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Dio Chrysostom
Dio Chrysostom
Dio Chrysostom
(/ˈdiːoʊ ˈkrɪsəstəm, krɪˈsɒstəm/; Greek: Δίων Χρυσόστομος Dion Chrysostomos), Dion of Prusa or Dio Cocceianus (c. 40 – c. 115 CE), was a Greek orator, writer, philosopher and historian of the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
in the 1st century. Eighty of his Discourses (or Orations; Λόγοι) are extant, as well as a few Letters and a funny mock essay "In Praise of Hair", as well as a few other fragments. His surname Chrysostom comes from the Greek chrysostomos (χρυσόστομος), which literally means "golden-mouthed"
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Johann Jakob Reiske
Johann Jakob Reiske
Johann Jakob Reiske
(December 25, 1716 – August 14, 1774) was a German scholar and physician. He was a pioneer in the fields of Arabic and Byzantine philology as well as Islamic numismatics.Contents1 Biography 2 Achievements 3 Selected works3.1 Arabic philology 3.2 Islamic numismatics 3.3 Greek philology 3.4 Autobiography4 Notes 5 ReferencesBiography[edit] Reiske was born at Zörbig, in the Electorate of Saxony. From the Orphanage
Orphanage
in Halle he passed in 1733 to the University of Leipzig, and there spent five years. He tried to find his own way in middle Greek literature, to which German schools then gave little attention; but, as he had not mastered the grammar, he soon found this a sore task and took up Arabic. He was poor, having almost nothing beyond his allowance, which for the five years was only two hundred thalers
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Rhetoric
Rhetoric
Rhetoric
is the art of discourse, wherein a writer or speaker strives to inform, persuade or motivate particular audiences in specific situations. It can also be in a visual form; as a subject of formal study and a productive civic practice, rhetoric has played a central role in the European tradition.[1] Its best known definition comes from Aristotle, who considers it a counterpart of both logic and politics, and calls it "the faculty of observing in any given case the available means of persuasion."[2] Rhetoric
Rhetoric
typically provides heuristics for understanding, discovering, and developing arguments for particular situations, such as Aristotle's three persuasive audience appeals, logos, pathos, and ethos. The five canons of rhetoric, which trace the traditional tasks in designing a persuasive speech, were first codified in classical Rome: invention, arrangement, style, memory, and delivery
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Roman Empire
Mediolanum
Mediolanum
(286–402, Western) Augusta Treverorum Sirmium Ravenna
Ravenna
(402–476, Western)
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Thrace
Thrace
Thrace
(/θreɪs/; Modern Greek: Θράκη, Thráke; Bulgarian: Тракия, Trakiya; Turkish: Trakya) is a geographical and historical area in southeast Europe, now split between Bulgaria, Greece
Greece
and Turkey, which is bounded by the Balkan Mountains
Balkan Mountains
to the north, the Aegean Sea
Aegean Sea
to the south and the Black Sea
Black Sea
to the east
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Mysia
Mysia
Mysia
(UK /ˈmɪsiə/, US /ˈmɪʒə/ or /ˈmiːʒə/; Greek: Μυσία, Latin: Mysia, Turkish: Misya) was a region in the northwest of ancient Asia Minor
Asia Minor
(Anatolia, Asian part of modern Turkey). It was located on the south coast of the Sea of Marmara. It was bounded by Bithynia
Bithynia
on the east, Phrygia
Phrygia
on the southeast, Lydia on the south, Aeolis
Aeolis
on the southwest, Troad
Troad
on the west and by the Propontis
Propontis
on the north. In ancient times it was inhabited by the Mysians, Phrygians, Aeolian Greeks
Greeks
and other groups.Contents1 Geography1.1 Land and elevation 1.2 Cities2 History 3 Ancient bridges 4 See also 5 References 6 Sources and external linksGeography[edit] The precise limits of Mysia
Mysia
are difficult to assign
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Scythia
Pontic SteppeDomestication of the horse Kurgan Kurgan
Kurgan
culture Steppe culturesBug-Dniester Sredny Stog Dnieper-Donets Samara Khvalynsk YamnaMikhaylovka cultureCaucasusMaykopEast-AsiaAfanasevoEastern EuropeUsatovo Cernavodă CucuteniNorthern EuropeCorded wareBaden Middle DnieperBronze AgePontic SteppeChariot Yamna Catacomb Multi-cordoned ware Poltavka SrubnaNorthern/Eastern SteppeAbashevo culture Andronovo SintashtaEuropeGlobular Amphora Corded ware Beaker Unetice Trzciniec Nordi
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Getae
The Getae
Getae
/ˈdʒiːtiː/ or /ˈɡiːtiː/ or Gets (Ancient Greek: Γέται, singular Γέτης) were several Thracian
Thracian
tribes that once inhabited the regions to either side of the Lower Danube, in what is today northern Bulgaria
Bulgaria
and southern Romania
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Nerva
18 September 96 – 27 January 98 (15 months)Predecessor DomitianSuccessor TrajanBorn (30-11-08)8 November 30 Narni, ItalyDied 27 January 98(98-01-27) (aged 67) Gardens of Sallust, RomeBurial Mausoleum of Augustus, RomeIssue Trajan
Trajan
(adoptive)Full nameMarcus Cocceius Nerva (before accession); Imperator Marcus Cocceius Nerva
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Roman Army
The Roman army
Roman army
