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Distributism
Distributism
Distributism
(also known as distributionism[1] or distributivism)[2] is an economic ideology that developed in Europe
Europe
in the late 19th and early 20th century based upon the principles of Catholic soc
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Distributivity
In abstract algebra and formal logic, the distributive property of binary operations generalizes the distributive law from boolean algebra and elementary algebra. In propositional logic, distribution refers to two valid rules of replacement. The rules allow one to reformulate conjunctions and disjunctions within logical proofs. For example, in arithmetic:2 ⋅ (1 + 3) = (2 ⋅ 1) + (2 ⋅ 3), but 2 / (1 + 3) ≠ (2 / 1) + (2 / 3).In the left-hand side of the first equation, the 2 multiplies the sum of 1 and 3; on the right-hand side, it multiplies the 1 and the 3 individually, with the products added afterwards. Because these give the same final answer (8), it is said that multiplication by 2 distributes over addition of 1 and 3
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Feminist Economics
Feminist
Feminist
economics is the critical study of economics including its methodology, epistemology, history and empirical research, attempting to overcome androcentric (male and patriarchal) biases
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Economy Of Singapore
The economy of Singapore
Singapore
is a highly developed free-market economy.[16][17] Singapore's economy has been ranked as the most open in the world,[18] 7th least corrupt,[19] most pro-business,[20] with low tax rates (14.2% of Gross Domestic Product, GDP)[21] and has the third highest per-capita GDP in the world in terms of Purchasing Power Parity (PPP). APEC
APEC
is headquartered in Singapore. Government-linked companies play a substantial role in Singapore's economy. Sovereign wealth fund
Sovereign wealth fund
Temasek Holdings
Temasek Holdings
holds majority stakes in several of the nation's largest companies, such as Singapore Airlines, SingTel, ST Engineering
ST Engineering
and MediaCorp. The Singaporean economy is a major Foreign Direct Investment
Foreign Direct Investment
(FDI) outflow financier in the world
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Informal Sector
The informal sector, informal economy, or grey economy[1][2] is the part of an economy that is neither taxed, nor monitored by any form of government. Unlike the formal economy, activities of the informal economy are not included in the gross national product (GNP) and gross domestic product (GDP) of a country.[3] The informal sector can be described as a grey market in labour. Other concepts which can be characterized as informal sector can include the black market (shadow economy, underground economy), agorism, and System D. Associated idioms include "under the table", "off the books" and "working for cash". Although the informal sector makes up a significant portion of the economies in developing countries it is often stigmatized as troublesome and unmanageable
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Communalism
Communalism usually refers to a system that integrates communal ownership and federations of highly localized independent communities. A prominent libertarian socialist, Murray Bookchin, defines the Communalism political philosophy that he developed as "a theory of government or a system of government in which independent communes participate in a federation", as well as "the principles and practice of communal ownership". The terms 'government' and 'autonomous' in this case do not imply an acceptance of a State, parochialism, or individualism.[1][2] This usage of communalism appears to have emerged during the late 20th century to distinguish commune-based systems from other political movements and/or governments espousing (if not actually practicing) similar ideas
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Syndicalism
Syndicalism
Syndicalism
is a proposed type of economic system, considered a replacement for capitalism. It suggests that workers, industries, and organisations be systematized into confederations or syndicates. It is "...a system of economic organization in which industries are owned and managed by the workers."[1] Its theory and practice is the advocacy of multiple cooperative productive units composed of specialists and representatives of workers in each field to negotiate and manage the economy. For adherents, labour unions and labour training (see below) are the potential means of both overcoming economic aristocracy and running society in the interest of informed and skilled majorities, through union democracy. Industry in a syndicalist system would be run through co-operative confederations and mutual aid
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Mutualism (movement)
Mutualism (also known as the mutualist movement or movement of mutuals) is a social movement that aims at creating and promoting mutual organizations, mutual insurances, and mutual funds. The movement encourages and assists the provision of mutual benefits against risks to those accessing its funds and or the elevation of their material and spiritual living standards, by regular payment or contribution.[1][2] Mutualism, institutionalized through mutual funds, has been universally recognized as a generator or embryo of classical forecast and modern social security systems, and currently coexists with them.[3] Although the fall in the popularity of mutual funds in many social environments coincided with the start of public social security system in the early decades of the 20th century. In Europe, but also in many other parts of the world, mutualisms continues to be an important player in the social economy
