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DirectBand
DirectBand
DirectBand
was a North American wireless datacast network owned and operated by Microsoft. It used FM radio broadcasts in over 100 cities to constantly transmit data to a variety of devices, including portable GPS devices, wristwatches and home weather stations.Contents1 How it works1.1 Not like RDS 1.2 Forward acting error correction 1.3 Push network2 Receivers 3 Microsoft
Microsoft
design 4 FM subcarrier usage 5 Shutdown 6 See also 7 References 8 External linksHow it works[edit] DirectBand
DirectBand
used the 67.65 kHz subcarrier leased by Microsoft
Microsoft
from commercial radio broadcasters. This subcarrier delivers about 12 kbit/s (net after ECC) of data per tower, for over 100 MB per day per city
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DVB-T2
DVB-T2
DVB-T2
is an abbreviation for " Digital Video Broadcasting
Digital Video Broadcasting
— Second Generation Terrestrial"; it is the extension of the television standard DVB-T, issued by the consortium DVB, devised for the broadcast transmission of digital terrestrial television. DVB has been standardized by ETSI. This system transmits compressed digital audio, video, and other data in "physical layer pipes" (PLPs), using OFDM
OFDM
modulation with concatenated channel coding and interleaving
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HD Radio
HD Radio
HD Radio
is a trademarked term for iBiquity's in-band on-channel (IBOC) digital radio technology used by AM and FM radio stations to transmit audio and data by using a digital signal embedded "on-frequency" immediately above and below a station's standard analog signal, providing the means to listen to the same program in either HD (digital radio with less noise) or as a standard broadcast (analog radio with standard sound quality). The HD format also provides the means for a single radio station to simultaneously broadcast one or more different programs in addition to the program being transmitted on the radio station's analog channel. It was selected by the U.S. Federal Communications Commission
U.S. Federal Communications Commission
(FCC) in 2002 as a digital audio broadcasting method for the United States,[1][2] and is the only digital system approved by the FCC for digital AM/FM broadcasts in the United States
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Frequency Allocation
Frequency allocation
Frequency allocation
(or spectrum allocation or spectrum management) is the allocation and regulation of the electromagnetic spectrum into radio frequency bands, which is normally done by governments in most countries.[1] Because radio propagation does not stop at national boundaries, governments have sought to harmonise the allocation of RF bands and their standardization.Contents1 ITU definition 2 Bodies 3 Example 4 See also 5 References 6 External linksITU definition[edit] The International Telecommunication Union
International Telecommunication Union
defines frequency allocation as being of "a given frequency band for the purpose of its use by one or more terrestrial or space radiocommunication services or the radio astronomy service under specified conditions".[2] Frequency allocation
Frequency allocation
is also a special term, used in national frequency administration
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Band II
Band II is the range of radio frequencies within the very high frequency (VHF) part of the electromagnetic spectrum from 87.5 to 108.0 megahertz (MHz).Contents1 Radio 2 Broadcast television2.1 Usage in Russia and in other former members of OIRT3 ReferencesRadio[edit] Band II is primarily used worldwide for FM radio broadcasting.[1] Broadcast television[edit] Usage in Russia and in other former members of OIRT[edit] In the former Soviet Union and other countries-members of OIRT, frequencies from 76 MHz to 100 MHz were designated for broadcast television usage.[2] Considering 8 MHz channel bandwidth used
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Modem
A modem (modulator–demodulator) is a network hardware device that modulates one or more carrier wave signals to encode digital information for transmission and demodulates signals to decode the transmitted information. The goal is to produce a signal that can be transmitted easily and decoded to reproduce the original digital data. Modems can be used with any means of transmitting analog signals, from light-emitting diodes to radio. A common type of modem is one that turns the digital data of a computer into modulated electrical signal for transmission over telephone lines and demodulated by another modem at the receiver side to recover the digital data. Modems are generally classified by the maximum amount of data they can send in a given unit of time, usually expressed in bits per second (symbol bit(s), sometimes abbreviated "bps"), or bytes per second (symbol B(s)). Modems can also be classified by their symbol rate, measured in baud
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Error Correction
In information theory and coding theory with applications in computer science and telecommunication, error detection and correction or error control are techniques that enable reliable delivery of digital data over unreliable communication channels. Many communication channels are subject to channel noise, and thus errors may be introduced during transmission from the source to a receiver
