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Dimitrije Ljubavić
Dimitrije Ljubavić (Venice, January 1519 - Brașov, 1564) was a Serbian Orthodox deacon, humanist, writer and printer who, together with Philip Melanchthon, the German reformer, initiated the first formal contact between the Eastern Orthodox Church
Eastern Orthodox Church
and the Lutherans in 1559 when Ljubavić took a copy of the Augsburg Confession
Augsburg Confession
to Patriarch Joasaph II of Constantinople. He is also referred to as Demetrios Mysos or Demetrius Mysos (also Demetrius of Thessalonica) in Lutheran and other Western books.Contents1 Biography 2 Early life 3 From Goražde to Târgoviște 4 Travels 5 Reformation: Lutherans and Serbs 6 See also 7 ReferencesBiography[edit] He came from a distinguished family of early printers, scholars, diplomats and humanists
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Venice
Venice
Venice
(/ˈvɛnɪs/, VEN-iss; Italian: Venezia, [veˈnɛttsja] ( listen); Venetian: Venesia, [veˈnɛsja]) is a city in northeastern Italy
Italy
and the capital of the Veneto
Veneto
region. It is situated across a group of 118 small islands[1] that are separated by canals and linked by bridges, of which there are 400.[2][3] The islands are located in the shallow Venetian Lagoon, an enclosed bay that lies between the mouths of the Po and the Piave Rivers. Parts of Venice
Venice
are renowned for the beauty of their settings, their architecture, and artwork.[2] The lagoon and a part of the city are listed as a World Heritage Site.[2] In 2014, 264,579 people resided in Comune
Comune
di Venezia, of whom around 55,000 live in the historic city of Venice
Venice
(Centro storico)
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Primoz Trubar
Primož Trubar or Primož Truber[nb 2] ( pronunciation (help·info)) (1508[nb 1] – 28 June 1586)[1] was a Slovenian Protestant Reformer of the Lutheran tradition, mostly known as the author of the first Slovene language printed book,[2] the founder and the first superintendent of the Protestant Church of the Duchy of Carniola, and for consolidating the Slovene language. Trubar introduced Lutheranism in Slovenia, but after the Austrian Habsburgs introduced the Counter-Reformation only a small community remained in the Prekmurje region
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Osiou Gregoriou Monastery
Osiou Gregoriou monastery (Greek: Μονή Οσίου Γρηγορίου) is an Orthodox Christian monastery in the monastic state of Mount Athos in Greece. The monastery ranks seventeenth in the hierarchy of the Athonite monasteries. The monastery is built by the sea, on the southeastern side of the peninsula. Its close neighbours are Simonospetros and St Pauls Monasteries. Gregoriou is very much a pilgrim friendly monastery with a strong pastoral sense. Pilgrim visitors are high and well provided for. The choir singing is very traditional Byzantine chanting and is one of the highest standards on Mt Athos, with perhaps only Vatopedi outdoing it
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Agiou Pavlou Monastery
Agiou Pavlou monastery (Greek: Μονή Αγίου Παύλου; Romanian: Mănăstirea Sfântul Pavel) is an Eastern Orthodox monastery in the monastic state of Mount Athos, located on the easternmost peninsula of Chalkidiki, Greece. The founder of monastery was Paul of Xeropotamou, after whom it is named.Agiou Pavlou monastery.The monastery is in the western part of the Athos peninsula and its Katholikon (main church) is dedicated to the Presentation of Christ in the Temple. Its feast day is celebrated on 2 February. (Since the monastic community of Mount Athos observes the Julian Calendar, which is currently 13 days behind the civil calendar, 2 February on the Julian Calendar falls on 15 February of the modern Gregorian Calendar.) History[edit] The Monastery was founded in the late 10th to early 11th century by Saint Paul of Xeropotamou, also the founder of the Xeropotamou Monastery
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Dionysiou Monastery
