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Didelphodon
Didelphodon
Didelphodon
vorax Marsh, 1889 (type) Didelphodon
Didelphodon
padanicus Cope , 1892 Didelphodon
Didelphodon
coyi Fox ">Didelph "opossum" plus ὀδών odōn "tooth") is a genus of stagodont metatherians from the Late Cretaceous of North America
North America
. CONTENTS * 1 Description * 2 Discovery * 3 Classification * 4 Paleobiology * 5 References * 6 Further reading DESCRIPTION Skull cast of Didelphodon
Didelphodon
in the Rocky Mountain Dinosaur Resource Center in Woodland Park, CO; collected in Harding County, SD. Although perhaps little larger than a Virginia opossum
Virginia opossum
, with a maximum skull length of 12.21 centimetres (4.81 in) and a weight of 5 kilograms (11 lb), Didelphodon
Didelphodon
was a large mammal by Mesozoic standards
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Durophagy
DUROPHAGY is the eating behavior of animals that consume hard-shelled or exoskeleton bearing organisms, such as corals , shelled mollusks , or crabs . It is mostly used describing fish , but is also used when describing reptiles , including fossil turtles , placodonts and invertebrates, as well as "bone-crushing" mammalian carnivores such as hyenas . Durophagy
Durophagy
requires special adaptions, such as blunt, strong teeth and a heavy jaw. DUROPHAGY IN CARNIVORANSIn the order Carnivora there are two dietary categories of durophagy, bonecrackers and bamboo eaters. Bonecrackers are exemplified by hyenas and saber-toothed cats, while bamboo eaters are primarily the giant panda and the red panda . Both have developed similar cranial morphology. However, the mandible morphology reveals more about their dietary resources
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Carnassial
CARNASSIALS are paired upper and lower teeth (either molars or premolars and molars) modified in such a way as to allow enlarged and often self-sharpening edges to pass by each other in a shearing manner. The modification arose separately in several groups of carnivorous mammals. Different pairs of teeth were involved in the separate modifications. In modern Carnivora
Carnivora
, the carnassials are the modified fourth upper premolar and the first lower molar . These teeth are also referred to as SECTORIAL teeth. Humans lack carnassial teeth
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Lance Formation
The LANCE (CREEK) FORMATION is a division of Late Cretaceous (dating to about 69 - 66 Ma) rocks in the western United States. Named after Lance Creek, Wyoming
Wyoming
, the microvertebrate fossils and dinosaurs represent important components of the latest Mesozoic
Mesozoic
vertebrate faunas
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Virginia Opossum
Didelphis marsupialis virginiana The VIRGINIA OPOSSUM ( Didelphis virginiana), commonly known as the NORTH AMERICAN OPOSSUM, is the only marsupial found in North America north of Mexico
Mexico
. In the United States, it is typically referred to simply as a POSSUM. It is a solitary and nocturnal animal about the size of a domestic cat. It is a successful opportunist. It is familiar to many North Americans as it is often seen near towns, rummaging through garbage cans. CONTENTS * 1 Name * 2 Range * 3 Description * 3.1 Tracks * 3.2 Behavior * 3.3 Reproduction * 3.4 Life span * 4 Historical references * 5 Relationship with humans * 6 References * 7 External links NAMEThe Virginia opossum
Virginia opossum
is the original animal named "opossum "
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Late Cretaceous
The LATE CRETACEOUS (100.5–66 Ma ) is the younger of two epochs into which the Cretaceous period is divided in the geologic timescale . Rock strata from this epoch form the UPPER CRETACEOUS series . The Cretaceous is named after the white limestone known as chalk which occurs widely in northern France and is seen in the white cliffs of south-eastern England, and which dates from this time. CONTENTS * 1 Climate * 2 Geography * 3 Vertebrate fauna * 3.1 Dinosaurs * 3.2 Pterosaurs * 3.3 Mammals * 3.4 Marine life * 4 Flora * 5 Cretaceous– Paleogene mass extinction * 6 See also * 7 References CLIMATEDuring the Late Cretaceous, the climate was warmer than present, although throughout the period a cooling trend is evident. The tropics became restricted to equatorial regions and northern latitudes experienced markedly more seasonal climatic conditions
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Type Species
In zoological nomenclature , a TYPE SPECIES (species typica) is the species name with which the name of a genus or subgenus is considered to be permanently taxonomically associated, i.e., the species that contains the biological type specimen(s). A similar concept is used for suprageneric groups called a type genus . In botanical nomenclature , these terms have no formal standing under the code of nomenclature , but are sometimes borrowed from zoological nomenclature. In botany, the type of a genus name is a specimen (or, rarely, an illustration) which is also the type of a species name. The species name that has that type can also be referred to as the type of the genus name. Names of genus and family ranks, the various subdivisions of those ranks, and some higher-rank names based on genus names, have such types. In bacteriology , a type species is assigned for each genus
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Edward Drinker Cope
EDWARD DRINKER COPE (July 28, 1840 – April 12, 1897) was an American paleontologist and comparative anatomist , as well as a noted herpetologist and ichthyologist . He was a founder of the Neo-Lamarckism school of thought. Born to a wealthy Quaker family, Cope distinguished himself as a child prodigy interested in science; he published his first scientific paper at the age of 19. Though his father tried to raise Cope as a gentleman farmer, he eventually acquiesced to his son's scientific aspirations. Cope married his cousin and had one child; the family moved from Philadelphia
