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Djoser
Djoser
Djoser
(also read as Djeser and Zoser) was an ancient Egyptian pharaoh of the 3rd dynasty during the Old Kingdom
Old Kingdom
and the founder of this epoch. He is well known under his Hellenized names Tosorthros (from Manetho) and Sesorthos (from Eusebius). He was the son of king Khasekhemwy
Khasekhemwy
and queen Nimaathap, but whether he also was the direct throne successor is still unclear
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Copper
Copper
Copper
is a chemical element with symbol Cu (from Latin: cuprum) and atomic number 29. It is a soft, malleable, and ductile metal with very high thermal and electrical conductivity. A freshly exposed surface of pure copper has a reddish-orange color. Copper
Copper
is used as a conductor of heat and electricity, as a building material, and as a constituent of various metal alloys, such as sterling silver used in jewelry, cupronickel used to make marine hardware and coins, and constantan used in strain gauges and thermocouples for temperature measurement. Copper
Copper
is one of the few metals that occur in nature in directly usable metallic form (native metals) as opposed to needing extraction from an ore. This led to very early human use, from c. 8000 BC. It was the first metal to be smelted from its ore, c. 5000 BC, the first metal to be cast into a shape in a mold, c
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Dynasty
A dynasty (UK: /ˈdɪnəsti/, US: /ˈdaɪnəsti/) is a sequence of rulers from the same family,[1] usually in the context of a feudal or monarchical system, but sometimes also appearing in elective republics. The dynastic family or lineage may be known as a "house",[2] which may be styled as "royal", "princely", "ducal", "comital", etc., depending upon the chief or present title borne by its members. Historians periodize the histories of many sovereign states, such as Ancient Egypt, the Carolingian Empire
Carolingian Empire
and Imperial China, using a framework of successive dynasties. As such, the term "dynasty" may be used to delimit the era during which the family reigned and to describe events, trends, and artifacts of that period ("a Ming-dynasty vase")
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Eusebius
Eusebius
Eusebius
of Caesarea (/juːˈsiːbiəs/; Greek: Εὐσέβιος τῆς Καισαρείας, Eusébios tés Kaisareías; AD 260/265 – 339/340), also known as Eusebius
Eusebius
Pamphili (from the Greek: Εὐσέβιος τοῦ Παμϕίλου), was a historian of Christianity, exegete, and Christian polemicist. He became the bishop of Caesarea Maritima
Caesarea Maritima
about 314 AD. Together with Pamphilus, he was a scholar of the Biblical canon
Biblical canon
and is regarded as an extremely learned Christian of his time.[1] He wrote Demonstrations of the Gospel, Preparations for the Gospel, and On Discrepancies between the Gospels, studies of the Biblical text
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Contemporary
Contemporary history
Contemporary history
is a subset of modern history which describes the historical period from approximately 1945 to the present.[1] The term "contemporary history" has been in use at least since the early 19th century.[2] Contemporary history
Contemporary history
is politically dominated by the Cold War (1945–91) between the United States
United States
and Soviet Union
Soviet Union
whose effects were felt across the world. The confrontation, which was mainly fought through proxy wars and through intervention in the internal politics of smaller nations, ultimately ended with the dissolution of the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
and Warsaw Pact
Warsaw Pact
in 1991, following the Revolutions of 1989
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Limestone
Limestone
Limestone
is a sedimentary rock, composed mainly of skeletal fragments of marine organisms such as coral, forams and molluscs. Its major materials are the minerals calcite and aragonite, which are different crystal forms of calcium carbonate (CaCO3). About 10% of sedimentary rocks are limestones. The solubility of limestone in water and weak acid solutions leads to karst landscapes, in which water erodes the limestone over thousands to millions of years
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Cairo
Cairo
Cairo
(/ˈkaɪroʊ/ KYE-roh; Arabic: القاهرة‎ Al-Qāhirah,  pronunciation (help·info)) is the capital city of Egypt. The city's metropolitan area is the largest in the Middle East
Middle East
and the Arab world, and the 15th-largest in the world, and is associated with ancient Egypt, as the famous Giza pyramid complex
Giza pyramid complex
and the ancient city of Memphis are located in its geographical area. Located near the Nile Delta,[3][4] modern Cairo
Cairo
was founded in 969 CE by the Fatimid dynasty, but the land composing the present-day city was the site of ancient national capitals whose remnants remain visible in parts of Old Cairo. Cairo
Cairo
has long been a center of the region's political and cultural life, and is titled "the city of a thousand minarets" for its preponderance of Islamic architecture
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New Kingdom
The New Kingdom of Egypt, also referred to as the Egyptian Empire, is the period in ancient Egyptian history between the 16th century BC and the 11th century BC, covering the 18th, 19th, and 20th Dynasties of Egypt. Radiocarbon dating places the exact beginning of the New Kingdom between 1570 BC and 1544 BC.[1] The New Kingdom followed the Second Intermediate Period and was succeeded by the Third Intermediate Period. It was Egypt's most prosperous time and marked the peak of its power.[2] The later part of this period, under the 19th and 20th Dynasties (1292–1069 BC), is also known as the Ramesside period
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Egyptologist
This is a partial list of Egyptologists. An Egyptologist is any archaeologist, historian, linguist, or art historian who specializes in Egyptology, the scientific study of Ancient Egypt
Ancient Egypt
