HOME TheInfoList.com
Providing Lists of Related Topics to Help You Find Great Stuff
[::MainTopicLength::#1500] [::ListTopicLength::#1000] [::ListLength::#15] [::ListAdRepeat::#3]

picture info

Discoba
EXCAVATA is a major supergroup of unicellular organisms belonging to the domain Eukaryota
Eukaryota
. Introduced by Thomas Cavalier-Smith
Thomas Cavalier-Smith
in 2002 as a new phylogenetic category, it contains a variety of free-living and symbiotic forms, and also includes some important parasites of humans. Excavates were formerly considered to be included in the now obsolete Protista kingdom. They are classified based on their flagellar structures, and they are considered to be the oldest members (basal lineage) of flagellated organisms . The Discobaean excavata ( Euglenozoa
Euglenozoa
, Percolozoa , Tsukubea , Jakobea ) now appear to be basal Eukaryotes, while the Metamonadaean and Malawimonaen excavata now appear to be sister clades of the Podiata . The Discoba
Discoba
may be highly paraphyletic
[...More...]

"Discoba" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo

Mitosome
A MITOSOME is an organelle found in some unicellular eukaryotic organisms. The mitosome has only recently been found and named, and its function has not yet been well characterized. It was termed a 'crypton' by one group, but that name is no longer in use. The mitosome has been detected only in anaerobic or microaerophilic organisms that do not have mitochondria . These organisms do not have the capability of gaining energy from oxidative phosphorylation, which is normally performed by mitochondria. The mitosome was first described in Entamoeba histolytica
Entamoeba histolytica
, an intestinal parasite of humans. Mitosomes have also been identified in several species of Microsporidia
Microsporidia
and in Giardia intestinalis . Mitosomes are almost certainly derived from mitochondria. Like mitochondria, they have a double membrane and most proteins are delivered to them by a targeting sequence of amino acids
[...More...]

"Mitosome" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo

picture info

Crista
1 Outer membrane 1.1 Porin 2 Intermembrane space 2.1 Intracristal space 2.2 Peripheral space3 Lamella 3.1 Inner membrane 3.11 Inner boundary membrane 3.12 Cristal membrane 3.2 Matrix 3.3 Cristæ ◄ YOU ARE HERE4 Mitochondrial DNA
Mitochondrial DNA
5 Matrix granule 6 Ribosome
Ribosome
7 ATP synthase
ATP synthase
A CRISTA (/ˈkrɪstə/ ; plural CRISTAE) is a fold in the inner membrane of a mitochondrion . The name is from the Latin for crest or plume, and it gives the inner membrane its characteristic wrinkled shape, providing a large amount of surface area for chemical reactions to occur on. This aids aerobic cellular respiration , because the mitochondrion requires oxygen . Cristae are studded with proteins , including ATP synthase
ATP synthase
and a variety of cytochromes
[...More...]

"Crista" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo

picture info

Hydrogenosome
A HYDROGENOSOME is a membrane-enclosed organelle of some anaerobic ciliates , trichomonads , fungi , and animals . The hydrogenosomes of trichomonads (the most studied of the hydrogenosome-containing microorganisms) produce molecular hydrogen , acetate , carbon dioxide and ATP by the combined actions of pyruvate:ferredoxin oxido-reductase , hydrogenase , acetate:succinate CoA transferase and succinate thiokinase . Superoxide dismutase , malate dehydrogenase (decarboxylating), ferredoxin , adenylate kinase and NADH:ferredoxin oxido-reductase are also localized in the hydrogenosome. It is nearly universally accepted that hydrogenosomes evolved from mitochondria . In 2010, scientists reported their discovery of the first known anaerobic metazoans with hydrogenosome-like organelles
[...More...]

"Hydrogenosome" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo

picture info

Mitochondria
1 Outer membrane 1.1 Porin 2 Intermembrane space 2.1 Intracristal space 2.2 Peripheral space3 Lamella 3.1 Inner membrane 3.11 Inner boundary membrane 3.12 Cristal membrane 3.2 Matrix 3.3 Cristæ 4 Mitochondrial DNA
Mitochondrial DNA
5 Matrix granule 6 Ribosome 7 ATP synthase The MITOCHONDRION (plural MITOCHONDRIA) is a double membrane -bound organelle found in all eukaryotic organisms. Some cells in some multicellular organisms may however lack them (for example, mature mammalian red blood cells ). A number of unicellular organisms, such as microsporidia , parabasalids , and diplomonads , have also reduced or transformed their mitochondria into other structures. To date, only one eukaryote, Monocercomonoides , is known to have completely lost its mitochondria
[...More...]

