is the poorly attested language of the ancient Paeonians , whose kingdom once stretched north of Macedon into Dardania and in earlier times into southwestern Thrace
Thrace
. Several Paeonian words are known from classical sources: * monapos, monaipos, the European bison * tilôn, a species of fish once found in Lake Prasias * paprax, a species of fish once found in Lake Prasias. Paprakas, masc. acc. pl.A number of anthroponyms (some known only from Paeonian coinage) are attested: Agis (Άγις), Patraos (Πατράος), Lycpeios (Λύκπειος), Audoleon (Αυδολέων), Eupolemos (Εὐπόλεμος), Ariston (Αρίστων), etc
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Graeco-Aryan
GRAECO-ARYAN, or GRAECO-ARMENO-ARYAN, is a hypothetical clade within the Indo-European family that would be the ancestor of Greek , Armenian , and the Indo-Iranian languages . Graeco-Aryan unity would have become divided into Proto-Greek and Proto-Indo-Iranian by the mid-3rd millennium BC. Conceivably, Proto-Armenian would have been between Proto-Greek and Proto-Indo-Iranian , which would be consistent with the fact that Armenian shares some features only with Indo-Iranian (the satem change) but others only with Greek (s > h). CONTENTS * 1 Support * 2 Homeland * 3 Mythology * 4 References SUPPORT Graeco-Aryan has comparatively wide support among Indo-Europeanists for the Armenian hypothesis that the homeland of Indo-European was in the Armenian Highlands
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Graeco-Phrygian
GRAECO-PHRYGIAN /ˌɡriːkoʊˈfrɪdʒiən/ is a hypothetical branch of the Indo-European language family with two branches in turn: Greek and Phrygian . Greek has also been variously grouped with Armenian ( Graeco-Armenian ; Graeco-Aryan ), Ancient Macedonian ( Graeco-Macedonian ) and, more recently, Messapian . Multiple or all of these, with the exception of Armenian, are sometimes (tentatively) classified under "Hellenic "; at other times, Hellenic is posited to consist of only Greek. Blažek (2005 , p. 6) says that, in regard to the classification of these languages, their surviving texts —because of their scarcity and/or their nature—can't be quantified
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Proto-Indo-European Nominals
PROTO-INDO-EUROPEAN NOMINALS include nouns , adjectives and pronouns . Their grammatical forms and meanings have been reconstructed by modern linguists, based on similarities found across all Indo-European languages . This article discusses nouns and adjectives, and Proto-Indo-European pronouns are treated elsewhere. PIE had eight or nine cases , three numbers (singular, dual and plural) and probably originally two genders (animate and neuter), with the animate later splitting into the masculine and the feminine. Nominals fell into multiple different declensions . Most of them had word stems ending in a consonant (called athematic stems) and exhibited a complex pattern of accent shifts and/or vowel changes (ablaut ) among the different cases. Two declensions ended in a vowel (*-o/e- ) and are called thematic; they were more regular and became more common during the history of PIE and its older daughter languages. PIE very frequently derived nominals from verbs
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Proto-Indo-European Pronouns
PROTO-INDO-EUROPEAN PRONOUNS have been reconstructed by modern linguists, based on similarities found across all Indo-European languages . This article lists and discusses the hypothesised forms. PIE pronouns, especially demonstrative pronouns , are difficult to reconstruct because of their variety in later languages. CONTENTS * 1 Grammatical categories * 2 Personal pronouns * 3 Demonstrative pronouns * 4 Reflexive pronoun * 5 Relative pronoun * 6 Interrogative/indefinite pronoun * 7 Pronominal adjectives * 8 Reflexes * 9 Notes * 10 References * 11 External links GRAMMATICAL CATEGORIESPIE pronouns inflected for case and number , and partly for gender . For more information on these categories, see the article on Proto-Indo-European nominals . PERSONAL PRONOUNSPIE had personal pronouns in the first and second person , but not the third person, where demonstratives were used instead
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Proto-Indo-European Numerals
The numerals and derived numbers of the Proto-Indo-European language (PIE) have been reconstructed by modern linguists based on similarities found across all Indo-European languages
Indo-European languages
. The following article lists and discusses their hypothesized forms
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