Philadelphia
to Haddonfield, New Jersey
Haddonfield, New Jersey
, although Cope would maintain a residence and museum in Philadelphia
Philadelphia
in his later years. Cope had little formal scientific training, and he eschewed a teaching position for field work
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Didelphis
The six species in the genus DIDELPHIS, commonly known as LARGE AMERICAN OPOSSUMS , are members of the order Didelphimorphia . The genus is composed of cat-sized omnivorous species, and are recognized on their prehensile tails and the tendency to "play possum" (feign dead) when cornered. The largest species, the Virginia opossum
Virginia opossum
, is the only marsupial to be found in North America
North America
north of Mexico
Mexico
. REFERENCES * ^ Gardner, A. (2005). Wilson, D.E.; Reeder, D.M., eds. Mammal Species
Species
of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference (3rd ed.). Johns Hopkins University Press. p. 5. ISBN 978-0-8018-8221-0 . OCLC 62265494
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Frenchman Formation
The FRENCHMAN FORMATION is stratigraphic unit of Late Cretaceous (late Maastrichtian ) age in the Western Canada
Canada
Sedimentary Basin . It is present in southern Saskatchewan
Saskatchewan
and the Cypress Hills of southeastern Alberta. The formation was defined by G.M. Furnival in 1942 from observations of outcrops along the Frenchman River , between Ravenscrag and Highway 37 . It contains the youngest of dinosaur genera, much like the Hell Creek Formation
Hell Creek Formation
in the United States
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Scollard Formation
The SCOLLARD FORMATION is an Upper Cretaceous
Cretaceous
to lower Palaeocene stratigraphic unit of the Western Canada
Canada
Sedimentary Basin in southwestern Alberta
Alberta
. Its deposition spanned the time interval from latest Cretaceous
Cretaceous
to early Paleocene
Paleocene
, and it includes sediments that were deposited before, during, and after the Cretaceous-Paleogene (K-Pg) extinction event . It is significant for its fossil record , and it includes the economically important coal deposits of the ARDLEY COAL ZONE
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Nomen Dubium
In zoological nomenclature , a NOMEN DUBIUM ( Latin for "doubtful name", plural NOMINA DUBIA) is a scientific name that is of unknown or doubtful application. In bacteriological nomenclature , nomina dubia may be placed on the list of rejected names by the Judicial Commission. The meaning of these names is uncertain. Other categories of names that may be treated in this way (rule 56a) are: * ambiguous names, NOMINA AMBIGUA, have been used with more than one meaning * names causing confusion, NOMINA CONFUSA, are based on a mixed culture * perplexing names, NOMINA PERPLEXA, confusingly similar names * perilous names, NOMINA PERICULOSA, names that may lead to accidents endangering life or health or with potential serious economic consequencesIn botanical nomenclature the phrase nomen dubium has no status, although it is informally used for names whose application has become confusing. In this regard however, its synonym nomen ambiguum is of more frequent use
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Borhyaenidae
BORHYAENIDAE is an extinct metatherian family of low-slung, heavily built predatory mammals in the order Sparassodonta . Borhaenids are not true marsupials , but members of a sister taxon, Sparassodonta. Like most metatherians, borhyaenids and other sparassodonts are thought to have had a pouch to carry their offspring around. Borhyaenids had strong and powerful jaws, like those of the unrelated placentalians Hyaenodon and Andrewsarchus , for crushing bones. Borhyaenids grew up to an average of 5 to 6 feet long. Borhyaena is the type genus of this group.. Originally, the Borhyaenids were one of the most expansive groups of sparassodonts, including all species not originally included in the Thylacosmilidae
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Tarsal Bones
Calcaneus
Calcaneus
Talus bone
Talus bone
Cuboid bone
Cuboid bone
Navicular bone Cuneiform bones (Medial , Intermediate , Lateral ) DETAILS IDENTIFIERS LATIN ossa tarsi TA A02.5.09.001 FMA 24491 ANATOMICAL TERMINOLOGY In tetrapods , the TARSUS is a cluster of seven articulating bones in each foot situated between the lower end of tibia and fibula of the lower leg and the metatarsus . The tarsus articulates with the bones of the metatarsus, which in turn articulate with the proximal phalanges of the toes. The joint between the tibia and fibula above and the tarsus below is referred to as the ankle joint . In humans the largest bone in the tarsus is the calcaneus , which is the weight-bearing bone within the heel of the foot
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Theria
THERIA (/ˈθɪəriə/ ; Greek : θηρίον, wild beast) is a subclass of mammals amongst the Theriiformes (the sister taxa to Yinotheria
Yinotheria
). Theria
Theria
includes the eutherians (including the placental mammals) and the metatherians (including the marsupials). CONTENTS * 1 Characteristics * 2 Evolution * 3 Taxonomy * 4 See also * 5 References * 6 External links CHARACTERISTICSTherian mammals give birth to live young without using a shelled egg . It is possible thanks to key proteins called syncytins, which allow exchanges between the mother and its offspring through a placenta even rudimental such as the marsupial ones. Genetic studies have enlighted the viral origin of syncytins through endogenization process. Therian mammals no longer have the coracoid bone, contrary to their cousins monotremes . Pinnae (external ears) are also a distinctive trait that is a therian exclusivity
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Alphadontidae
ALPHADONTIDAE was a family of small, primitive mammal that was a member of the metatherians , a group of mammals that includes modern-day marsupials
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