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Diatonic Scale
In western music theory, a diatonic scale is a heptatonic scale that includes five whole steps (whole tones) and two half steps (semitones) in each octave, in which the two half steps are separated from each other by either two or three whole steps, depending on their position in the scale. This pattern ensures that, in a diatonic scale spanning more than one octave, all the half steps are maximally separated from each other (i.e. separated by at least two whole steps). The word "diatonic" comes from the Greek διατονικός, meaning progressing through tones.[1] The seven pitches of any diatonic scale can be obtained using a chain of six perfect fifths. For instance, the seven natural pitches that form the C-major
C-major
scale can be obtained from a stack of perfect fifths starting from F:F—C—G—D—A—E—BAny sequence of seven successive natural notes, such as C-D-E-F-G-A-B, and any transposition thereof, is a diatonic scale
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Music Theory
Music
Music
theory is the study of the practices and possibilities of music. The Oxford Companion to Music
Music
describes three interrelated uses of the term "music theory":The first is what is otherwise called 'rudiments', currently taught as the elements of notation, of key signatures, of time signatures, of rhythmic notation, and so on. [...] The second is the study of writings about music from ancient times onwards. [...] The third is an area of current musicological study that seeks to define processes and general principles in music — a sphere of research that can be distinguished from analysis in that it takes as its starting-point not the individual work or performance but the fundamental materials from which it is built.[1] Music
Music
theory is frequently concerned with describing how musicians and composers make music, including tuning systems and composition methods among other topics
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Allen Forte
Allen Forte
Allen Forte
(December 23, 1926 – October 16, 2014) was an American music theorist and musicologist.[1] He was Battell Professor Emeritus of the Theory of Music at Yale University
Yale University
and specialized in 20th-century atonal music and music analysis.[2]Contents1 Early life and education 2 Academic career 3 Publications 4 Honors and awards 5 Personal life 6 Bibliography (Books and seminal articles) 7 See also 8 References 9 External linksEarly life and education[edit] Forte was born in Portland, Oregon. At the age of ten he appeared "on a [local] radio show as a solo pianist among a bevy of similarly youthful performers," where he played the music of Cole Porter and others.[3] He was in the US Navy and served in the Pacific Theatre toward the end of World War II. Afterwards, he relocated to the New York City
New York City
to study music at Columbia University
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Modal Jazz
Modal jazz
Modal jazz
is jazz that uses musical modes rather than chord progressions as a harmonic framework
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20th-century Music
During the 20th century
20th century
there was a vast increase in the variety of music that people had access to. Prior to the invention of mass market gramophone records (developed in 1892) and radio broadcasting (first commercially done ca. 1919–20), people mainly listened to music at live Classical music
Classical music
concerts or musical theatre shows, which were too expensive for many lower-income people; on early phonograph players (a technology invented in 1877 which was not mass-marketed until the mid-1890s); or by individuals performing music or singing songs on an amateur basis at home, using sheet music, which required the ability to sing, play, and read music. These were skills that tended to be limited to middle-class and upper-class individuals
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Classical Period (music)
The dates of the Classical period in Western music are generally accepted as being between about the year 1730 and the year 1820. However, the term classical music is often used in a colloquial sense as a synonym for Western art music which describes a variety of Western musical styles from the Middle Ages to the present, and especially from the seventeenth century to the nineteenth. This article is about the specific period in most of the 18th century to the early 19th century, though overlapping with the Baroque and Romantic periods.[1] The Classical period falls between the Baroque and the Romantic periods. Classical music
Classical music
has a lighter, clearer texture than Baroque music and is less complex. It is mainly homophonic, using a clear melody line over a subordinate chordal accompaniment,[2] but counterpoint was by no means forgotten, especially later in the period
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Baroque Music
Baroque
Baroque
music (US: /bəˈroʊk/ or UK: /bəˈrɒk/) is a style of Western art music
Western art music
composed from approximately 1600 to 1750.[1] This era followed the Renaissance music
Renaissance music
era, and was followed in turn by the Classical era. Baroque
Baroque
music forms a major portion of the "classical music" canon, and is now widely studied, performed, and listened to
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Heinrich Glarean
Heinrich Glarean (also Glareanus) (28 February or 3 June 1488 – 27 or 28 March 1563) was a Swiss music theorist, poet and humanist. He was born in Mollis (in the canton of Glarus, hence his name) and died in Freiburg.Contents1 Biography 2 Notes 3 References and further reading 4 External linksBiography[edit] After a thorough early training in music, Glarean enrolled in the University of Cologne, where he studied theology, philosophy, and mathematics as well as music. It was there that he wrote a famous poem as a tribute to Emperor Maximilian I. Shortly afterwards, in Basle, he met Erasmus and the two humanists became lifelong friends.[1] Glarean's first publication on music, a modest volume entitled Isagoge in musicen, was in 1516. In it he discusses the basic elements of music; probably it was used for teaching
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Jiahu
Coordinates: 33°36′47″N 113°40′01″E / 33.613°N 113.667°E / 33.613; 113.667 Jiahu
Jiahu
(Chinese: 賈湖; pinyin: Jiǎhú) was the site of a Neolithic
Neolithic
