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Djoser
DJOSER (also read as DJESER and ZOSER) was an ancient Egyptian pharaoh of the 3rd dynasty during the Old Kingdom
Old Kingdom
and the founder of this epoch. He is well known under his Hellenized names TOSORTHROS (from Manetho ) and SESORTHOS (from Eusebius
Eusebius
). He was the son of king Khasekhemwy
Khasekhemwy
and queen Nimaathap
Nimaathap
, but if he also was the direct throne successor is still unclear. Most Ramesside Kinglists name a king Nebka before him, but since there are still difficulties in connecting that name with contemporary horus names , some Egyptologists question the received throne sequence
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New Kingdom
The NEW KINGDOM OF EGYPT, also referred to as the EGYPTIAN EMPIRE, is the period in ancient Egyptian history between the 16th century BC and the 11th century BC, covering the Eighteenth , Nineteenth , and Twentieth Dynasties of Egypt
Egypt
. Radiocarbon dating places the exact beginning of the New Kingdom between 1570 BC and 1544 BC. The New Kingdom followed the Second Intermediate Period and was succeeded by the Third Intermediate Period . It was Egypt
Egypt
's most prosperous time and marked the peak of its power. The later part of this period, under the Nineteenth and Twentieth Dynasties (1292–1069 BC) is also known as the Ramesside period. It is named after the eleven pharaohs that took the name of Ramesses I , founder of the 19th Dynasty
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Egyptologist
EGYPTOLOGY (from Egypt and Greek -λογία, -logia. Arabic : علم المصريات‎‎) is the study of ancient Egyptian history , language , literature , religion , architecture and art from the 5th millennium BC until the end of its native religious practices in the 4th century AD. A practitioner of the discipline is an "Egyptologist ". In Europe, particularly on the Continent , Egyptology is primarily regarded as being a philological discipline, while in North America it is often regarded as a branch of archaeology
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Dynasty
A DYNASTY (UK : /ˈdɪnəsti/ , US : /ˈdaɪnəsti/ ) is a sequence of rulers from the same family, usually in the context of a feudal or monarchical system, but sometimes also appearing in elective republics . The dynastic family or lineage may be known as a "house ", which may be styled as "royal ", "princely ", "ducal ", "comital ", etc., depending upon the chief or present title borne by its members. Historians periodize the histories of many sovereign states , such as Ancient Egypt
Ancient Egypt
, the Carolingian Empire and Imperial China , using a framework of successive dynasties. As such, the term "dynasty" may be used to delimit the era during which the family reigned and to describe events, trends, and artifacts of that period ("a Ming-dynasty vase"). The word "dynasty" itself is often dropped from such adjectival references ("a Ming vase ")
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Cairo
CAIRO (/ˈkaɪroʊ/ KYE-roh ; Arabic : القاهرة‎ Al-Qāhirah, pronunciation (help ·info ), Coptic : ⲕⲁϩⲓⲣⲏ Kahire) is the capital and largest city of Egypt
Egypt
. The city's metropolitan area is the largest in the Middle East
Middle East
and the Arab world , and the 15th-largest in the world, and is associated with ancient Egypt
Egypt
, as the famous Giza pyramid complex and the ancient city of Memphis are located in its geographical area. Located near the Nile Delta , modern Cairo
Cairo
was founded in 969 CE by the Fatimid dynasty , but the land composing the present-day city was the site of ancient national capitals whose remnants remain visible in parts of Old Cairo
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Limestone
LIMESTONE is a sedimentary rock , composed mainly of skeletal fragments of marine organisms such as coral , forams and molluscs . Its major materials are the minerals calcite and aragonite , which are different crystal forms of calcium carbonate (CaCO3). About 10% of sedimentary rocks are limestones. The solubility of limestone in water and weak acid solutions leads to karst landscapes, in which water erodes the limestone over thousands to millions of years. Most cave systems are through limestone bedrock. Limestone
Limestone
has numerous uses: as a building material , an essential component of concrete ( Portland cement
Portland cement