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Green Economics
The green economy is defined as an economy that aims at reducing environmental risks and ecological scarcities, and that aims for sustainable development without degrading the environment
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German Model
The term German model
German model
is most often used in economics to describe post- World War II
World War II
West Germany's means of using (according to Un
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Neomercantilism
Neomercantilism is a policy regime that encourages exports, discourages imports, controls capital movement, and centralizes currency decisions in the hands of a central government. The objective of neo-mercantilist policies is to increase the level of foreign reserves held by the government, allowing more effective monetary policy and fiscal policy. See also[edit]Mercantilism New classical economics Mundell–Fleming model DevelopmentalismReferences[edit]O'Brien, Patrick Karl & Clesse, Armand (editors) Two Hegemonies: Britain 1846–1914 and the United States 1941–2001. Aldershot: Ashgate
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Corporate Capitalism
Corporate capitalism is a term used in social science and economics to describe a capitalist marketplace characterized by the dominance of hierarchical, bureaucratic corporations. A large proportion of the economy of the United States
United States
and its labour market falls within corporate control.[1] In the developed world, corporations dominate the marketplace, comprising 50% or more of all businesses. Those businesses which are not corporations contain the same bureaucratic structure of corporations, but there is usually a sole owner or group of owners who are liable to bankruptcy and criminal charges relating to their business. Corporations have limited liability and remain less regulated and accountable than sole proprietorships. Corporations are usually called public entities or publicly traded entities when parts of their business can be bought in the form of shares on the stock market
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Anglo-Saxon Model
The Anglo-Saxon model or Anglo-Saxon capitalism (so called because it is practiced in English-speaking countries such as the United Kingdom, the United States, Canada, New Zealand, Australia[1] and Ireland[2]) is a capitalist model that emerged in the 1970s, based on the Chicago school of economics. However, its origins date to the 18th century in the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
under the ideas of the classical economist Adam Smith. Characteristics of this model include low levels of regulation and taxes, and the public sector providing very few services
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Chinese Model
The Beijing Consensus
Beijing Consensus
(also known as the China Model or Chinese Economic Model)[1] refers to the political and economic policies of the People's Republic of China[2] instituted after Mao Zedong's death in 1976 by Deng Xiaoping. The policies are thought to have contributed to China's eightfold growth in gross national product over two decades.[3][4] The phrase "Beijing Consensus" was coined by Joshua Cooper Ramo to frame China's economic development model as an alternative—especially for developing countries—to the Washington Consensus of market-friendly policies promoted by the IMF, World Bank, and U.S
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East Asian Model Of Capitalism
The East Asian model (sometimes known as state-sponsored capitalism [1]) is an economic system where the government invests in certain sectors of the economy in order to stimulate the growth of new (or specific) industries in the private sector. It generally refers to the model of development pursued in East Asian economies such as Hong Kong, Macau, Japan, South Korea, and Taiwan.[2] It has also been used to classify the contemporary economic system in Mainland China
China
since the Deng Xiaoping economic reforms during the late 1970s.[3] Key aspects of the East Asian model include state control of finance, direct support for state-owned enterprises in "strategic sectors" of the economy or the creation of privately owned "national champions", high dependence on the export market for growth, and a high rate of savings
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Virtual Economy
A virtual economy (or sometimes synthetic economy) is an emergent economy existing in a virtual world, usually exchanging virtual goods in the context of an Internet
Internet
game. People enter these virtual economies for recreation and entertainment rather than necessity, which means that virtual economies lack the aspects of a real economy that are not considered to be "fun" (for instance, avatars in a virtual economy often do not need to buy food in order to survive, and usually do not have any biological needs at all)
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