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Distributism
DISTRIBUTISM (also known as DISTRIBUTIONISM or DISTRIBUTIVISM) is an economic ideology that developed in Europe
Europe
in the late 19th and early 20th century based upon the principles of Catholic social teaching , especially the teachings of Pope Leo XIII
Pope Leo XIII
in his encyclical Rerum novarum and Pope Pius XI
Pope Pius XI
in Quadragesimo anno . Many Christian Democratic political parties have advocated for distributism in their economic policies
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Mutualism (movement)
MUTUALISM (also known as the MUTUALIST MOVEMENT or MOVEMENT OF MUTUALS) is a social movement that aims at creating and promoting mutual organizations , mutual insurances , and mutual funds . The movement encourages and assists the provision of mutual benefits against risks to those accessing its funds and or the elevation of their material and spiritual living standards, by regular payment or contribution. Mutualism, institutionalized through mutual funds, has been universally recognized as a generator or embryo of classical forecast and modern social security systems, and currently coexists with them. Although the fall in the popularity of mutual funds in many social environments coincided with the start of public social security system in the early decades of the 20th century. In Europe, but also in many other parts of the world, mutualisms continues to be an important player in the social economy
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Laissez-faire
LAISSEZ-FAIRE (/ˌlɛseɪˈfɛr-/ , French: ( listen ) from French : laissez faire, lit. 'let do') is an economic system in which transactions between private parties are free from government intervention such as regulation , privileges , tariffs , and subsidies. The phrase laissez-faire is part of a larger French phrase and basically translates to "let (it/them) do", but in this context usually means to "let go"
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East Asian Model Of Capitalism
ASIAN may refer to: * Items from or related to the continent of Asia
Asia
: * Asian people
Asian people
, people who descend from Asia *
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Neomercantilism
NEOMERCANTILISM is a policy regime that encourages exports, discourages imports, controls capital movement, and centralizes currency decisions in the hands of a central government. The objective of neo-mercantilist policies is to increase the level of foreign reserves held by the government, allowing more effective monetary policy and fiscal policy
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Informal Sector
The INFORMAL SECTOR, INFORMAL ECONOMY, or GREY ECONOMY is the part of an economy that is neither taxed, nor monitored by any form of government. Unlike the formal economy, activities of the informal economy are not included in the gross national product (GNP) and gross domestic product (GDP) of a country. The informal sector can be described as a grey market in labour . Other concepts which can be characterized as informal sector can include the black market (shadow economy, underground economy), agorism , and System D . Associated idioms include "under the table ", "off the books" and "working for cash". Although the informal sector makes up a significant portion of the economies in developing countries it is often stigmatized as troublesome and unmanageable. However the informal sector provides critical economic opportunities for the poor and has been expanding rapidly since the 1960s
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Distributivity
In abstract algebra and formal logic , the DISTRIBUTIVE PROPERTY of binary operations generalizes the DISTRIBUTIVE LAW from elementary algebra . In propositional logic , DISTRIBUTION refers to two valid rules of replacement . The rules allow one to reformulate conjunctions and disjunctions within logical proofs . For example, in arithmetic : 2 ⋅ (1 + 3) = (2 ⋅ 1) + (2 ⋅ 3), but 2 / (1 + 3) ≠ (2 / 1) + (2 / 3). In the left-hand side of the first equation, the 2 multiplies the sum of 1 and 3; on the right-hand side, it multiplies the 1 and the 3 individually, with the products added afterwards. Because these give the same final answer (8), it is said that multiplication by 2 distributes over addition of 1 and 3. Since one could have put any real numbers in place of 2, 1, and 3 above, and still have obtained a true equation, we say that multiplication of real numbers distributes over addition of real numbers
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Syndicalism
SYNDICALISM is a proposed type of economic system , considered a replacement for capitalism . It suggests that workers, industries, and organisations be systematized into confederations or syndicates . It is "a system of economic organization in which industries are owned and managed by the workers". Its theory and practice is the advocacy of multiple cooperative productive units composed of specialists and representatives of workers in each field to negotiate and manage the economy. For adherents, labour unions and labour training (see below) are the potential means of both overcoming economic aristocracy and running society in the interest of informed and skilled majorities, through union democracy . Industry in a syndicalist system would be run through co-operative confederations and mutual aid . Local syndicates may communicate with other syndicates through the Bourse du Travail (labour exchange) which would cooperatively determine distributions of commodities
