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Diesel-electric Submarine
A submarine (or simply sub) is a watercraft capable of independent operation underwater. It differs from a submersible, which has more limited underwater capability. The term most commonly refers to a large, crewed vessel. It is also sometimes used historically or colloquially to refer to remotely operated vehicles and robots, as well as medium-sized or smaller vessels, such as the midget submarine and the wet sub. The noun submarine evolved as a shortened form of submarine boat;[1] by naval tradition, submarines are usually referred to as "boats" rather than as "ships", regardless of their size (boat is usually reserved for seagoing vessels of relatively small size). Although experimental submarines had been built before, submarine design took off during the 19th century, and they were adopted by several navies. Submarines were first widely used during World War I (1914–1918), and now figure in many navies large and small
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Submarine (other)
A submarine is a specialized watercraft that can operate underwater. Submarine
Submarine
may also refer to:Underwater, when this means "under the sea"Contents1 Film 2 Literature 3 Music 4 Other usesFilm[edit]Genre Submarine
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Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor
Charles V (Spanish: Carlos; German: Karl; Italian: Carlo; Latin: Carolus; Dutch: Karel; French: Charles, [a] 24 February 1500 – 21 September 1558) was ruler of both the Spanish Empire
Spanish Empire
as Charles I from 1516 and the Holy Roman Empire
Holy Roman Empire
as Charles V from 1519, as well as of the lands of the former Duchy of Burgundy
Duchy of Burgundy
from 1506. He voluntarily stepped down from these and other positions by a series of abdications between 1554 and 1556. Through inheritance, he brought together under his rule extensive territories in western, central, and southern Europe, and the Spanish viceroyalties in the Americas and Asia
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Buoyancy
In physics, buoyancy (/ˈbɔɪənsi, -əntsi, ˈbuːjənsi, -jəntsi/)[1][2] or upthrust, is an upward force exerted by a fluid that opposes the weight of an immersed object. In a column of fluid, pressure increases with depth as a result of the weight of the overlying fluid. Thus the pressure at the bottom of a column of fluid is greater than at the top of the column. Similarly, the pressure at the bottom of an object submerged in a fluid is greater than at the top of the object. This pressure difference results in a net upwards force on the object. The magnitude of that force exerted is proportional to that pressure difference, and (as explained by Archimedes' principle) is equivalent to the weight of the fluid that would otherwise occupy the volume of the object, i.e. the displaced fluid. For this reason, an object whose density is greater than that of the fluid in which it is submerged tends to sink
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Russia
Coordinates: 60°N 90°E / 60°N 90°E / 60; 90Russian Federation Росси́йская Федерaция (Russian) Rossiyskaya FederatsiyaFlagCoat of armsAnthem:  "Gosudarstvenny gimn Rossiyskoy Federatsii"  (transliteration) "State Anthem of the Russian Federation"Location of Russia
Russia
(green) Russian-administered Crimea
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Typhoon-class Submarine
The Project 941 or Akula, Russian "Акула" ("Shark") class submarine ( NATO
NATO
reporting name: Typhoon) is a type of nuclear-powered ballistic missile submarine deployed by the Soviet Navy
Sov

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Underwater Diving
Underwater
Underwater
diving, as a human activity, is the practice of descending below the water's surface to interact with the environment. Immersion in water and exposure to high ambient pressure have physiological effects that limit the depths and duration possible in ambient pressure diving. Humans are not physiologically and anatomically well adapted to the environmental conditions of diving, and various equipment has been developed to extend the depth and duration of human dives, and allow different types of work to be done. In ambient pressure diving, the diver is directly exposed to the pressure of the surrounding water. The ambient pressure diver may dive on breath-hold, or use breathing apparatus for scuba diving or surface-supplied diving, and the saturation diving technique reduces the risk of decompression sickness (DCS) after long-duration deep dives
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Bathyscaphe
A bathyscaphe (/ˈbæθɪskeɪf/ or /ˈbæθɪskæf/) is a free-diving self-propelled deep-sea submersible, consisting of a crew cabin similar to a bathysphere, but suspended below a float rather than from a surface cable, as in the classic bathysphere design.[1] The float is filled with gasoline because it is readily available, buoyant, and, for all practical purposes, incompressible. The incompressibility of the gasoline means the tanks can be very lightly constructed, since the pressure inside and outside the tanks equalises and they are not required to withstand any pressure differential at all. By contrast, the crew cabin must withstand a huge pressure differential and is massively built
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Diving Bell
A diving bell is a rigid chamber used to transport divers from the surface to depth and back in open water, usually for the purpose of performing underwater work. The most common types are the open bottomed wet bell and the closed bell, which can maintain an internal pressure greater than the external ambient.[1] Diving bells are usually suspended by a cable, and lifted and lowered by a winch from a surface support platform. Unlike a submersible, the diving bell is not designed to move under the control of its occupants, nor to operate independently of its launch and recovery system. The wet bell is a structure with an airtight chamber which is open to the water at the bottom, that is lowered underwater to operate as a base or a means of transport for a small number of divers