), as aggregate for the base of roads, as white pigment or filler in products such as toothpaste or paints , as a chemical feedstock for the production of lime , as a soil conditioner , or as a popular decorative addition to rock gardens
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Manetho
MANETHO (/ˈmænᵻθoʊ/ ; Greek : Μανέθων, Manethōn, or Μανέθως, Manethōs) is believed to have been an Egyptian priest from Sebennytus (ancient Egyptian : Tjebnutjer) who lived during the Ptolemaic era in the early 3rd century BC. CONTENTS * 1 Name * 2 Life and work * 3 Aegyptiaca * 3.1 Authorship and date of composition * 3.2 Content and Structure * 3.3 Transmission and reception * 3.4 Sources and methods * 3.5 King lists * 3.6 Transcriptions of Pharaonic names * 3.7 Similarities with Berossos * 3.8 The effect of the Aegyptiaca * 4 See also * 5 Notes * 6 References * 7 Further reading * 8 External links NAMEThe original Egyptian version of Manetho's name is lost, but some speculate it means "Gift of Thoth
Thoth
", "Beloved of Thoth", "Truth of Thoth", "Beloved of Neith
Neith
", or "Lover of Neith"
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Eusebius
EUSEBIUS OF CAESAREA (/juːˈsiːbiəs/ ; Greek : Εὐσέβιος τῆς Καισαρείας, Eusébios tés Kaisareías; AD 260/265 – 339/340), also known as EUSEBIUS PAMPHILI, was a Greek historian of Christianity, exegete , and Christian polemicist . He became the bishop of Caesarea Maritima
Caesarea Maritima
about 314 AD. Together with Pamphilus , he was a scholar of the Biblical canon and is regarded as an extremely well learned Christian of his time. He wrote Demonstrations of the Gospel, Preparations for the Gospel, and On Discrepancies between the Gospels, studies of the Biblical text. As "Father of Church History " he produced the Ecclesiastical History , On the Life of Pamphilus, the Chronicle and On the Martyrs
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Contemporary
CONTEMPORARY HISTORY is a subset of modern history which describes the historical period from approximately 1945 to the present. The term "contemporary history" has been in use at least since the early 19th century. Contemporary history is politically dominated by the Cold War (1945–91) between the United States and Soviet Union whose effects were felt across the world. The confrontation, which was mainly fought through proxy wars and through intervention in the internal politics of smaller nations, ultimately ended with the dissolution of the Soviet Union and Warsaw Pact in 1991, following the Revolutions of 1989 . The latter stages and aftermath of the Cold War enabled the democratisation of much of Europe, Africa, and Latin America . In the Middle East , the period after 1945 was dominated by conflict involving the new state of Israel and the rise of petroleum politics , as well as the growth of Islamism after the 1980s
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Toby Wilkinson
TOBY A. H. WILKINSON (born 1969) is an English Egyptologist and academic. He is the Head of the International Strategy Office at the University of Cambridge
University of Cambridge
, a fellow of Clare College, Cambridge
Clare College, Cambridge
, and was previously a research fellow at Christ\'s College, Cambridge and Durham University
Durham University
. He was awarded the 2011 Hessell-Tiltman Prize . CONTENTS * 1 Early life * 2 Academic career * 3 Honours * 4 Selected works * 5 References * 6 External links EARLY LIFEWilkinson was born in 1969. He read Egyptology
Egyptology
at Downing College , University of Cambridge
University of Cambridge
. He graduated with a first class Bachelor of Arts and was awarded the Thomas Mulvey Egyptology
Egyptology
Prize. He completed his PhD at Christ\'s College, Cambridge in 1993
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Second Dynasty Of Egypt
The SECOND DYNASTY of ancient Egypt (or DYNASTY II, c. 2890 – c. 2686 BC ) is the latter of the two dynasties of the Egyptian Archaic Period , when the seat of government was centred at Thinis
Thinis
. Save for the time of its last ruler Khasekhemwy
Khasekhemwy
, it marks one of the most obscure periods in ancient Egyptian history. Though archaeological evidence of the time is very scant, contrasting data from the First and Third Dynasties indicates important institutional and economic developments during the Second Dynasty. RULERSThe names of the actual rulers of the Second Dynasty are in dispute. For the first five pharaohs , the sources are fairly close in agreement