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Green Economics
The GREEN ECONOMY is defined as an economy that aims at reducing environmental risks and ecological scarcities, and that aims for sustainable development without degrading the environment. It is closely related with ecological economics , but has a more politically applied focus. The 2011 UNEP Green Economy
Economy
Report argues "that to be green, an economy must not only be efficient, but also fair
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German Model
The term GERMAN MODEL is most often used in economics to describe post- World War II
World War II
West Germany\'s means of using (according to University College London
University College London
Professor Wendy Carlin) innovative industrial relations, vocational training, and closer relationships between the financial and industrial sectors to cultivate economic prosperity. CONTENTS * 1 Industrial relations * 2 Consensus model * 3 Vocational education "> Tax revenues as a percentage of GDP for Germany
Germany
in comparison to the OECD
OECD
and the EU 15 , with Germany's rates consistently lower than the latter Under the German model, unions are organized at the industry level and co-exist with works councils at both the plant and company levels. These unions negotiate wage determination with employers\' associations
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Private Sector
The PRIVATE SECTOR is the part of the economy, sometimes referred to as the CITIZEN SECTOR, which is run by private individuals or groups, usually as a means of enterprise for profit , and is not controlled by the State (areas of the economy controlled by the state being referred to as the public sector ). CONTENTS * 1 Employment * 2 Diversification * 3 Regulation * 4 See also * 5 References EMPLOYMENTThe private sector employs most of the workforce in some countries. In private sector activities are guided by the motive to earn money. DIVERSIFICATIONIn free economy countries, such as the United States of America
United States of America
, the private sector is wider, and places fewer constraints on firms. In countries with more government authority, such as China
China
, the public sector makes up most of the economy. REGULATIONStates legally regulate the private sector
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Economy Of Singapore
Singapore
Singapore
has a highly developed trade-oriented market economy . Singapore's economy has been ranked as the most open in the world, 7th least corrupt, most pro-business, with low tax rates (14.2% of Gross Domestic Product, GDP) and has the third highest per-capita GDP in the world in terms of Purchasing Power Parity (PPP). APEC
APEC
is headquartered in Singapore. Government-linked companies play a substantial role in Singapore's economy, which are owned through the sovereign wealth fund Temasek Holdings , which holds majority stakes in several of the nation's largest companies, such as Singapore
Singapore
Airlines , SingTel
SingTel
, ST Engineering and MediaCorp . The ECONOMY OF SINGAPORE is a major Foreign Direct Investment
Foreign Direct Investment
(FDI) outflow financier in the world
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Communist System
In Marxist thought, COMMUNIST SOCIETY or the COMMUNIST SYSTEM is the type of society and economic system postulated to emerge from technological advances in the productive forces , representing the ultimate goal of the political ideology of Communism
Communism
. A communist society is characterized by common ownership of the means of production with free access to the articles of consumption and is classless and stateless , implying the end of the exploitation of labor . Communism
Communism
is a specific stage of socioeconomic development predicated upon a superabundance of material wealth, which is postulated to arise from advances in production technology and corresponding changes in the social relations of production. This would allow for distribution based on need and social relations based on freely-associated individuals
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Market Economy
A MARKET ECONOMY is an economic system where decisions regarding investment , production , and distribution are based on the interplay of supply and demand , which determines the prices of goods and services . The major defining characteristic of a market economy is that investment decisions, or the allocation of producer good , are primarily made through capital and financial markets. This is contrasted with a planned economy , where investment and production decisions are embodied in an integrated plan of production established by a state or other organizational body that controls the factors of production . Market economies can range from free market systems to regulated markets and various forms of interventionist variants. In reality, free markets do not exist in pure form, since societies and governments all regulate them to varying degrees
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