"Mitochondria" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo

picture info

Paraphyletic
In taxonomy , a group is PARAPHYLETIC if it consists of the group's last common ancestor and all descendants of that ancestor excluding a few—typically only one or two—monophyletic subgroups. The group is said to be paraphyletic with respect to the excluded subgroups. The arrangement of the members of a paraphyletic group is called a PARAPHYLY. The term is commonly used in phylogenetics (a subfield of biology ) and in linguistics . The term was coined to apply to well-known taxa like reptiles (Reptilia) which, as commonly named and traditionally defined, is paraphyletic with respect to mammals and birds. Reptilia contains the last common ancestor of reptiles and all descendants of that ancestor—including all extant reptiles as well as the extinct synapsids —except for mammals and birds . Other commonly recognized paraphyletic groups include fish , monkeys and lizards . If many subgroups are missing from the named group, it is said to be polyparaphyletic
[...More...]

"Paraphyletic" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo

Excavation (other)
EXCAVATION may refer to: * Digging
Digging
* Excavation (archaeology)
Excavation (archaeology)
* Excavation (medicine)
[...More...]

"Excavation (other)" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo

picture info

Ultrastructure
ULTRASTRUCTURE (or ultra-structure) is the architecture of cells that is visible at higher magnifications than found on a standard optical light microscope . This traditionally meant the resolution and magnification range of a conventional transmission electron microscope (TEM) when viewing biological specimens such as cells , tissue , or organs . Ultrastructure
Ultrastructure
can also be viewed with scanning electron microscopy and super-resolution microscopy , although TEM is a standard histology technique for viewing ultrastructure. Such cellular structures as organelles , which allow the cell to function properly within its specified environment, can be examined at the ultrastructural level. Ultrastructure, along with molecular phylogeny , is a reliable phylogenetic way of classifying organisms. REFERENCES * ^ Laura Wegener Parfrey; Erika Barbero; Elyse Lasser; Micah Dunthorn; Debashish Bhattacharya; David J Patterson & Laura A Katz (December 2006)
[...More...]

"Ultrastructure" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo

Monocercomonoides
MONOCERCOMONOIDES is a genus of flagellate Excavata
Excavata
belonging to the order Oxymonadida . Monocercomonoides species have been discovered living in the guts of small mammals, snakes, and insects. The genome of Monocercomonoides has approximately 75 million base pairs (75 Mbp), with 16629 predicted protein-coding genes. Many excavates lack "classical" mitochondria . Oxymonads lack true mitochondria and Golgi apparatus
Golgi apparatus
. Monocercomonoides has been characterized as the first example of a eukaryotic organism devoid of mitochondria . Its genome contains no mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), and no genes for cardiolipin , a lipid for energy-transducing membranes. In 2016, Monocercomonoides sp. PA 203, a Monocercomonoides species which resides in the intestines of the chinchilla , was found to possess no mitochondria at all
[...More...]

"Monocercomonoides" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo

picture info

Monophyletic
In cladistics , a MONOPHYLETIC group is a taxon (group of organisms) which forms a clade , meaning that it consists of an ancestral species and all its descendants. Monophyletic groups are typically characterised by shared derived characteristics (synapomorphies ). The arrangement of the members of a monophyletic group is called a MONOPHYLY, synonymous with the uncommon term HOLOPHYLY. Monophyly is contrasted with paraphyly and polyphyly , as shown in the second diagram. A paraphyletic group consists of all of the descendants of a common ancestor minus one or more monophyletic groups. Thus, a paraphyletic group is 'nearly' monophyletic (hence the prefix 'para', meaning 'near' or 'alongside'.) A polyphyletic group is characterized by convergent features or habits (for example, night-active primates, fruit trees, aquatic insects); the features by which the group is differentiated from others are not inherited from a common ancestor
[...More...]

"Monophyletic" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo

picture info

Mitochondrion
1 Outer membrane 1.1 Porin 2 Intermembrane space 2.1 Intracristal space 2.2 Peripheral space3 Lamella 3.1 Inner membrane 3.11 Inner boundary membrane 3.12 Cristal membrane 3.2 Matrix 3.3 Cristæ 4 Mitochondrial DNA
Mitochondrial DNA
5 Matrix granule 6 Ribosome
Ribosome
7 ATP synthase
ATP synthase
The MITOCHONDRION (plural MITOCHONDRIA) is a double membrane -bound organelle found in all eukaryotic organisms. Some cells in some multicellular organisms may however lack them (for example, mature mammalian red blood cells ). A number of unicellular organisms, such as microsporidia , parabasalids , and diplomonads , have also reduced or transformed their mitochondria into other structures. To date, only one eukaryote, Monocercomonoides , is known to have completely lost its mitochondria
[...More...]