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PSIP
The Program and System Information Protocol
Program and System Information Protocol
(PSIP) is the MPEG
MPEG
(a video and audio industry group) and privately defined program-specif
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Garmin
Garmin
Garmin
Ltd
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Microsoft
Microsoft
Microsoft
Corporation (/ˈmaɪkrəˌsɒft/,[2][3] abbreviated as MS) is an American multinational technology company with headquarters in Redmond, Washington. It develops, manufactures, licenses, supports and sells computer software, consumer electronics, personal computers, and services. Its best known software products are the Microsoft
Microsoft
Windows line of operating systems, the Microsoft Office
Microsoft Office
suite, and the Internet
Internet
Explorer and Edge web browsers. Its flagship hardware products are the Xbox
Xbox
video game consoles and the Microsoft
Microsoft
Surface lineup of touchscreen personal computers
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ARM7
ARM7
ARM7
is a group of older 32-bit
32-bit
RISC ARM processor cores licensed by ARM Holdings
ARM Holdings
for microcontroller use.[1] The ARM7
ARM7
core family consists of ARM700, ARM710, ARM7DI, ARM710a, ARM720T, ARM740T, ARM710T, ARM7TDMI, ARM7TDMI-S, ARM7EJ-S. The ARM7TDMI and ARM7TDMI-S were the most popular cores of the family
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Trellis Modulation
In telecommunication, trellis modulation (also known as trellis coded modulation, or simply TCM) is a modulation scheme that transmits information with high efficiency over band-limited channels such as telephone lines. Gottfried Ungerboeck invented trellis modulation while working for IBM in the 1970s, and first described it in a conference paper in 1976. It went largely unnoticed, however, until he published a new, detailed exposition in 1982 that achieved sudden and widespread recognition. In the late 1980s, modems operating over plain old telephone service (POTS) typically achieved 9.6 kbit/s by employing four bits per symbol QAM modulation at 2,400 baud (symbols/second)
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Error-correcting Code
In telecommunication, information theory, and coding theory, forward error correction (FEC) or channel coding[1] is a technique used for controlling errors in data transmission over unreliable or noisy communication channels. The central idea is the sender encodes the message in a redundant way by using an error-correcting code (ECC). The American mathematician Richard Hamming
Richard Hamming
pioneered this field in the 1940s and invented the first error-correcting code in 1950: the Hamming (7,4) code.[2] The redundancy allows the receiver to detect a limited number of errors that may occur anywhere in the message, and often to correct these errors without retransmission. FEC gives the receiver the ability to correct errors without needing a reverse channel to request retransmission of data, but at the cost of a fixed, higher forward channel bandwidth
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CAM-D
Compatible Amplitude Modulation
Modulation
- Digital or CAM-D is a hybrid digital radio format for AM broadcasting, proposed by broadcast engineer Leonard R. Kahn. The system is an in-band on-channel technology that uses the sidebands of any AM radio station. Analog information is still used up to a bandpass of about 7.5kHz, with standard amplitude modulation. The missing treble information that AM normally lacks is then transmitted digitally beyond this. Audio mixing in the receiver then blends them back together. Unlike other IBOC technologies like iBiquity's HD Radio, Kahn's apparently does not provide a direct path to all-digital transmissions, nor any multichannel capability. Its advantage, however, is that it takes up far less of the sidebands, thereby causing far less interference to adjacent channels, hence the "Compatible" in the name
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Ultra High Frequency
Ultra high frequency
Ultra high frequency
(UHF) is the ITU
ITU
designation for radio frequencies in the range between 300 megahertz (MHz) and 3 gigahertz (GHz), also known as the decimetre band as the wavelengths range from one meter to one decimeter. Radio
Radio
waves with frequencies above the UHF band fall into the SHF (super-high frequency) or microwave frequency range. Lower frequency signals fall into the VHF
VHF
(very high frequency) or lower bands. UHF radio waves propagate mainly by line of sight; they are blocked by hills and large buildings although the transmission through building walls is strong enough for indoor reception
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Digital Audio Broadcasting
Digital audio
Digital audio
broadcasting (DAB) is a digital radio standard for broadcasting digital audio radio services, used in countries across Europe, the Middle East and Asia Pacific. The DAB standard was initiated as a European research project in the 1980s.[1] The Norwegian Broadcasting
Broadcasting
Corporation (NRK) launched the first DAB channel in the world on 1 June 1995 ( NRK
NRK
Klassisk),[2] and the BBC
BBC
and Swedish Radio (SR) launched their first DAB digital radio broadcasts in September 1995
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