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Die Aktion
Die Aktion
Die Aktion
("The Action") was a German literary published between 1911 and 1932 in Berlin-Wilmersdorf. The magazine focused on political issues, literary Expressionism
Expressionism
and other left-wing politics. Edited by Franz Pfemfert, the magazine was initially published weekly; it was then published ever two weeks after 1919; and only sporadically starting from 1926. Publication of Die Aktion
Die Aktion
was resumed in 1981 by the Edition Nautilus publishing house
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Paul Cassirer
Paul Cassirer (21 February 1871, in Görlitz
Görlitz
– 7 January 1926, in Berlin) was a German art dealer and editor who played a significant role in the promotion of the work of artists of the Berlin
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Anarcho-syndicalism
Anarcho-syndicalism
Anarcho-syndicalism
(also referred to as revolutionary syndicalism)[1] is a theory of anarchism that views revolutionary industrial unionism or syndicalism as a method for workers in capitalist society to gain control of an economy and, with that control, influence broader society. Syndicalists consider their economic theories a strategy for facilitating worker self-activity and as an alternative co-operative economic system with democratic values and production centered on meeting human needs. The basic principles of anarcho-syndicalism are solidarity, direct action (action undertaken without the intervention of third parties such as politicians, bureaucrats, and arbitrators) and direct democracy, or workers' self-management
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Russian Revolution
The Russian Revolution
Revolution
was a pair of revolutions in Russia in 1917 which dismantled the Tsarist autocracy
Tsarist autocracy
and led to the rise of the Soviet Union. The Russian Empire
Russian Empire
collapsed with the abdication of Emperor Nicholas II and the old regime was replaced by a provisional government during the first revolution of February 1917 (March in the Gregorian calendar; the older Julian calendar
Julian calendar
was in use in Russia at the time). Alongside it arose grassroots community assemblies (called 'soviets') which contended for authority
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Lenin
Vladimir Ilyich Ulyanov,[a] better known by the alias Lenin[b] (/ˈlɛnɪn/;[1] 22 April 1870[2] – 21 January 1924), was a Russian communist revolutionary, politician and political theorist. He served as head of government of Soviet Russia
Russia
from 1917 to 1924 and of the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
from 1922 to 1924. Under his administration, Russia
Russia
and then the wider Soviet Union
Soviet Union
became a one-party communist state governed by the Russian Communist Party. Ideologically a Marxist, he developed political theories known as Leninism. Born to a wealthy middle-class family in Simbirsk, Lenin
Lenin
embraced revolutionary socialist politics following his brother's 1887 execution
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Bakunin
Bakunin
Bakunin
(Russian: Баку́нин; masculine) or Bakunina (Баку́нина; feminine) is a Russian last name.[1] There are two theories regarding the origins of this last name.[1] According to the first one, it is a variety of the last name Abakumov, which is derived from a patronymic, itself derived from various forms of the Christian male first name Avvakum.[1] However, it is also possible that this last name is related to the last name Bakulin, both of which derive from dialectal Russian words "бакуня" (bakunya) and "бакуля" (bakulya), meaning, depending on the dia
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Spartacist League
The Spartacus
Spartacus
League (German: Spartakusbund) was a Marxist revolutionary movement organized in Germany during World War I.[1] The League was named after Spartacus, leader of the largest slave rebellion of the Roman Republic. It was founded by Karl Liebknecht, Rosa Luxemburg, Clara Zetkin, and others. The League subsequently renamed itself the Kommunistische Partei Deutschlands (KPD), joining the Comintern
Comintern
in 1919
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Communist Party Of Germany
Former partiesCambodiaKPK KPRPIndonesia Korea Malaya and SingaporeMarxist–Leninist Revolutionary FactionPhilippines Saudi Arabia Sarawak Taiwan ThailandEuropeAlbania Armenia AustriaKPÖ PdA KIAzerbaijan Belarus BelgiumPvdA/PTB KP PCBosnia and Herzegovina BulgariaKPB SKBCroatia Cyprus Czech Republic DenmarkDKP KPiD APKEstonia Finland FrancePCF PCOF PRCFGeorgia GermanyKPD DKP MLPDGreeceΚΚΕ ΚΟΕ ΑΚΟΑ AnasintaxiHungary IrelandCPI WPIItalyPC PRC PMLI CPLatvia Lithuania Luxembourg Malta Moldova Netherlands NorwayNKP MLGRPoland Portugal Romania RussiaKR CPRF CPSJ PDP RCWP-CPSU RMP RULFSan Marino Serbia Slovakia SpainPCE PCC PCPE PCE (M-L)SwedenKP SKPSwitzerland TurkeyDHKP/C EMEP HTKP KDH/L KKP TKP MKP MLKP TDKP TKEP TKEP/L TKIP TKP/MLUkraine
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Syndicalism
Syndicalism
Syndicalism
is a proposed type of economic system, considered a replacement for capitalism. It suggests that workers, industries, and organisations be systematized into confederations or syndicates. It is "...a system of economic organization in which industries are owned and managed by the workers."[1] Its theory and practice is the advocacy of multiple cooperative productive units composed of specialists and representatives of workers in each field to negotiate and manage the economy. For adherents, labour unions and labour training (see below) are the potential means of both overcoming economic aristocracy and running society in the interest of informed and skilled majorities, through union democracy. Industry in a syndicalist system would be run through co-operative confederations and mutual aid
