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Direct Action Day
Direct Action Day
Direct Action Day
(16 August 1946), also known as the Great Calcutta Killings, was a day of widespread communal rioting between Hindus
Hindus
and Muslims in the city of Calcutta
Calcutta
(now known as Kolkata) in the Bengal province of British India.[3] The day also marked the start of what is known as The Week of the Long Knives.[5][page needed][6] The 'Direct Action' was announced by the Muslim
Muslim
League Council to show the strength of Muslim
Muslim
feelings both to British and Congress. Muslims feared that if the British just pulled out, Muslims would surely suffer at the hands of overwhelming Hindu
Hindu
majority
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Hindu Mahasabha
The Akhil Bhāratiya Hindū Mahāsabhā (translation: All- India
India
Hindu Grand-Assembly) is a right wing Hindu
Hindu
nationalist political party in India. The organisation was formed to protect the rights of the Hindu community in British India, after the formation of the All India
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Uttar Pradesh
24 January 1950[1]Capital LucknowDistricts 75[2][3]Government • Body Government of Uttar Pradesh • Governor Ram Naik[4] • Chief Minister Yogi Adityanath
Yogi Adityanath
(BJP) • Deputy Chief Ministers Keshav Prasad Maurya
Keshav Prasad Maurya
(BJP) Dinesh Sharma (BJP) • Chief Secretary Rajive Kumar, IAS[5] • Director General of Police O. P
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Hartal
Hartal (pronounced [ɦəɽ.t̪ɑːl]), also bandh (pronounced [bənd̪ʱ]), is a term in many South Asian languages for strike action, first used during the Indian Independence Movement (also known as the nationalist movement). It is mass protest often involving a total shutdown of workplaces, offices, shops, courts of law as a form of civil disobedience; it is similar to a labour strike. In addition to being a general strike, it involves the voluntary closing of schools and places of business. It is a mode of appealing to the sympathies of a government to change an unpopular or unacceptable decision.[1] A Hartal is often used for political reasons, for example by an opposition political party protesting against a government policy or action. The term comes from Gujarati (હડતાળ haḍtāḷ or હડતાલ haḍtāl), signifying the closing down of shops and warehouses with the object of realizing a demand
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General Strike
A general strike (or mass strike) is a strike action in which a substantial proportion of the total labour force in a city, region, or country participates. General strikes are characterised by the participation of workers in a multitude of workplaces, and tend to involve entire communities. General strikes first occurred in the mid-19th century, and have characterised many historically important strikes.Contents1 History1.1 Antiquity 1.2 Modern era 1.3 Rosa Luxemburg2 Purpose 3 Concept3.1 Socialists, anarchists differ on tactics 3.2 Syndicalism
Syndicalism
and the general strike3.2.1 Industrial Workers of the World4 Reaction of orthodox labour 5 Notable general strikes 6 See also 7 Footnotes 8 Further reading 9 External linksHistory[edit] Antiquity[edit] An early predecessor of the general strike may have been the secessio plebis in ancient Rome. In the Outline Of History, H.G
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Punjab Region
The Punjab
Punjab
(/pʌnˈdʒɑːb/ ( listen), /-ˈdʒæb/, /ˈpʌndʒɑːb/, /-dʒæb/), also spelled Panjab (land of "five rivers";[1] Punjabi: پنجاب‬ (Shahmukhi); ਪੰਜਾਬ (Gurumukhi)), is a geographical and cultural region in the northern part of the Indian subcontinent, comprising areas of eastern Pakistan and northern India. Not being a political unit, the boundaries of the region are ill-defined and focus on historical accounts. Until the Partition of Punjab
Partition of Punjab
in 1947, the British Punjab
Punjab
Province encompassed the present-day Indian states of Punjab, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, Chandigarh, and Delhi, and the Pakistani provinces of Punjab and Islamabad
Islamabad
Capital Territory
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Muslim
65–75% Sunni
Sunni
Islam[22][note 1] 10–13% Shia
Shia
Islam[22] 15–20% Non-denominational Islam[23] ~1% Ahmadiyya[24] ~1% Other Muslim
Muslim
traditions, e.g
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North Western Frontier Province
Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (abbreviated as KP; Urdu: خیبر پختونخوا‬‎; Pashto: خیبر پښتونخوا‎)[1] is one of the four administrative provinces of Pakistan, located in the northwestern region of the country along the international border with Afghanistan. It was previously known as the North-West Frontier Province (NWFP) until 2010, and is known colloquially by various other names. Khyber Pakhtunkhwa is the third-largest province of Pakistan by the size of both population and economy, though it is geographically the smallest of four.[3] It comprises 10.5% of Pakistan's economy, and is home to 11.9% of Pakistan's total population, with the majority of the province's inhabitants being Pashtuns, Hazarewal, Chitrali, and Kohistanis. The province is the site of the ancient kingdom Gandhara, including the ruins of its capital Pushkalavati near modern-day Charsadda
