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DjVu
DjVu (/ˌdeɪʒɑːˈvuː/ DAY-zhah-VOO, like English "déjà vu"[3]) is a computer file format designed primarily to store scanned documents, especially those containing a combination of text, line drawings, indexed color images, and photographs. It uses technologies such as image layer separation of text and background/images, progressive loading, arithmetic coding, and lossy compression for bitonal (monochrome) images
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Magic Number (programming)
In computer programming, the term magic number has multiple meanings. It could refer to one or more of the following:A constant numerical or text value used to identify a file format or protocol; for files, see List of file signatures Distinctive unique values that are unlikely to be mistaken for other meanings (e.g., Globally Unique Identifiers) Unique values with unexplained meaning or multiple occurrences which could (preferably) be replaced with named constantsContents1 Format indicator1.1 Magic number origin 1.2 Magic numbers in files 1.3 Magic numbers in protocols 1.4 Magic numbers in other uses2 Data type limits 3 Unnamed numerical constants3.1 Accepted limited use of magic numbers4 Magic GUIDs 5 Magic debug values 6 See also 7 ReferencesFormat indicator[edit] Magic number origin[edit] The format indicator type of magic number was first found in early Seventh Edition source code of the
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Million Book Project
The Million Book
Book
Project (or the Universal Library) was a book digitization project led by Carnegie Mellon University
Carnegie Mellon University
School of Computer Science and University Libraries[1] from 2007-2008. Working with government and research partners in India
India
(Digital Library of India) and China, the project scanned books in many languages, using OCR to enable full text searching, and providing free-to-read access to the books on the web
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GNU General Public License
The GNU
GNU
General Public License ( GNU
GNU
GPL
GPL
or GPL) is a widely used free software license, which guarantees end users the freedom to run, study, share and modify the software.[7] The license was originally written by Richard Stallman
Richard Stallman
of the Free Software Foundation
Free Software Foundation
(FSF) for the GNU
GNU
Project, and grants the recipients of a computer program the rights of the Free Software Definition.[8] The GPL
GPL
is a copyleft license, which means that derivative work can only be distributed under the same license terms. This is in distinction to permissive free software licenses, of which the BSD licenses and the MIT License are widely used examples
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Open-source Software
Open-source
Open-source
software (OSS) is a type of computer software with its source code made available with a license in which the copyright holder provides the rights to study, change, and distribute the software to anyone and for any purpose.[1] Open-source
Open-source
software may be developed in a collaborative public manner. According to scientists who studied it, open-source software is a prominent example of open collaboration.[2] The term is often written without a hyphen as "open source software".[3][4][5] Open-source
Open-source
software development, or collaborative development from multiple independent sources, generates an increasingly more diverse scope of design perspective than any one company is capable of developing and sustaining long term
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Text Recognition
Optical character recognition (also optical character reader, OCR) is the mechanical or electronic conversion of images of typed, handwritten or printed text into machine-encoded text, whether from a scanned document, a photo of a document, a scene-photo (for example the text on signs and billboards in a landscape photo) or from subtitle text superimposed on an image (for example from a television broadcast).[1] It is widely used as a form of information entry from printed paper data records, whether passport documents, invoices, bank statements, computerised receipts, business cards, mail, printouts of static-data, or any suitable documentation. It is a common method of digitising printed texts so that they can be electronically edited, searched, stored more compactly, displayed on-line, and used in machine processes such as cognitive computing, machine translation, (extracted) text-to-speech, key data and text mining
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UTF-8
UTF-8
UTF-8
is a variable width character encoding capable of encoding all 1,112,064[1] valid code points in Unicode
Unicode
using one to four 8-bit bytes.[2] The encoding is defined by the Unicode
Unicode
standard, and was originally designed by Ken Thompson
Ken Thompson
and Rob Pike.[3][4] The name is derived from Unicode
Unicode
(or Universal Coded Character Set) Transformation Format – 8-bit.[5] It was designed for backward compatibility with ASCII. Code points with lower numerical values, which tend to occur more frequently, are encoded using fewer bytes. The first 128 characters of Unicode, which correspond one-to-one with ASCII, are encoded using a single octet with the same binary value as ASCII, so that valid ASCII
ASCII
text is valid UTF-8-encoded Unicode
Unicode
as well
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Public-domain
The legal term public domain refers to works whose exclusive intellectual property rights have expired,[1] have been forfeited,[2] have been expressly waived, or are inapplicable.[3] For example, the works of Shakespeare and Beethoven, and most early silent films are in the public domain either by virtue of their having been created before copyright existed, or by their copyright term having expired.[1] Some works are not covered by copyright, and are therefore in the public domain—among them the formulae of Newtonian physics, cooking recipes,[4] and all computer software created prior to 1974.[5] Other works are actively dedicated by their authors to the public domain (see waiver); some examples include reference implementations of cryptographic algorithms,[6][7][8] the image-processing software ImageJ,[9] created by the National Institutes of Health, and the CIA's World Factbook.[10] The term public domain is not normally applied to situations where the creator of a work retains re