Dionysiou Monastery (Greek: Μονή Διονυσίου) is an Eastern Orthodox monastery at the monastic state of Mount Athos in Greece in southwest part of Athos peninsula. The monastery ranks fifth in the hierarchy of the Athonite monasteries. It is one of the twenty self-governing monasteries in Athos, and it was dedicated to John the Baptist.Contents1 History 2 Manuscripts 3 Gallery 4 References 5 External linksHistory[edit]Dionysiou monastery as seen from a nearby cliffDionysiou monasteryThe monastery was founded in the 14th century by Saint Dionysius of Korisos, and it was named after him. It was built in Byzantine style. By the end of the 15th century according to the Russian pilgrim Isaiah, the monastery was Serbian.[1] The library of the monastery housed 804 manuscripts, and more than 4,000 printed books
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Zograf Monastery
The Saint George the Zograf Monastery or Zograf Monastery (Bulgarian: Зографски манастир; Greek: Μονή Ζωγράφου, Moní Zográphou) is a Bulgarian Orthodox monastery on Mount Athos (the "Holy Mountain") in Greece. It was founded in the late 9th or early 10th century by three Bulgarians from Ohrid and is regarded as the historical Bulgarian monastery on Mount Athos, and is traditionally inhabited by Bulgarian Orthodox monks. The monastery is named after the 13th or 14th century icon of Saint George, known as Saint George the Zograf (Светѝ Гео̀рги Зогра̀ф). The name of the latter comes from the belief that the icon mysteriously painted itself on the prepared board (zograf(os) in Greek means "painter" (from zoe="life" and graphos="scribe").Contents1 History 2 Library 3 Honours 4 Gallery 5 References 6 External linksHistory[edit] The earliest written evidence of the monastery's existence dates from 980
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Koutloumousiou
The Koutloumousiou Monastery
Monastery
(Greek: Μονή Κουτλουμουσίου) or Koutloumousi (Κουτλουμούσι) is an Eastern Orthodox monastery in the monastic state of Mount Athos
Mount Athos
in Greece. The monastery ranks sixth in the hierarchy of the Athonite monasteries. The monastery was raised with the help of voivodes Nicolae Alexandru and Vladislav Vlaicu
Vladislav Vlaicu
from Wallachia.[1] Among the treasures of the monastery is the purported largest relic of the True Cross. The monastery's library contains 662 manuscripts and approximately 3,500 printed books. It has 20 working monks. Image gallery[edit]Olive trees near the monasteryThe church of the monasteryChurch detailCourtyard detailReferences[edit]^ http://www.mountathos.gr/active.aspx?mode=en 58c89da4-f6e0-4e21-8c4b-70308d98a2c1 View Archived 2016-03-03 at the Wayback Machine.A. E. Bakalopulos (1973)
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Johannes Honter
Johannes Honter
Johannes Honter
(also known as Johann Hynter; Latinized as Johann Honterus or Ioannes Honterus; Romanian sources may credit him as Ioan, Hungarian ones as János; 1498 – 23 January 1549) was a Transylvanian Saxon, renaissance humanist and theologian. Honter is best known for his geographic and cartographic publishing activity, as well as for implementing the Lutheran
Lutheran
reform in Transylvania
Transylvania
and founding the Evangelical Church of Augustan Confession in Romania.Contents1 Education and activity1.1 Early life 1.2 In Braşov2 References 3 Bibliography 4 External linksEducation and activity[edit] Early life[edit] Born in Braşov
Braşov
(Kronstadt, Brassó), Transylvania, Kingdom of Hungary, nowadays Romania, he studied at the University of Vienna between 1520 and 1525, graduating with a magister artium title
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Slavonic-Serbian
Slavonic-Serbian
Slavonic-Serbian
(славяносербскій, slavyanoserbskiy), Slavo-Serbian, or Slaveno-Serbian (славено-сербскiй, slaveno-serbski; Serbian: славеносрпски/slavenosrpski) was a literary language used by the Serbs
Serbs
in the Habsburg Empire, mostly in what is now Vojvodina, from the mid-18th century to the first decades of the 19th century
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Şcheii Braşovului
