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Discoba
Excavata
Excavata
is a major supergroup of unicellular organisms belonging to the domain Eukaryota.[1][2][3] Introduced by Thomas Cavalier-Smith
Thomas Cavalier-Smith
in 2002 as a new phylogenetic category, it contains a variety of free-living and symbiotic forms, and also includes some important parasites of humans
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Excavation (other)
Excavation may refer to:Digging Excavation (archaeology) Excavation (medicine) Excavation (album), a 2013 album by The Haxan Cloak Excavation, a 2000 novel by James RollinsSee also[edit]Excavator Excavata, a taxonomic grouping of eukaryotic unicellular organisms Celaenia excavata, a spiderThis disambiguation page lists articles associated with the title Excavation. If an internal link led you here, you may wish to change the link to point directly to the
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Ancyromonadida
FamilyAncyromonadidae Nutomonadidae PlanomonadidaeSynonymsPlanomonadida Cavalier-Smith
Cavalier-Smith
2008 Ancyromonadida
Ancyromonadida
or Planomonadida is a small group of biflagellated protists found in the soil and in aquatic habitats, where they feed on bacteria[1][2]. Includes freshwater or marine organisms, benthic, dorsoventrally compressed and with two unequal flagellae, each emerging from a separate pocket. The apical anterior flagellum can be very thin or end in the cell membrane, while the posterior flagellum is long and is inserted ventrally or laterally. The cell membrane is supported by a thin single layer teak and the mitochondrial crests are discoidal / flat[3]. The group's placement is doubtful, as it seems to fall outside the five supergroups of Eukarya[4]
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Microtubule
Microtubules
Microtubules
(micro- + tube + -ule) are a component of the cytoskeleton, found throughout the cytoplasm. These tubular polymers of tubulin can grow as long as 50 micrometres and are highly dynamic. The outer diameter of a microtubule is about 24 nm while the inner diameter is about 12 nm. They are found in eukaryotic cells, as well as some bacteria,[1] and are formed by the polymerization of a dimer of two globular proteins, alpha and beta tubulin.[2] Microtubules
Microtubules
are very important in a number of cellular processes. They are involved in maintaining the structure of the cell and, together with microfilaments and intermediate filaments, they form the cytoskeleton
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Ultrastructure
Ultrastructure
Ultrastructure
(or ultra-structure) is the architecture of cells that is visible at higher magnifications than found on a standard optical light microscope. This traditionally meant the resolution and magnification range of a conventional transmission electron microscope (TEM) when viewing biological specimens such as cells, tissue, or organs. Ultrastructure
Ultrastructure
can also be viewed with scanning electron microscopy and super-resolution microscopy, although TEM is a standard histology technique for viewing ultrastructure
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Flagellum
A flagellum (/fləˈdʒɛləm/; plural: flagella) is a lash-like appendage that protrudes from the cell body of certain bacterial and eukaryotic cells. The similar structure in the archaea functions in the same way but is structurally different and has been termed the archaellum (as of 2012).[1] The word flagellum in Latin
Latin
means whip. The primary role of the flagellum is locomotion, but it also often has function as a sensory organelle, being sensitive to chemicals and temperatures outside the cell.[2][3][4][5] Flagella are organelles defined by function rather than structure. Large differences occur between different types of flagella; the prokaryotic and eukaryotic flagella differ greatly in protein composition, structure, and mechanism of propulsion
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Crista
1 Outer membrane1.1 Porin2 Intermembrane space2.1 Intracristal space 2.2 Peripheral space3 Lamella3.1 Inner membrane3.11 Inner boundary membrane 3.12 Cristal membrane3.2 Matrix 3.3 Cristæ
Cristæ
  ◄ You are here4 Mitochondrial DNA 5 Matrix granule 6 Ribosome 7 ATP synthaseA crista (/ˈkrɪstə/; plural cristae) is a fold in the inner membrane of a mitochondrion. The name is from the Latin for crest or plume, and it gives the inner membrane its characteristic wrinkled shape, providing a large amount of surface area for chemical reactions to occur on. This aids aerobic cellular respiration, because the mitochondrion requires oxygen
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Mitosome
A mitosome is an organelle found in some unicellular eukaryotic organisms. The mitosome has only recently been found and named,[1] and its function has not yet been well characterized. It was termed a 'crypton' by one group, but that name is no longer in use. The mitosome has been detected only in anaerobic or microaerophilic organisms that do not have mitochondria. These organisms do not have the capability of gaining energy from oxidative phosphorylation, which is normally performed by mitochondria. The mitosome was first described in Entamoeba histolytica, an intestinal parasite of humans.[1][2] Mitosomes have also been identified in several species of Microsporidia[3][4] and in Giardia intestinalis.[5] Origin and function[edit] Mitosomes are almost certainly derived from mitochondria
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Hydrogenosome
A hydrogenosome is a membrane-enclosed organelle of some anaerobic ciliates, trichomonads, fungi, and animals. The hydrogenosomes of trichomonads (the most studied of the hydrogenosome-containing microorganisms) produce molecular hydrogen, acetate, carbon dioxide and ATP by the combined actions of pyruvate:ferredoxin oxido-reductase, hydrogenase, acetate:succinate CoA transferase and succinate thiokinase. Superoxide dismutase, malate dehydrogenase (decarboxylating), ferredoxin, adenylate kinase and NADH:ferredoxin oxido-reductase are also localized in the hydrogenosome. It is nearly universally accepted that hydrogenosomes evolved from mitochondria.[2] In 2010, scientists reported their discovery of the first known anaerobic metazoans with hydrogenosome-like organelles.[3]Contents1 History 2 Description 3 Sources 4 In simple terms 5 See also 6 ReferencesHistory[edit] Hydrogenosomes were isolated, purified, biochemically characterized and named in the early 1970s by D. G