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Communist Workers Party Of Germany
The Communist Workers' Party of Germany (German: Kommunistische Arbeiter-Partei Deutschlands; KAPD) was an anti-parliamentarian and left communist party that was active in Germany during the time of the Weimar Republic
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Council Communism
Council communism
Council communism
(also councilism) is a current of socialist thought that emerged in the 1920s. Inspired by the November Revolution, councilism was characterized by its opposition to state capitalism/state socialism and its advocacy of workers' councils and council democracy as the basis for dismantling the class state. Strong in Germany
Germany
and the Netherlands
Netherlands
during the 1920s, council communism continues to exist today within the greater socialist and communist movement. Chief among the tenets of council communism is its opposition to the party vanguardism and democratic centralism[1] of Leninist ideologies and its contention that democratic workers' councils arising in the factories and municipalities are the natural form of working class organization and authority
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Free Workers' Union Of Germany
The Free Workers' Union of Germany (German: Freie Arbeiter Union Deutschlands; FAUD) was an anarcho-syndicalist trade union in Germany. It stemmed from the Free Association of German Trade Unions
Free Association of German Trade Unions
(FDVG) which combined with the Ruhr
Ruhr
region's Freie Arbeiter Union on September 15, 1919. The FAUD was involved in the revolution in Germany from 1918–1923, and continued to be involved in the German labor movement after the FAUD began to decline in 1923. After 1921, the FAUD added an "AS" to their name, signifying a full transition from simple syndicalism to anarcho-syndicalism. This also led to further difficulties between the intellectual elites of the FAUD (AS), such as Rudolf Rocker, and the rank and file workers, mostly in the Ruhr, who were more worried about "bread and butter" issues than anarchist political activities
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Rudolf Rocker
Johann Rudolf Rocker
Rudolf Rocker
(March 25, 1873 – September 19, 1958) was an anarchist writer and activist
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Egon Schiele
Egon Schiele
Egon Schiele
(German: [ˈʃiːlə] ( listen); 12 June 1890 – 31 October 1918) was an Austrian painter. A protégé of Gustav Klimt, Schiele was a major figurative painter of the early 20th century. His work is noted for its intensity and its raw sexuality, and the many self-portraits the artist produced, including naked self-portraits. The twisted body shapes and the expressive line that characterize Schiele's paintings and drawings mark the artist as an early exponent of Expressionism.Contents1 Biography1.1 Early life 1.2 Academy of Fine Arts 1.3 Klimt and first exhibitions 1.4 Neulengbach
Neulengbach
and imprisonment 1.5 WWI to death2 Style 3 Legacy3.1 Art collections 3.2 Auction history4 Self portraits 5 Figurative works 6 Landscapes 7 Notes 8 References 9 External linksBiography[edit] Early life[edit]Schiele aged 16, self-portrait from 1906Schiele was born in 1890 in Tulln, Lower Austria
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Hyperinflation
In economics, hyperinflation occurs when a country experiences very high and usually accelerating rates of inflation, rapidly eroding the real value of the local currency, and causing the population to minimize their holdings of local money. The population normally switches to holding relatively stable foreign currencies. Under such conditions, the general price level within an economy increases rapidly as the official currency quickly loses real value.[1] The value of economic items remains relatively stable in terms of foreign currencies. Unlike low inflation, where the process of rising prices is protracted and not generally noticeable except by studying past market prices, hyperinflation sees a rapid and continuing increase in nominal prices, the nominal cost of goods, and in the supply of money.[2] Typically, however, the general price level rises even more rapidly than the money supply as people try ridding themselves of the devaluing currency as quickly as possible
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German Rentenmark
The Rentenmark ( pronunciation (help·info); RM) was a currency issued on 15 October 1923 to stop the hyperinflation of 1922 and 1923 in Weimar Germany. It was subdivided into 100 Rentenpfennig.Contents1 History 2 Coins 3 Banknotes 4 See also 5 ReferencesHistory[edit] After the Occupation of the Ruhr
Occupation of the Ruhr
in early 1923 by French and Belgian troops, referred to as the Ruhrkampf, the German government of Wilhelm Cuno reacted by announcing a policy of passive resistance. This caused the regional economy of the Ruhr - the industrial heartland of Germany - to virtually grind to a halt. The occupation authorities reacted with arrests and deportations to strikes and sabotage. Those displaced and left without income by the Ruhrkampf and their families fell back on public income support. Tax revenues plunged as economic activity slowed dramatically. The government covered its need for funds mainly by printing money
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