and its antiquities. Demotists are Egyptologists who specialize in the study of the Demotic language and field of Demotic Studies. Although a practitioner of the disciplined study of Ancient Egypt
Ancient Egypt
and Egyptian antiquities is an "Egyptologist", the field of Egyptology
Egyptology
is not exclusive to such practitioners.ContentsA B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y ZA[edit]Jan Assmann Barbara G
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Toby Wilkinson
Toby A. H. Wilkinson (born 1969) is an English Egyptologist and academic. He is the Head of the International Strategy Office at the University of Cambridge, a fellow of Clare College, Cambridge, and was previously a research fellow at Christ's College, Cambridge
Christ's College, Cambridge
and Durham University. He was awarded the 2011 Hessell-Tiltman Prize.Contents1 Early life 2 Academic career 3 Honours 4 Selected works 5 References 6 External linksEarly life[edit] Wilkinson was born in 1969
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Hellenization
Hellenization
Hellenization
or Hellenisation is the historical spread of ancient Greek culture, religion and, to a lesser extent, language, over foreign peoples conquered by Greeks or brought into their sphere of influence, particularly during the Hellenistic period
Hellenistic period
following the campaigns of Alexander the Great
Alexander the Great
in the fourth century BC. The result of Hellenization
Hellenization
was that elements of Greek origin combined in various forms and degrees with local elements; these Greek influences spread from the Mediterranean basin
Mediterranean basin
as far east as modern-day Pakistan
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Second Dynasty Of Egypt
The Second Dynasty of ancient Egypt (or Dynasty II, c. 2890 – c. 2686 BC[1]) is the latter of the two dynasties of the Egyptian Archaic Period, when the seat of government was centred at Thinis. Save for the time of its last ruler Khasekhemwy, it marks one of the most obscure periods in ancient Egyptian history. Though archaeological evidence of the time is very scant, contrasting data from the First and Third Dynasties indicates important institutional and economic developments during the Second Dynasty.[2][3] Rulers[edit] For the first five pharaohs, sources are fairly close in agreement:Name Years ReignedHotepsekhemwy 38Nebra (maybe identifiable with Weneg)[4] 10–14Nynetjer 40 Senedj
Senedj
(maybe identifiable with Horus Sa[5]) 20But the identity of the next two or three rulers is unclear
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Cattle Count (Egypt)
In Ancient Egypt, the cattle count was one of the two main means of evaluating the amount of taxes to be levied, the other one being the height of the annual inundation. A very important economic event, the cattle count was controlled by high officials, and was connected to several cultic feasts. In addition it served as a means of dating other events, with the entire year when it occurred being called "year of the Xth cattle count under the person of the king Y". The frequency of cattle counts varied through the history of Ancient Egypt; in the Old Kingdom it was most likely biennial, i.e
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Palermo Stone
The Palermo
Palermo
Stone is one of seven surviving fragments of a stele known as the Royal Annals of the Old Kingdom
Old Kingdom
of Ancient Egypt. The stele contained a list of the kings of Egypt from the First Dynasty (~3150–2890 BCE) through to the early part of the Fifth Dynasty (approx 2392–2283 BCE) and noted significant events in each year of their reigns. It was probably made during the Fifth dynasty.[1] The Palermo
Palermo
Stone is held in the Regional Archeological Museum Antonio Salinas in the city of Palermo, Italy, from which it derives its name. The term " Palermo
Palermo
Stone" is sometimes applied to all seven surviving fragments of the Royal Annals, including those held in museums in Cairo
Cairo
and London
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Register (sculpture)
In art and archaeology, in sculpture as well as in painting, a register is a horizontal level in a work that consists of several levels arranged one above the other, especially where the levels are clearly separated by lines. Modern comic books typically use similar conventions. It is thus comparable to a row, or a line in modern texts. In the study of ancient writing, such as cuneiform and Egyptian hieroglyphs, "register" may be used of vertical compartments like columns containing writing that are arranged side by side and separated by lines, especially in cylinder seals, which often mix text and images. Normally, when dealing with images it only refers to row compartments stacked vertically. Among many other cultures, the use of registers is common in Ancient Egyptian art, from the Narmer Palette onwards, and in medieval art in large frescos and illuminated manuscripts
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Marc Van De Mieroop
Marc Van de Mieroop (Ph.D. Yale University 1983) is a professor (full professor 1996) of Ancient Near Eastern history at Columbia University. In addition to his articles and translations, his book publications include:Crafts in the Early Isin Period (1987), Sumerian Administrative Documents from the Reigns of Ishbi-Erra and Shu-Ilishu (1987) Society and Enterprise in Old Babylonian Ur (1992) The Ancient Mesopotamian City (1997 and 1999) Oxford University Press, Oxford. ISBN 978-0-19-815286-6 Cuneiform Texts and the Writing of History (1999) King Hammurabi of Babylon (2005) Blackwell, Oxford. ISBN 978-1-4051-2660-1 The Eastern Mediterranean in the Age of Ramesses II (2007) Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford. ISBN 978-1-4051-6069-8 A History of Ancient Egypt (2011) Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford. ISBN 978-1-4051-6071-1 with Bonnie Smith, Richard von Glahn, and Kris Lane "Crossroads and Cultures. A History of the World's Peoples" 2012, Bedford-St
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