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Mitochondria
1 Outer membrane1.1 Porin2 Intermembrane space2.1 Intracristal space 2.2 Peripheral space3 Lamella3.1 Inner membrane3.11 Inner boundary membrane 3.12 Cristal membrane3.2 Matrix 3.3 Cristæ4 Mitochondrial DNA 5 Matrix granule 6 Ribosome 7 ATP synthaseThe mitochondrion (plural mitochondria) is a double-membrane-bound organelle found in most eukaryotic organisms. Some cells in some multicellular organisms may however lack them (for example, mature mammalian red blood cells). A number of unicellular organisms, such as microsporidia, parabasalids, and diplomonads, have also reduced or transformed their mitochondria into other structures.[1] To date, only one eukaryote, Monocercomonoides, is known to have completely lost its mitochondria.[2] The word mitochondrion comes from the Greek μίτος, mitos, "thread", and χονδρίον, chondrion, "granule"[3] or "grain-like"
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Hadean
The Hadean
Hadean
( /ˈheɪdiən/) is a geologic eon of the Earth
Earth
predating the Archean. It began with the formation of the Earth
Earth
about 4.6 billion years ago and ended, as defined by the ICS, 4 billion years ago.[1] As of 2016[update], the ICS describes its status as informal.[2] The geologist Preston Cloud coined the term in 1972, originally to label the period before the earliest-known rocks on Earth. W. Brian Harland later coined an almost synonymous term: the "Priscoan period"
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Basal (phylogenetics)
In phylogenetics, basal is the direction of the base (or root) of a rooted phylogenetic tree or cladogram. Clade
Clade
C may be described as basal within a larger clade D if its root is directly linked (adjacent) to the root of D. If C is a basal clade within D that has the lowest taxonomic rank of all basal clades within D, C may be described as the basal taxon of that rank within D. While there must always be two or more equally basal clades sprouting from the root of every cladogram, those clades may differ widely in rank[n 1] and/or species diversity. Greater diversification may be associated with more evolutionary innovation, but ancestral characters should not be imputed to the members of a less species-rich basal clade without additional evidence, as there can be no assurance such an assumption is valid.[1][2][3][n 2] In general, clade A is more basal than clade B if B is a subgroup of the sister group of A
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Domain (biology)
Eukaryota
Eukaryota
(represented by the Australian green tree frog, left), Bacteria
Bacteria
(represented by Staphylococcus aureus, middle) and Archaea
Archaea
(represented by Sulfolobus, right).The hierarchy of biological classification's eight major taxonomic ranks. Life
Life
is divided into domains, which are subdivided into further groups. Intermediate minor rankings are not shown.In biological taxonomy, a domain (Latin: regio[1]), also superkingdom or empire,[2] is the highest taxonomic rank of organisms in the three-domain system of taxonomy designed by Carl Woese, an American microbiologist and biophysicist. According to the Woese system, introduced in 1990, the tree of life consists of three domains: Archaea, Bacteria, and Eukarya.[1] The first two are all prokaryotic microorganisms, or single-celled organisms whose cells have no nucleus
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Unicellular Organism
A unicellular organism, also known as a single-celled organism, is an organism that consists of only one cell, unlike a multicellular organism that consists of more than one cell. Unicellular organisms fall into two general categories: prokaryotic organisms and eukaryotic organisms. Prokaryotes include bacteria and archaea. Many eukaryotes are multicellular, but the group includes the protozoa, unicellular algae, and unicellular fungi. Unicellular organisms are thought to be the oldest form of life, with early protocells possibly emerging 3.8–4 billion years ago.[1][2] Although some prokaryotes live in colonies, they are not specialised into cells with differing functions. These organisms live together, and each cell must carry out all life processes to survive
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Jakobida
Jakobids are an order of eukaryotes in the supergroup of Excavates. Molecular phylogenetic evidence suggests strongly that jakobids are most closely related to Heterolobosea (=Percolozoa) and Euglenozoa.[1] Taxonomy[edit]Class Jakobea
Jakobea
Cavalier-Smith 1999Order Jakobida
Jakobida
Cavalier-Smith 1993Sub Order Andaluciina Cavalier-Smith 2013Family Andaluciidae Cavalier-Smith 2013Genus Andalucia Lara et al. 2006Species Andalucia godoyi Lara et al. 2006Family Stygiellidae Pánek, Táborský & Čepička 2015[2]Genus Velundella Pánek, Táborský & Čepička 2015Species V. nauta Pánek, Táborský & Čepička 2015 Species V. trypanoides Pánek, Táborský & Čepička 2015Genus Stygiella Pánek, Táborský & Čepička 2015 non Bruand 1853Species S
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Paraphyletic
In taxonomy, a group is paraphyletic if it consists of the group's last common ancestor and all descendants of that ancestor excluding a few—typically only one or two—monophyletic subgroups. The group is said to be paraphyletic with respect to the excluded subgroups. The arrangement of the members of a paraphyletic group is called a paraphyly. The term is commonly used in phylogenetics (a subfield of biology) and in linguistics. The term was coined to apply to well-known taxa like Reptilia (reptiles) which, as commonly named and traditionally defined, is paraphyletic with respect to mammals and birds. Reptilia contains the last common ancestor of reptiles and all descendants of that ancestor—including all extant reptiles as well as the extinct synapsids—except for mammals and birds. Other commonly recognized paraphyletic groups include fish, monkeys and lizards.[1] If many subgroups are missing from the named group, it is said to be polyparaphyletic
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