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Diesel Engine
The diesel engine (also known as a compression-ignition or CI engine), named after Rudolf Diesel, is an internal combustion engine in which ignition of the fuel, which is injected into the combustion chamber, is caused by the elevated temperature of the air in the cylinder due to the mechanical compression (adiabatic compression). This contrasts with spark-ignition engines such as a petrol engine (gasoline engine) or gas engine (using a gaseous fuel as opposed to petrol), which use a spark plug to ignite an air-fuel mixture. Diesel engines work by compressing only the air. This increases the air temperature inside the cylinder to such a high degree that atomised diesel fuel injected into the combustion chamber ignites spontaneously. With the fuel being injected into the air just before combustion, the dispersion of the fuel is uneven; this is called a heterogeneous air-fuel mixture
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External Combustion
An external combustion engine (EC engine) is a heat engine where a working fluid, contained internally, is heated by combustion in an external source, through the engine wall or a heat exchanger. The fluid then, by expanding and acting on the mechanism of the engine, produces motion and usable work.[1] The fluid is then cooled, compressed and reused (closed cycle), or (less commonly) dumped, and cool fluid pulled in (open cycle air engine).Contents1 Combustion 2 Working fluid2.1 Single phase 2.2 Dual phase3 See also 4 ReferencesCombustion[edit] "Combustion" refers to burning fuel with an oxidizer, to supply the heat
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Lean Mixture
Air–fuel ratio
Air–fuel ratio
(AFR) is the mass ratio of air to a solid, liquid, or gaseous fuel present in a combustion process. The combustion may take place in a controlled manner such as in an internal combustion engine or industrial furnace, or may result in an explosion (e.g., a dust explosion, gas or vapour explosion or in a thermobaric weapon). The air-fuel ratio determines whether a mixture is combustible at all, how much energy is being released, and how much unwanted pollutants are produced in the reaction. Typically a range of fuel to air ratios exists, outside of which ignition will not occur. These are known as the lower and upper explosive limits. In an internal combustion engine or industrial furnace, the air-fuel ratio is an important measure for anti-pollution and performance-tuning reasons. If exactly enough air is provided to completely burn all of the fuel, the ratio is known as the stoichiometric mixture, often abbreviated to stoich
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Oil Tanker
Handysize, Panamax, Aframax, Suezmax, Very large crude carrier (VLCC), Ultra large crude carrier (ULCC),Ti class (ti)Built: c. 1963–presentGeneral characteristicsType: Tank shipCapacity: up to 550,000 DWTNotes: Rear house, full hull, midships pipelineAn oil tanker, also known as a petroleum tanker, is a merchant ship designed for the bulk transport of oil. There are two basic types of oil tankers: crude tankers and product tankers.[1] Crude tankers move large quantities of unrefined crude oil from its point of extraction to refineries.[1] For example, moving crude oil from oil wells in Nigeria to the refineries on the coast of the United States. Product tankers, generally much smaller, are designed to move refined products from refineries to points near consuming markets
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Off-road Vehicle
An off-road vehicle is considered to be any type of vehicle which is capable of driving on and off paved or gravel surface.[1] It is generally characterized by having large tires with deep, open treads, a flexible suspension, or even caterpillar tracks.[citation needed] Other vehicles that do not travel public streets or highways are generally termed off-highway vehicles, including tractors, forklifts, cranes, backhoes, bulldozers, and golf carts.[citation needed] Off-road vehicles have an enthusiastic following because of their many uses and versatility. Several types of motorsports involve racing off-road vehicles
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European Union
The European Union
European Union
(EU) is a political and economic union of 28 member states that are located primarily in Europe.[12] It has an area of 4,475,757 km2 (1,728,099 sq mi) and an estimated population of about 513 million. The EU has developed an internal single market through a standardised system of laws that apply in all member states in those matters, and only those matters, where members have agreed to act as one
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Revolutions Per Minute
Revolutions per minute (abbreviated rpm, RPM, rev/min, r/min) is a measure of the frequency of rotation, specifically the number of rotations around a fixed axis in one minute. It is used as a measure of rotational speed of a mechanical component. In the French language, tr/min (tours par minute) is the common abbreviation. The German language uses the abbreviation U/min or u/min (Umdrehungen pro Minute).Contents1 International System of Units 2 Examples 3 See also 4 ReferencesInternational System of Units[edit] According to the International System of Units