(Latin: exercitus Romanus) is a term that can in general be applied to the terrestrial armed forces deployed by the Romans throughout the duration of Ancient Rome, from the Roman Kingdom (to c. 500 BC) to the Roman Republic
Roman Republic
(500–31 BC) and the Roman Empire (31 BC – 395/476 AD), and its successor the Eastern Roman or Byzantine Empire. It is thus a term that may span approximately 2,206 years (753 BC to 1453 AD), during which the Roman armed forces underwent numerous permutations in composition, organisation, equipment and tactics, while conserving a core of lasting traditions.[1][2][3]Contents1 Historical overview1.1 Early Roman army
Early Roman army
(c. 500 BC to c. 300 BC) 1.2 Roman army of the mid-Republic
Roman army of the mid-Republic
(c
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Apollonius Of Tyana
Apollonius of Tyana
Tyana
(Ancient Greek: Ἀπολλώνιος ὁ Τυανεύς; c. 15 – c. 100 AD),[1] sometimes also called Apollonios of Tyana, was a Greek Neopythagorean philosopher from the town of Tyana
Tyana
in the Roman province of Cappadocia
Cappadocia
in Anatolia.Contents1 Life dates 2 Sources 3 Comparisons with Jesus 4 Historical facts 5 Miracles 6 Journey to India 7 Writings 8 Impact8.1 Antiquity 8.2 Bahá’í 8.3 Modern era9 Editions 10 See also 11 References 12 Sources 13 External linksLife dates[edit] Apollonius was born into a respected and wealthy Greek family.[2][3] Although the precise dates of his birth and death are uncertain, most scholars agree that he was a contemporary of Jesus
Jesus
of Nazareth
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Euphrates The Stoic
Euphrates (Greek: Εὐφράτης) was an eminent Stoic philosopher, who lived c. 35–118 AD. Biography[edit] According to Philostratus,[1] he was a native of Tyre, and according to Stephanus of Byzantium,[2] of Epiphania in Syria; whereas Eunapius calls him an Egyptian. At the time when Pliny the Younger
Pliny the Younger
served in Syria
Syria
(c. 81 AD), he became acquainted with Euphrates, and seems to have formed an intimate friendship with him. In one of his letters[3] he gives us a detailed account of the virtues and talents of Euphrates:Euphrates is possessed of so many shining talents, that he cannot fail to strike and engage even the somewhat illiterate. He reasons with much force, penetration, and elegance, and frequently embodies all the sublime and luxuriant eloquence of Plato. His style is rich and various, and at the same time so wonderfully sweet, that it seduces the attention of the most unwilling hearer
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Sophists
A sophist (Greek: σοφιστής, sophistes) was a specific kind of teacher in ancient Greece, in the fifth and fourth centuries BC. Many sophists specialized in using the tools of philosophy and rhetoric, though other sophists taught subjects such as music, athletics, and mathematics. In general, they claimed to teach arete ("excellence" or "virtue", applied to various subject areas), predominantly to young statesmen and nobility. The term originated from Greek σόφισμα, sophisma, from σοφίζω, sophizo "I am wise"; confer σοφιστής, sophistēs, meaning "wise-ist, one who does wisdom," and σοφός, sophós means "wise man". There are not many writings from and about the first sophists
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On The False Embassy
On the False Embassy (Ancient Greek: Περὶ τῆς παραπρεσβείας) is the name of two famous judicial orations, both delivered in 343 BC by the prominent Athenian statesmen and fierce opponents, Demosthenes
Demosthenes
and Aeschines.Contents1 Historical background 2 The speeches 3 The outcome 4 References 5 External linksHistorical background[edit] Since 357 BC, when Philip II of Macedon
Philip II of Macedon
seized Amphipolis
Amphipolis
and Pydna, Athens was formally in a state of war against the Macedonians.[1] In 347 BC, an Athenian delegation, comprising Demosthenes, Aeschines, and Philocrates, was officially sent to Pella
Pella
to negotiate a peace treaty with the King. Philip imposed his own harsh terms that the Ecclesia officially accepted
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Philostratus
Philostratus or Lucius Flavius Philostratus (/fɪˈlɒstrətəs/; Greek: Φλάβιος Φιλόστρατος;[1] c. 170/172 – 247/250), called "the Athenian", was a Greek sophist of the Roman imperial period. His father was a minor sophist of the same name. He was born probably around 172, and is said by the Suda
Suda
to have been living in the reign of emperor Philip the Arab
Philip the Arab
(244–249). His death possibly occurred in Tyre c. 250 AD.Contents1 Name and identity 2 Works attributed to Philostratus 3 Notes 4 References 5 Further reading 6 External linksName and identity[edit] Some ambiguity surrounds his name. The praenom Flavius is given in The Lives of the Sophists and Tzetzes
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Photios I Of Constantinople
Photios I (Greek: Φώτιος Phōtios), (c. 810/820 – 6 February 893), [a] also spelled Photius[3] (/ˈfoʊʃəs/) or Fotios, was the Ecumenical Patriarch of Constantinople
Constantinople
from 858 to 867 and from 877 to 886;[4] He is recognized in the Eastern Orthodox Church
Eastern Orthodox Church
as St. Photios the Great. Photios is widely regarded as the most powerful and influential church leader of Constantinople
Constantinople
subsequent to John Chrysostom's archbishopric around the turn of the fifth century
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