"Mitochondrion" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo

picture info

Commensalism
COMMENSALISM, in ecology , is a class of relationships between two organisms where one organism benefits from the other without affecting it. This is in contrast with mutualism , in which both organisms benefit from each other, amensalism , where one is harmed while the other is unaffected, and parasitism , where one benefits while the other is harmed. The word "commensalism" is derived from the word "commensal", meaning "eating at the same table" in human social interaction, which in turn comes through French from the Medieval Latin commensalis, meaning "sharing a table", from the prefix com-, meaning "together", and mensa, meaning "table" or "meal". Originally, the term was used to describe the use of waste food by second animals, like the carcass eaters that follow hunting animals, but wait until they have finished their meal. Commensality, at Oxford and Cambridge Universities, refers to professors eating at the same table as students (as they live in the same "college")
[...More...]

"Commensalism" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo

picture info

Microtubule
MICROTUBULES (micro- + tube + -ule) are a component of the cytoskeleton , found throughout the cytoplasm . These tubular polymers of tubulin can grow as long as 50 micrometres and are highly dynamic. The outer diameter of a microtubule is about 24 nm while the inner diameter is about 12 nm. They are found in eukaryotic cells , as well as some bacteria , and are formed by the polymerization of a dimer of two globular proteins , alpha and beta tubulin . Microtubules are very important in a number of cellular processes . They are involved in maintaining the structure of the cell and, together with microfilaments and intermediate filaments , they form the cytoskeleton
[...More...]

"Microtubule" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo

picture info

Domain (biology)
Eukaryota (represented by the Australian green tree frog , left), Bacteria
Bacteria
(represented by Staphylococcus aureus , middle) and Archaea (represented by Sulfolobus , right). The hierarchy of biological classification 's eight major taxonomic ranks . Life
Life
is divided into domains, which are subdivided into further groups. Intermediate minor rankings are not shown. In biological taxonomy , a DOMAIN ( Latin : REGIO ) is the highest taxonomic rank of organisms in the three-domain system of taxonomy designed by Carl Woese , an American microbiologist and biophysicist . According to the Woese system, introduced in 1990, the tree of life (biology) consists of three domains: Archaea (a term which Woese created), Bacteria
Bacteria
, and Eukarya
[...More...]

"Domain (biology)" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo

picture info

Flagellum
A FLAGELLUM (/fləˈdʒɛləm/ ; plural: FLAGELLA) is a lash-like appendage that protrudes from the cell body of certain prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. The word flagellum in Latin
Latin
means whip . The primary role of the flagellum is locomotion , but it also often has function as a sensory organelle , being sensitive to chemicals and temperatures outside the cell. Flagella are organelles defined by function rather than structure. Large differences occur between different types of flagella; the prokaryotic and eukaryotic flagella differ greatly in protein composition, structure, and mechanism of propulsion. However, both can be used for swimming. An example of a flagellated bacterium is the ulcer-causing Helicobacter pylori , which uses multiple flagella to propel itself through the mucus lining to reach the stomach epithelium
[...More...]

"Flagellum" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo

picture info

Jakobida
JAKOBIDS are an order of eukaryotes in the supergroup of Excavates . Molecular phylogenetic evidence suggests strongly that jakobids are most closely related to Heterolobosea (=Percolozoa) and Euglenozoa
Euglenozoa
. TAXONOMY* Class Jakobea
Jakobea
Cavalier-Smith 1999 * Order Jakobida
Jakobida
Cavalier-Smith 1993 * Sub Order Andaluciina Cavalier-Smith 2013 * Family Andaluciidae Cavalier-Smith 2013 * Genus Andalucia Lara et al. 2006 * Species Andalucia godoyi Lara et al. 2006* Family Stygiellidae Pánek, Táborský & Čepička 2014 * Genus Velundella Pánek, Táborský & Čepička 2014 * Species V. nauta Pánek, Táborský & Čepička 2014 * Species V. trypanoides Pánek, Táborský & Čepička 2014* Genus Stygiella Pánek, Táborský & Čepička 2014 non Bruand 1853 * Species S
[...More...]

"Jakobida" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo
.