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Djadochta Formation
The Djadochta Formation
Djadochta Formation
(sometimes transcribed Djadokhta) is a geological formation situated in central Asia
Asia
(Gobi Desert), dating from the Late Cretaceous
Cretaceous
Period. Laid down in the early Campanian, possibly starting in the latest Santonian, it is dated somewhat uncertainly at about 75-71 mya (million years ago).[1] The type locality are the famous "Flaming Cliffs", locally known as Bayanzag ("rich in Haloxylon") or Ulaan-Ereg ("red cliffs"). It preserves an arid habitat of sand dunes, with little freshwater apart from oases and arroyos. In fact, the present-day climate at most Djadochta Formation
Djadochta Formation
sites differs little from what it was some 80 mya, except by being somewhat warmer and perhaps a bit less arid then
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Geochronology
Geochronology
Geochronology
is the science of determining the age of rocks, fossils, and sediments using signatures inherent in the rocks themselves. Absolute geochronology can be accomplished through radioactive isotopes, whereas relative geochronology is provided by tools such as palaeomagnetism and stable isotope ratios. By combining multiple geochronological (and biostratigraphic) indicators the precision of the recovered age can be improved. Geochronology
Geochronology
is different in application from biostratigraphy, which is the science of assigning sedimentary rocks to a known geological period via describing, cataloguing and comparing fossil floral and faunal assemblages. Biostratigraphy
Biostratigraphy
does not directly provide an absolute age determination of a rock, but merely places it within an interval of time at which that fossil assemblage is known to have coexisted
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Himalayas
The Himalayas, or Himalaya
Himalaya
(/ˌhɪməˈleɪə, hɪˈmɑːləjə/), form a mountain range in Asia
Asia
separating the plains of the Indian subcontinent from the Tibetan Plateau. The Himalayan range has many of the Earth's highest peaks, including the highest, Mount Everest. The Himalayas
Himalayas
include over fifty mountains exceeding 7,200 metres (23,600 ft) in elevation, including all of the fourteen 8,000-metre peaks. By contrast, the highest peak outside Asia
Asia
(Aconcagua, in the Andes) is 6,961 metres (22,838 ft) tall.[1] Lifted by the subduction of the Indian tectonic plate under the Eurasian Plate, the Himalayan mountain range runs, west-northwest to east-southeast, in an arc 2,400 kilometres (1,500 mi) long.[2] Its western anchor, Nanga Parbat, lies just south of the northernmost bend of Indus
Indus
river
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Campanian
The Campanian
Campanian
is, in the ICS' geologic timescale, the fifth of six ages of the Late Cretaceous
Cretaceous
epoch (or, in chronostratigraphy: the fifth of six stages in the Upper Cretaceous
Cretaceous
series). The Campanian spans the time from 83.6 ± 0.7 Ma to 72.1 ± 0.6 Ma (million years ago). It is preceded by the Santonian
Santonian
and it is followed by the Maastrichtian.[2] The Campanian
Campanian
was an age when a worldwide sea level rise drowned many coastal areas
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Haloxylon
Haloxylon
Haloxylon
ammodendron Haloxylon
Haloxylon
persicum Haloxylon
Haloxylon
is a genus of shrubs or small trees, belonging to the plant family Amaranthaceae. Haloxylon
Haloxylon
and its species are known by the common name saxaul.Contents1 Description 2 Distribution 3 Taxonomy 4 Ecology 5 References 6 External linksDescription[edit] The species of genus Haloxylon
Haloxylon
are shrubs or small trees 1–8 metres (3.3–26.2 ft) (rarely up to 12 metres (39 ft)) tall, with a thick trunk and many branches. The branches of the current year are green, from erect to pendant. The leaves are reduced to small scales. The inflorescences are short shoots borne on the stems of the previous year. The flowers are very small, as long or shorter than the bracteoles, bisexual or male. The two stigmas are very short. In fruit, the perianth segments develop spreading wings
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Arid
A region is arid when it is characterized by a severe lack of available water, to the extent of hindering or preventing the growth and development of plant and animal life. Environments subject to arid climates tend to lack vegetation and are called xeric or desertic. Most "arid" climates surround the equator; these places include most of Africa
Africa
and parts of South America, Central America
Central America
and Australia. Change over time[edit]This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (January 2008)The distribution of aridity observed at any one point in time is largely the result of the general circulation of the atmosphere. The latter does change significantly over time through climate change. For example, temperature increase (by 1.5–2.1 percent) across the Nile Basin over the next 30–40 years could change the region from semi-arid to arid, resulting in a significant reduction in agricultural land
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Dune
In physical geography, a dune is a hill of loose sand built by aeolian processes (wind) or the flow of water.[1] Dunes occur in different shapes and sizes, formed by interaction with the flow of air or water. Most kinds of dunes are longer on the stoss (upflow) side, where the sand is pushed up the dune, and have a shorter "slip face" in the lee side. The valley or trough between dunes is called a slack. A "dune field" or erg is an area covered by extensive dunes. Dunes occur in some deserts and along some coasts. Some coastal areas have one or more sets of dunes running parallel to the shoreline directly inland from the beach. In most cases, the dunes are important in protecting the land against potential ravages by storm waves from the sea. Although the most widely distributed dunes are those associated with coastal regions, the largest complexes of dunes are found inland in dry regions and associated with ancient lake or sea beds
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Freshwater
Fresh water
Fresh water
(or freshwater) is naturally occurring water on Earth's surface in ice sheets, ice caps, glaciers, icebergs, bogs, ponds, lakes, rivers and streams, and underground as groundwater. Fresh water is generally characterized by having low concentrations of dissolved salts and other total dissolved solids. The term specifically excludes seawater and brackish water although it does include mineral-rich waters such as chalybeate springs. Fresh water
Fresh water
is not the same as potable water (or drinking water): Much of the earth's surface fresh water and groundwater is unsuitable for drinking without some form of treatment