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Museum Of Egyptian Antiquities
The MUSEUM OF EGYPTIAN ANTIQUITIES, known commonly as the EGYPTIAN MUSEUM or MUSEUM OF CAIRO, in Cairo, Egypt , is home to an extensive collection of ancient Egyptian antiquities. It has 120,000 items, with a representative amount on display, the remainder in storerooms. The edifice is one of the largest museums in the region. As of July 2017, the museum is open to the public. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Interior design * 3 Memorial to famous egyptologists * 4 Gallery * 5 See also * 6 References * 7 Further reading * 8 External links HISTORY Aerial view 1904 from a balloon where the Egyptian Museum appears to the right side. The Egyptian Museum of Antiquities contains many important pieces of ancient Egyptian history. It houses the world’s largest collection of Pharaonic antiquities. The Egyptian government established the museum built in 1835 near the Ezbekeyah Garden and later moved to the Cairo Citadel
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Turquoise
TURQUOISE is an opaque, blue-to-green mineral that is a hydrated phosphate of copper and aluminium , with the chemical formula Cu Al 6(PO4 )4(OH )8·4H2O . It is rare and valuable in finer grades and has been prized as a gemstone and ornamental stone for thousands of years owing to its unique hue. In recent times, turquoise has been devalued, like most other opaque gems, by the introduction onto the market of treatments, imitations, and synthetics. The substance has been known by many names, but the word turquoise dates to the 17th century and is derived from the French turquois for "Turkish" because the mineral was first brought to Europe
Europe
from Turkey , from mines in the historical Khorasan Province
Khorasan Province
of Persia
Persia
. Pliny the Elder referred to the mineral as callais and the Aztecs knew it as chalchihuitl
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Copper
COPPER is a chemical element with symbol CU (from Latin : cuprum) and atomic number 29. It is a soft, malleable, and ductile metal with very high thermal and electrical conductivity . A freshly exposed surface of pure copper has a reddish-orange color. Copper
Copper
is used as a conductor of heat and electricity, as a building material , and as a constituent of various metal alloys , such as sterling silver used in jewelry , cupronickel used to make marine hardware and coins , and constantan used in strain gauges and thermocouples for temperature measurement. Copper
Copper
is one of the few metals that occur in nature in directly usable metallic form (native metals ) as opposed to needing extraction from an ore. This led to very early human use, from c. 8000 BC. It was the first metal to be smelted from its ore, c. 5000 BC, the first metal to be cast into a shape in a mold, c
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Marc Van De Mieroop
MARC VAN DE MIEROOP (PhD Yale 1983) is a professor (full professor 1996) of Ancient Near Eastern
Near Eastern
history at Columbia University
Columbia University
. In addition to his articles and translations, his book publications include: * Crafts in the Early Isin
Isin
Period (1987), * Sumerian Administrative Documents from the Reigns of Ishbi-Erra and Shu-Ilishu (1987) * Society and Enterprise in Old Babylonian Ur (1992) * The Ancient Mesopotamian
Mesopotamian
City (1997 and 1999) Oxford University Press , Oxford. ISBN 978-0-19-815286-6 * Cuneiform
Cuneiform
Texts and the Writing of History (1999) * King Hammurabi
Hammurabi
of Babylon
Babylon
(2005) Blackwell, Oxford
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Register (sculpture)
In art and archaeology, in sculpture as well as in painting, a REGISTER is a horizontal level in a work that consists of several levels, especially where the levels are clearly separated by lines; modern comic books typically use similar conventions. It is thus comparable to a row, or a line in modern texts. Common examples are from Ancient Egyptian hieroglyphs as decoration scenes on objects, and large medieval frescos . Luwian language hieroglyphs were also represented in stone art, in registers. Another example, in Mesopotamian art, would be the stones called Kudurru , or boundary stones, which often had registers of gods on the upper registers of the scenes
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