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Gamma Correction
Gamma
Gamma
correction, or often simply gamma, is the name of a nonlinear operation used to encode and decode luminance or tristimulus values in video or still image systems.[1] Gamma
Gamma
correction is, in the simplest cases, defined by the following power-law expression: V out = A V in γ displaystyle V_ text out =A V_ text in ^ gamma where the non-negative real input value V in displaystyle V_ text in is raised to the power γ displaystyle gamma and multiplied by the constant A, to get the output value V out displaystyle V_ text out
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Pixel Density
Pixels per inch (PPI) or pixels per centimeter (PPCM) are measurements of the pixel density (resolution) of an electronic image device, such as a computer monitor or television display, or image digitizing device such as a camera or image scanner. Horizontal and vertical density are usually the same, as most devices have square pixels, but differ on devices that have non-square pixels. PPI can also describe the resolution, in pixels, of an image file. A 100×100 pixel image printed in a 1 inch square has a resolution of 100 pixels per inch. Used this way, the measurement is meaningful when printing an image. It has become commonplace to refer to PPI as DPI, even though PPI refers to input resolution. Industry standard, good quality photographs usually require 300 pixels per inch, at 100% size, when printed onto coated paper stock, using a printing screen of 150 lines per inch (lpi). This delivers a quality factor of 2, which is optimum
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Media Type
A media type (also MIME type and content type)[1] is a two-part identifier for file formats and format contents transmitted on the Internet. The Internet
Internet
Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) is the official authority for the standardization and publication of these classifications. Media types were originally defined in Request for Comments 2045 in November 1996 as a part of MIME (Multipurpose Internet
Internet
Mail Extensions) specification, for denoting type of email message content and attachments;[2] hence the name MIME type. Media types are also used by other internet protocols such as HTTP[3] and document file formats such as HTML,[4] for similar purpose.Contents1 Naming1.1 Common examples 1.2 Registration trees1.2.1 Standards tree 1.2.2 Vendor tree 1.2.3 Personal or Vanity tree 1.2.4 Unregistered x
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Wikimedia Commons
Wikimedia Commons
Wikimedia Commons
(or simply Commons) is an online repository of free-use images, sound, and other media files.[1] It is a project of the Wikimedia Foundation. Files from Wikimedia Commons
Wikimedia Commons
can be used across all Wikimedia projects[2] in all languages, including, Wikibooks, Wikivoyage, Wikispecies, Wikisource, and Wikinews, or downloaded for offsite use
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Brewster Kahle
Brewster Kahle
Brewster Kahle
(/keɪl/ KAYL;[3] born October 22, 1960)[1] is an American computer engineer, Internet entrepreneur, internet activist, advocate of universal access to all knowledge, and digital librarian.[4] Brewster founded the Internet Archive, the Internet Archive Federal Credit Union and Alexa. In 2012 he was inducted into the Internet Hall of Fame
Internet Hall of Fame
for his accomplishments.[5]Contents1 Biography1.1 Digitization advocacy 1.2 Other benefits of digitization 1.3 Physical media2 Awards and appointments 3 Publications 4 See also 5 References 6 External linksBiography[edit] Kahle grew up in Scarsdale, New York, and went to Scarsdale
Scarsdale
High School
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Multimedia
Multimedia
Multimedia
is content that uses a combination of different content forms such as text, audio, images, animations, video and interactive content. Multimedia
Multimedia
contrasts with media that use only rudimentary computer displays such as text-only or traditional forms of printed or hand-produced material. Multimedia
Multimedia
can be recorded and played, displayed, interacted with or accessed by information content processing devices, such as computerized and electronic devices, but can also be part of a live performance. Multimedia
Multimedia
devices are electronic media devices used to store and experience multimedia content. Multimedia
Multimedia
is distinguished from mixed media in fine art; for example, by including audio it has a broader scope
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International Organization For Standardization
The International Organization for Standardization
Standardization
(ISO) is an international standard-setting body composed of representatives from various national standards organizations. Founded on 23 February 1947, the organization promotes worldwide proprietary, industrial and commercial standards
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International Electrotechnical Commission
The International Electrotechnical Commission[3] (IEC; in French: Commission électrotechnique internationale) is an international standards organization[4][5] that prepares and publishes International Standards for all electrical, electronic and related technologies – collectively known as "electrotechnology". IEC standards cover a vast range of technologies from power generation, transmission and distribution to home appliances and office equipment, semiconductors, fibre optics, batteries, solar energy, nanotechnology and marine energy as well as many others
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