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Indian National Congress
The Indian National Congress
Indian National Congress
( pronunciation (help·info)) (INC, often called Congress) is a broad-based political party in India.[11] Founded in 1885, it was the first modern nationalist movement to emerge in the British Empire
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Government Of India Act 1919
The Government of India Act, 1919
Government of India Act, 1919
(9 & 10 Geo. 5 c. 101) was an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom. It was passed to expand participation of Indians in the government of India. The Act embodied the reforms recommended in the report of the Secretary of State for India, Edwin Montagu, and the Viceroy, Frederic Thesiger. The Act covered ten years, from 1919 to 1929. This Act represented the end of benevolent despotism and began genesis of responsible government in India. The Act received royal assent on December 23, 1919. On the same day the King-Emperor issued a proclamation which reviewed the course of parliamentary legislation for India and the intent of the act:"The Acts of 1773 and 1784 were designed to establish a regular system of administration and justice under the Honourable East India Company. The Act of 1833 opened the door for Indians to public office and employment
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Communal Award
The Communal Award was made by the British Prime Minister
British Prime Minister
Ramsay MacDonald on 16 August 1932 granting separate electorates in India for the Forward Caste, scheduled Caste, Muslims, Buddhists, Sikhs, Indian Christians, Anglo-Indians, Europeans
Europeans
and Depressed Classes (now known as the Scheduled Caste) etc. The principle of weightage was also applied.[1] The reason behind introduction of this 'Award' was that Ramsay MacDonald considered himself as 'a friend of the Indians' and thus wanted to resolve the issues in India. The 'Communal Award' was announced after the failure of the Second of the Three Round Table Conferences (India). The 'award' attracted severe criticism from Mahatma Gandhi As a result of the Third Round Table Conference, in November 1932, the then Prime Minister of Britain Ramsay Macdonald
Ramsay Macdonald
gave his 'award', known as the Communal Award
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Malabar Rebellion
The Malabar rebellion (also known as the Moplah rebellion and Māppila Lahaḷa in Malayalam) was an armed uprising in 1921 against British authority in the Malabar region of Southern India by Mappilas and the culmination of a series of Mappila revolts that recurred throughout the 19th century and early 20th century.[2] The 1921 rebellion began as a reaction against a heavy-handed crackdown on the Khilafat Movement, a campaign in defense of the Ottoman Caliphate,[3] by the British authorities in the Eranad and Valluvanad taluks of Malabar. In the initial stages, a number of minor clashes took place between Khilafat volunteers and the police, but the violence soon spread across the region.[4] The Mappilas attacked and took control of police stations, British government offices, courts and government treasuries
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Persecution Of Hindus In Bangladesh
For Hinduism in the State of India, see: Hinduism in West BengalHistorical Hindu PopulationYear Pop. ±%1901 9,546,240 —    1911 9,939,825 +4.1%1921 10,176,030 +2.4%1931 10,466,988 +2.9%1941 11,759,160 +12.3%1951 9,239,603 −21.4%1961 9,379,669 +1.5%1974 9,673,048 +3.1%1981 10,570,245 +9.3%1991 11,178,866 +5.8%2001 11,379,000 +1.8%2011 12,492,427 +9.8%*The Census of 1971 was delayed due to the Liberation War of Bangladesh Source: God Willing: The Politics of Islamism in Bangladesh by Ali Riaz, p
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Council Muslim League
ParliamentSenateChairman: Raza Rabbani Deputy Chairman: Abdul Ghafoor HaideriNational AssemblySpeaker: Sardar A
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Sikhs
A Sikh
Sikh
(/siːk, sɪk/; Punjabi: ਸਿੱਖ sikkh [sɪkkʰ]) is a person associated with the Sikh
Sikh
nation, sharing a common history, culture, language (Punjabi) and panentheistic religion
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Hindus
ArtsBharatanatyam Kathak Kathakali Kuchipudi Manipuri Mohiniyattam Odissi Sattriya Bhagavata Mela Yakshagana Dandiya Raas Carnatic musicRites of passageGarbhadhana Pumsavana Simantonayana Jatakarma Namakarana Nishkramana Annaprashana Chudakarana Karnavedha Vidyarambha Upanayana Keshanta Ritushuddhi Samavartana Vivaha AntyeshtiAshrama DharmaAshrama: Brahmacharya Grihastha Vanaprastha SannyasaFestivalsDiwali Holi Shivaratri Navaratri Durga
Durga
Puja Ramlila Vijayadashami-DussehraRaksha Bandhan Ganesh Chat
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