International System of Units
(SI), rpm is not a unit. This is because the word revolution is a semantic annotation rather than a unit. The annotation is instead done as a subscript of the formula sign if needed. Because of the measured physical quantity, the formula sign has to be f for (rotational) frequency and ω or Ω for angular velocity
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Nicéphore Niépce
Joseph Nicéphore Niépce
Nicéphore Niépce
(French: [nisefɔʁ njɛps]; 7 March 1765 – 5 July 1833)[1] was a French inventor, now usually credited as the inventor of photography and a pioneer in that field.[2] Niépce developed heliography, a technique he used to create the world's oldest surviving product of a photographic process: a print made from a photoengraved printing plate in 1825.[3] In 1826 or 1827, he used a primitive camera to produce the oldest surviving photograph of a real-world scene
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Pyréolophore
The patent application written by the Niépce brothers in 1807 and granted by Napoleon
Napoleon
Bonaparte on 20 July 1807[1]The Pyréolophore[a] (French: [pi.ʁe.ɔ.lɔ.fɔʁ]) was the world's first internal combustion engine. It was invented in the early 19th century in Chalon-sur-Saône, France, by the Niépce brothers: Nicéphore (who went on to invent photography) and Claude.[1] In 1807 the brothers ran a prototype internal combustion engine, and on 20 July 1807 a patent was granted by Napoleon
Napoleon
Bonaparte after it had successfully powered a boat upstream on the river Saône. The Pyréolophore
Pyréolophore
ran on what were believed to be "controlled dust explosions" of various experimental fuels
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UK
The United Kingdom
United Kingdom
of Great Britain
Great Britain
and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
(UK) or Britain, is a sovereign country in western Europe
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Kerosene
Kerosene, also known as paraffin, lamp oil, and coal oil (an obsolete term), is a combustible hydrocarbon liquid which is derived from petroleum, widely used as a fuel in industry as well as households. Its name derives from Greek: κηρός (keros) meaning wax, and was registered as a trademark by Canadian geologist and inventor Abraham Gesner in 1854 before evolving into a genericized trademark. It is sometimes spelled kerosine in scientific and industrial usage.[1] The term kerosene is common in much of Argentina, Australia, Canada, India, New Zealand, and the United States,[2][3] while the term paraffin (or a closely related variant) is used in Chile, eastern Africa, South Africa, and in the United Kingdom,[4] and (a variant of) the term petroleum in Croatian, Czech, Danish, Dutch, Estonian, Finnish, German, Hungarian, Latvian, Serbian, Slovak and Slovenian
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Volatility (physics)
In chemistry and physics, volatility is quantified by the tendency of a substance to vaporize. Volatility is directly related to a substance's vapor pressure
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Hornsby-Akroyd Oil Engine
The Hornsby-Akroyd oil engine
Hornsby-Akroyd oil engine
was the first successful design of internal combustion engine using "heavy oil" as a fuel. It was the first to use a separate vapourising combustion chamber and is the forerunner of all hot-bulb engines. Early internal combustion engines were quite successful running on gaseous and light petroleum fuels. However, due to the dangerous nature of gasoline and light petroleum fuel, legal restrictions were placed on their transportation and storage.[clarification needed] Heavier petroleum fuels, such as kerosene, were quite prevalent, as they were used for lighting. However, heavier oils posed specific problems when used in internal combustion engines. Oil used for engine fuel must be turned to a vapour state and remain in that state during compression
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Barton Transport
Barton Transport[1] was a bus company that operated in Nottinghamshire from 1908 until 1989.Contents1 History1.1 Early years 1.2 Postwar 1.3 1970s and 1980s 1.4 Centenary2 Other operations 3 Livery 4 Depots 5 References 6 External linksHistory[edit] Plaxton Paramount
Plaxton Paramount
bodied DAF MB200The Robin Hood motif Barton Transport
Barton Transport
flag & Robin Hood logo carried on a preserved coachEarly years[edit] In October 1908, Thomas Henry Barton used a Durham Churchill charabanc to start the company's first service, between Long Eaton
Long Eaton
and the Nottingham
Nottingham
Goose Fair
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Pipeline Transport
Pipeline transport
Pipeline transport
is the transportation of goods or material through a pipe. The latest data from 2014 gives a total of slightly less than 2,175,000 miles (3,500,000 km) of pipeline in 120 countries of the world.[1] The United States had 65%, Russia had 8%, and Canada had 3%, thus 75% of all pipeline were in these three countries.[1] Pipeline and Gas Journal's worldwide survey figures indicate that 118,623 miles (190,905 km) of pipelines are planned and under construction
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