settlement based in the central plain of ancient China, near the Yellow River. It is located between the floodplains of the Ni River to the north, and the Sha River
Sha River
to the south, 22 km (14 mi) north of the modern city of Wuyang, Henan Province.[1] Most archaeologists consider the site to be one of the earliest examples of the Peiligang culture. Settled around 7000 BC, the site was later flooded and abandoned around 5700 BC. The settlement was surrounded by a moat and covered a relatively large area of 55,000 square meters (5.5 hectare)
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Gudi (instrument)
The Jiahu
Jiahu
gǔdí (贾湖骨笛) is the oldest known musical instrument from China, dating back to around 6000 BC. Gudi literally means "bone flute".Contents1 History 2 Description 3 Gallery 4 See also 5 References 6 Further reading 7 External links7.1 Sample musicHistory[edit] These bone flutes were excavated in 1986 from an early neolithic tomb in Jiahu, Wuyan County, Henan Province, in Central China. They have been dated to 6000 BC. Description[edit] These bone flutes have average dimensions of approximately 20 cm × 1.1 cm (7.9 in × 0.4 in), and are made from the wings of the red-crowned crane. They are open-ended and vary in the number of their finger holes, from one to eight; the 24 holed version has 23 holes in front and one thumb hole in back. Jiahu
Jiahu
bone whistles are much shorter than the flutes, with lengths of 5.7 to 10.5 cm (2 to 4 in), and having only a couple of holes
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Minor Third
In the music theory of Western culture, a minor third is a musical interval that encompasses three half steps, or semitones. Staff notation represents the minor third as encompassing three staff positions (see: interval number). The minor third is one of two commonly occurring thirds. It is called minor because it is the smaller of the two: the major third spans an additional semitone. For example, the interval from A to C is a minor third, as the note C lies three semitones above A, and (coincidentally) there are three staff positions from A to C. Diminished and augmented thirds span the same number of staff positions, but consist of a different number of semitones (two and five)
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Major Third
In classical music from Western culture, a third is a musical interval encompassing three staff positions (see Interval number for more details), and the major third ( Play (help·info)) is a third spanning four semitones. Along with the minor third, the major third is one of two commonly occurring thirds. It is qualified as major because it is the larger of the two: the major third spans four semitones, the minor third three. For example, the interval from C to E is a major third, as the note E lies four semitones above C, and there are three staff positions from C to E. Diminished and augmented thirds span the same number of staff positions, but consist of a different number of semitones (two and five). The major third may be derived from the harmonic series as the interval between the fourth and fifth harmonics. The major scale is so named because of the presence of this interval between its tonic and mediant (1st and 3rd) scale degrees
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Babylonia
Babylonia
Babylonia
(/ˌbæbəˈloʊniə, -ˈloʊnjə/) was an ancient Akkadian-speaking state and cultural area based in central-southern Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia
(present-day Iraq). A small Amorite-ruled state emerged in 1894 BC, which contained the minor administrative town of Babylon.[1] It was merely a small provincial town during the Akkadian
Akkadian
Empire (2335–2154 BC) but greatly expanded during the reign of Hammurabi
Hammurabi
in the first half of the 18th century BC and became a major capital city. During the reign of Hammurabi
Hammurabi
and afterwards, Babylonia
Babylonia
was called "the country of Akkad" (Māt Akkadī in Akkadian).[2][3] It was often involved in rivalry with the older state of Assyria
Assyria
to the north and Elam
Elam
to the east in Ancient Iran
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Sumer
Sumer
Sumer
(/ˈsuːmər/)[note 1] is the earliest known civilization in the historical region of southern Mesopotamia, modern-day southern Iraq, during the Chalcolithic
Chalcolithic
and Early Bronze
Bronze
ages, and arguably the first civilization in the world with Ancient Egypt
Ancient Egypt
and the Indus Valley.[1] Living along the valleys of the Tigris
Tigris
and Euphrates, Sumerian farmers were able to grow an abundance of grain and other crops, the surplus of which enabled them to settle in one place. Proto-writing
Proto-writing
in the prehistory dates back to c. 3000 BC
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Music Of Mesopotamia
This article treats the music of Ancient Mesopotamia. Cuneiform
Cuneiform
sources reveal an orderly organized system of diatonic scales, depending on the tuning of stringed instruments in alternating fifths and fourths.[citation needed] Whether this reflects all types of music is not known.Contents1 Instruments 2 See also 3 Sources 4 Further reading 5 External linksInstruments[edit] Instruments of Ancient Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia
include harps, lyres, lutes, reed pipes, and drums. Many of these were shared with neighbouring cultures
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Hierarchy
A hierarchy (from the Greek hierarchia, "rule of a high priest", from hierarkhes, "leader of sacred rites") is an arrangement of items (objects, names, values, categories, etc.) in which the items are represented as being "above", "below", or "at the same level as" one another. A hierarchy can link entities either directly or indirectly, and either vertically or diagonally. The only direct links in a hierarchy, insofar as they are hierarchical, are to one's immediate superior or to one of one's subordinates, although a system that is largely hierarchical can also incorporate alternative hierarchies. Indirect hierarchical links can extend "vertically" upwards or downwards via multiple links in the same direction, following a path. All parts of the hierarchy which are not linked vertically to one another nevertheless can be "horizontally" linked through a path by traveling up the hierarchy to find a common direct or indirect superior, and then down again
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