Şcheii Braşovului (Hungarian: Bolgárszeg, German: Belgerei or more recently Obere Vorstadt; traditional Romanian name: Bulgărimea, colloquially Şchei) is the old ethnically Bulgarian and Romanian neighborhood of Braşov, a city in Transylvania, Romania. This village-like section of the town is mostly made up of small houses built along narrow roads with gardens and small fields on the sides of the mountains. Until the 17th century, the inhabitants of Şchei were forbidden from owning property inside the city walls. The people living in the Şchei could only enter the town at certain times and had to pay a toll at the Catherine's Gate for the privilege of selling their produce inside the town. Catherine's Gate was the only entrance for the Romanians — they were not allowed to use the other four entrances. It was in Şchei that Braşov's first Romanian School was established, next to the Romanian Orthodox church of St
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Hans Von Ungnad
Hans von Ungnad (1493-1564) was 16th-century Habsburg nobleman who was best known as founder of the South Slavic Bible Institute established to publish Protestant books translated to South Slavic languages.Contents1 Military career 2 South Slavic Bible Institute 3 References 4 SourcesMilitary career[edit] In 1540 Ungnad had been appointed on the position of Captain General of Lower Austria (modern-day Slovenia), Croatia and other Habsburg estates.[1] The main threat to the territory he was responsible for was the Ottoman Empire and its forces in Ottoman Bosnia.[1] He believed that the best way to confront it was to spread the Protestantism to the very gates of Istanbul.[2] In 1555 he refused to execute anti-Protestant measures requested by Ferdinand I, resigned his position and opted for voluntary exile in Germany.[3] South Slavic Bible Institute[edit] Main article: South Slavic Bible Institute The South Slavic Bible Institute[4] (German: Südslawische Bibelanstalt
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South Slavic Bible Institute
The South Slavic Bible Institute[1] (German: Südslawische Bibelanstalt)[2] was established in Urach (modern-day Bad Urach) in January 1561 by Baron Hans von Ungnad, who was its owner and patron.[3] Ungnad was supported by Christoph, Duke of Württemberg, who allowed Ungnad to use his castle (former convent) of Amandenhof near Urach[4] as a seat of this institute.[5] Baron Ungnad was interested in Protestant proselytism propagated by Primož Trubar and attended the session of German theologians held in Tubingen in 1561.[4] At that occasion Ungnad, probably instructed by Duke Christoph, agreed that he would take responsibility for publishing Slavic books.[4] Within the institute, Ungnad set up a press which he referred to as "the Slovene, Croatian and Cyrillic press" (German: Windische, Chrabatische und Cirulische Trukherey).[3] The manager and supervisor of the institute was Primož Trubar.[3] The books they printed at this press were planned to be used throughout the entire territory
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Stjepan Konzul Istranin
Stjepan Konzul Istranin (1521 — after 1568) was a 16th century Protestant reformator who authored and translated religious books to Čakavian dialect.[1] Istranin was the most important Croatian language Protestant writer.[2] Istranin was born in Buzet in 1521
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Hilandar
The Hilandar
Hilandar
Monastery (Serbian Cyrillic: Манастир Хиландар, pronounced [xilǎndaːr], Greek: Μονή Χιλανδαρίου) is the Serbian Orthodox monastery
Serbian Orthodox monastery
in Mount Athos in Greece. It was founded in 1198 by first Archbishop
Archbishop
of the Serbian Orthodox Church
Serbian Orthodox Church
Saint Sava
Saint Sava
and his father and founder of the Nemanjić dynasty
Nemanjić dynasty
Grand Prince
Grand Prince
Stefan Nemanja, who upon relinquishing his crown, took monastic vows to become ordinary monk Symeon in Hilandar
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