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Oases
In geography, an oasis (/oʊˈeɪsɪs/; plural: oases /oʊˈeɪsiːz/) is an isolated area in a desert, typically surrounding a spring or similar water source, such as a pond or small lake. Oases also provide habitat for animals and even humans if the area is big enough. The location of oases has been of critical importance for trade and transportation routes in desert areas; caravans must travel via oases so that supplies of water and food can be replenished. Thus, political or military control of an oasis has in many cases meant control of trade on a particular route. For example, the oases of Awjila, Ghadames, and Kufra, situated in modern-day Libya, have at various times been vital to both North-South and East-West trade in the Sahara Desert. Oases are formed from underground rivers or aquifers such as an artesian aquifer, where water can reach the surface naturally by pressure or by man-made wells
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Arroyo (creek)
An arroyo (/əˈrɔɪoʊ/; Spanish: [aˈroʝo], "brook"), also called a wash, is a dry creek, stream bed or gulch that temporarily or seasonally fills and flows after sufficient rain.[1] Flash floods are common in arroyos following thunderstorms. In Latin America any small river might be called an arroyo, even if it flows continually all year and is never dry. The terms rambla (Spanish) or wadi (Arabic) are used in Spain, North Africa, and Southwest Asia.[citation needed] Arroyos provide a water source to desert animals. The desert dry wash biome is restricted to the arroyos of the southwestern United States.Contents1 Types and processes1.1 Natural 1.2 Constructed2 Notes 3 External linksTypes and processes[edit] Arroyos can be natural fluvial landforms or constructed flood control channels. The term usually applies to a sloped or mountainous terrain in xeric and desert climates
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Evaporation
Evaporation
Evaporation
is a type of vaporization, that occurs on the surface of a liquid as it changes into the gaseous phase.[1] The surrounding gas must not be saturated with the evaporating substance. When the molecules of the liquid collide, they transfer energy to each other based on how they collide. When a molecule near the surface absorbs enough energy to overcome the vapor pressure, it will "escape" and enter the surrounding air as a gas.[2] When evaporation occurs, the energy removed from the vaporized liquid will reduce the temperature of the liquid, resulting in evaporative cooling.[3] On average, only a fraction of the molecules in a liquid have enough heat energy to escape from the liquid. The evaporation will continue until an equilibrium is reached when the evaporation of the liquid is the equal to its condensation
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Cloud
In meteorology, a cloud is an aerosol comprising a visible mass of minute liquid droplets, frozen crystals, or particles suspended in the atmosphere above the surface of a planetary body.[1] The droplets and crystals may be made of water or various chemicals. On Earth, clouds are formed as a result of saturation of the air when it is cooled to its dew point, or when it gains sufficient moisture (usually in the form of water vapor) from an adjacent source to raise the dew point to the ambient temperature. They are seen in the Earth's homosphere (which includes the troposphere, stratosphere, and mesosphere). Nephology is the science of clouds which is undertaken in the cloud physics branch of meteorology. There are two methods of naming clouds in their respective layers of the atmosphere; Latin
Latin
and common
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Million Years Ago
The abbreviation myr, "million years", is a unit of a quantity of 7006100000000000000♠1,000,000 (i.e. 7006100000000000000♠1×106) years, or 31.6 teraseconds.Contents1 Usage 2 Debate 3 See also 4 ReferencesUsage[edit] Myr
Myr
is in common use where the term is often written, such as in Earth science and cosmology. Myr
Myr
is seen with mya, "million years ago". Together they make a reference system, one to a quantity, the other to a particular place in a year numbering system that is time before the present. Myr
Myr
is deprecated in geology, but in astronomy myr is standard
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Fossil
A fossil (from Classical Latin
Latin
fossilis; literally, "obtained by digging")[1] is any preserved remains, impression, or trace of any once-living thing from a past geological age. Examples include bones, shells, exoskeletons, stone imprints of animals or microbes, hair, petrified wood, oil, coal, and DNA
DNA
remnants. The totality of fossils is known as the fossil record. Paleontology
Paleontology
is the study of fossils: their age, method of formation, and evolutionary significance. Specimens are usually considered to be fossils if they are over 10,000 years old.[2] The oldest fossils are from around 3.48 billion years old[3][4][5] to 4.1 billion years old.[6][7] The observation in the 19th century that certain fossils were associated with certain rock strata led to the recognition of a geological timescale and the relative ages of different fossils
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Dinosaur
Dinosaurs
Dinosaurs
are a diverse group of reptiles[note 1] of the clade Dinosauria. They first appeared during the Triassic
Triassic
period, between 243 and 231 million years ago,[1] although the exact origin and timing of the evolution of dinosaurs is the subject of active research.[2] They became the dominant terrestrial vertebrates after the Triassic– Jurassic
Jurassic
extinction event 201 million years ago; their dominance continued through the Jurassic
Jurassic
and Cretaceous
Cretaceous
periods
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Clutch (eggs)
A clutch of eggs is the group of eggs produced by birds, amphibians, or reptiles, often at a single time, particularly those laid in a nest. In birds, destruction of a clutch by predators (or removal by humans, for example the California condor
California condor
breeding program) results in double-clutching. The technique is used to double the production of a species' eggs, in the California condor
California condor
case, specifically to increase population size. The act of putting one's hand in a nest to remove eggs is known as "dipping the clutch". Size[edit] Clutch size differs greatly between species, sometimes even within the same genus. It may also differ within the same species due to many factors including habitat, health, nutrition, predation pressures, and time of year.[1] Clutch size variation can also reflect variation in optimal reproduction effort
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