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History Of Submarines
Beginning in ancient times, humans sought to operate under the water. From simple submersibles to nuclear-powered underwater behemoths, humans have searched for a means to remain safely underwater to gain the advantage in warfare, resulting in the development of the submarine.It was first built in 1620.Contents1 Technology1.1 Early submarines 1.2 Early military submarines 1.3 Mechanical power 1.4 Electric
Electric
power 1.5 The modern submarine 1.6 Interwar developments 1.7 Nuclear propulsion and missile platforms 1.8 Recent2 Associated technology2.1 Sensors 2.2 Weapons
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Jean Taisnier
Jean Taisner (or Taisnier) (Latin: Johannes Taisnerius; 1508, Ath, Habsburg Netherlands
Habsburg Netherlands
– 1562, Cologne) was a musician, astrologer, and self-styled mathematician who published a number of works. A publication of his entitled Opusculum perpetua memoria dignissimum, de natura magnetis et ejus effectibus, Item de motu continuo is considered a piece of plagiarism, as Taisner presents, as though his own, the Epistola de magnete of Peter of Maricourt and a treatise on the fall of bodies by Gianbattista Benedetti. The work describes a magnetic-based perpetual motion machine consisting of a ramp, a magnet stone and an iron ball. Peter of Maricourt had earlier noted such a system which made use of the strength of the magnet stone
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Tagus
The Tagus
Tagus
(/ˈteɪɡəs/; Spanish: Tajo, [ˈtaxo]; Portuguese: Tejo, [ˈtɛʒu]) is the longest river in the Iberian Peninsula. It is 1,007 km (626 mi) long, 716 km (445 mi) in Spain, 47 km (29 mi) along the border between Portugal
Portugal
and Spain and 275 km (171 mi) in Portugal, where it empties into the Atlantic Ocean near Lisbon. It drains an area of 80,100 square kilometers (30,927 sq mi) (the second largest in the Iberian peninsula after the Douro). The Tagus
Tagus
is highly utilized for most of its course. Several dams and diversions supply drinking water to places of central Spain
Spain
and Portugal, while dozens of hydroelectric stations create power. Between dams it follows a very constricted course, but after Almourol it enters a vast alluvial valley prone to flooding
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Toledo, Spain
Toledo (Spanish: [toˈleðo]) is a city and municipality located in central Spain; it is the capital of the province of Toledo and the autonomous community of Castile–La Mancha. Toledo was declared a World Heritage Site
World Heritage Site
by UNESCO
UNESCO
in 1986 for its extensive monumental and cultural heritage. Toledo is known as the "Imperial City" for having been the main venue of the court of Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor, and as the "City of the Three Cultures" for the cultural influences of Christians, Muslims and Jews reflected in its history. It was also the capital of the ancient Visigothic kingdom of Hispania, which followed the fall of the Roman Empire, and the location of historic events such as the Visigothic Councils of Toledo
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William Bourne (mathematician)
William Bourne (c. 1535–1582) was an English mathematician, innkeeper and former Royal Navy
Royal Navy
gunner who presented the first design for a navigable submarine and wrote important navigational manuals. He is often called William Bourne of Gravesend. In 1574, he produced a popular version of the Martín Cortés de Albacar's Arte de Navegar, entitled A Regiment for the Sea. Bourne was critical of some aspects of the original and produced a manual of more practical use to the seaman. He described how to make observations of the sun and stars, using a cross-staff, and how to plot coastal features from the ship by taking bearings using triangulation.[1]Contents1 Life in Gravesend 2 Submarine
Submarine
Design 3 Inventions or Devises 4 Partial list of publications 5 References 6 External linksLife in Gravesend[edit] Before publishing his submarine design, William Bourne was a jurat in Gravesend, England
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Diving Plane
Diving planes, also known as hydroplanes, are control surfaces found on a submarine which allow the vessel to pitch its bow and stern up or down to assist in the process of submerging or surfacing the boat, as well as controlling depth when submerged.[1]Contents1 Bow and stern planes 2 Fairwater planes 3 Controls 4 Cars 5 ReferencesBow and stern planes[edit]US Balao-class USS Bowfin of World War II, showing bow planes rigged upwards for stowageDiving planes are usually fitted in two pairs, the bow planes at the front of the submarine and the stern planes at the rear. The stern planes function in much the same way as an aircraft's elevator. As the planes are a long distance fore-and-aft from the hull's centre of buoyancy, they introduce a pitching moment. Ballast tanks within the submarine adjust buoyancy to be neutral, making the boat controllable. The position of the planes controls the pitch of the boat and with the forward motion of the boat this controls depth
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John Napier
John Napier
John Napier
of Merchiston
Merchiston
(/ˈneɪpɪər/;[1] 1550 – 4 April 1617); also signed as Neper, Nepair; nicknamed Marvellous Merchiston) was a Scottish landowner known as a mathematician, physicist, and astronomer. He was the 8th Laird
Laird
of Merchiston. His Latinized name was Ioannes Neper. John Napier
John Napier
is best known as the discoverer of logarithms. He also invented the so-called "Napier's bones" and made common the use of the decimal point in arithmetic and mathematics. Napier's birthplace, Merchiston
Merchiston
Tower in Edinburgh, is now part of the facilities of Edinburgh
Edinburgh
Napier University. Napier died from the effects of gout at home at Merchiston Castle
Merchiston Castle
and his remains were buried in the kirkyard of St Giles
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