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Diameter In geometry , a DIAMETER of a circle is any straight line segment that passes through the center of the circle and whose endpoints lie on the circle. It can also be defined as the longest chord of the circle. Both definitions are also valid for the diameter of a sphere . In more modern usage, the length of a diameter is also called the diameter. In this sense one speaks of the diameter rather than a diameter (which refers to the line itself), because all diameters of a circle or sphere have the same length, this being twice the radius R. d = 2 r r = d 2 . {displaystyle d=2rquad Rightarrow quad r={frac {d}{2}}.} For a convex shape in the plane, the diameter is defined to be the largest distance that can be formed between two opposite parallel lines tangent to its boundary, and the width is often defined to be the smallest such distance. Both quantities can be calculated efficiently using rotating calipers [...More...]  "Diameter" on: Wikipedia Yahoo 

AutoCAD AUTOCAD is a commercial computeraided design (CAD) and drafting software application. Developed and marketed by Autodesk , AutoCAD was first released in December 1982 as a desktop app running on microcomputers with internal graphics controllers . Prior to the introduction of AutoCAD, most commercial CAD programs ran on mainframe computers or minicomputers , with each CAD operator (user) working at a separate graphics terminal . Since 2010, AutoCAD was released as a mobile and web app as well, marketed as AutoCAD 360. AutoCAD is used across a wide range of industries, by architects, project managers, engineers, graphic designers, and many other professionals. It was supported by 750 training centers worldwide in 1994 [...More...]  "AutoCAD" on: Wikipedia Yahoo 

Symbol A SYMBOL is a mark, sign, or word that indicates, signifies, or is understood as representing an idea, object, or relationship. Symbols allow people to go beyond what is known or seen by creating linkages between otherwise very different concepts and experiences. All communication (and data processing) is achieved through the use of symbols. Symbols take the form of words, sounds, gestures, ideas or visual images and are used to convey other ideas and beliefs. For example, a red octagon may be a symbol for "STOP". On a map, a blue line might represent a river. Numerals are symbols for numbers . Alphabetic letters may be symbols for sounds. Personal names are symbols representing individuals. A red rose may symbolize love and compassion. The variable 'x', in a mathematical equation, may symbolize the position of a particle in space. In cartography , an organized collection of symbols forms a legend for a map [...More...]  "Symbol" on: Wikipedia Yahoo 

Variable (mathematics) In elementary mathematics , a VARIABLE is an alphabetic character representing a number, called the value of the variable, which is either arbitrary, not fully specified, or unknown. Making algebraic computations with variables as if they were explicit numbers allows one to solve a range of problems in a single computation. A typical example is the quadratic formula , which allows one to solve every quadratic equation by simply substituting the numeric values of the coefficients of the given equation to the variables that represent them. The concept of a variable is also fundamental in calculus . Typically, a function y = f(x) involves two variables, y and x, representing respectively the value and the argument of the function. The term "variable" comes from the fact that, when the argument (also called the "variable of the function") varies, then the value varies accordingly [...More...]  "Variable (mathematics)" on: Wikipedia Yahoo 

Homoglyph In orthography and typography , a HOMOGLYPH is one of two or more graphemes , characters , or glyphs with shapes that appear identical or very similar. The designation is also applied to sequences of characters sharing these properties. SYNOGLYPHS are glyphs that look different but mean the same thing. Synoglyphs are also known informally as display variants.The term homograph is sometimes used synonymously with homoglyph, but in the usual linguistic sense, homographs are words that are spelled the same but have different meanings, a property of words, not characters. In 2008, the Unicode Consortium published its Technical Report #36 on a range of issues deriving from the visual similarity of characters both in single scripts, and similarities between characters in different scripts [...More...]  "Homoglyph" on: Wikipedia Yahoo 

Eccentricity (mathematics) In mathematics , the ECCENTRICITY , denoted e or {displaystyle varepsilon } , is a parameter associated with every conic section . It can be thought of as a measure of how much the conic section deviates from being circular. In particular, * The eccentricity of a circle is zero. * The eccentricity of an ellipse which is not a circle is greater than zero but less than 1. * The eccentricity of a parabola is 1. * The eccentricity of a hyperbola is greater than 1. * The eccentricity of a line is infinite.Furthermore, two conic sections are similar (identically shaped) if and only if they have the same eccentricity [...More...]  "Eccentricity (mathematics)" on: Wikipedia Yahoo 

Conic Section In mathematics , a CONIC SECTION (or simply CONIC) is a curve obtained as the intersection of the surface of a cone with a plane . The three types of conic section are the hyperbola , the parabola , and the ellipse . The circle is a special case of the ellipse, and is of sufficient interest in its own right that it was sometimes called a fourth type of conic section. The conic sections have been studied by the ancient Greek mathematicians with this work culminating around 200 BC, when Apollonius of Perga Apollonius of Perga undertook a systematic study of their properties. The conic sections of the Euclidean plane have various distinguishing properties. Many of these have been used as the basis for a definition of the conic sections [...More...]  "Conic Section" on: Wikipedia Yahoo 

Codomain In mathematics , the CODOMAIN or TARGET SET of a function is the set Y into which all of the output of the function is constrained to fall. It is the set Y in the notation f: X → Y. The codomain is also sometimes referred to as the range but that term is ambiguous as it may also refer to the image . The codomain is part of a function f if it is defined as described in 1954 by Nicolas Bourbaki , namely a triple (X, Y, F), with F a functional subset of the Cartesian product Cartesian product X × Y and X is the set of first components of the pairs in F (the domain). The set F is called the graph of the function. The set of all elements of the form f(x), where x ranges over the elements of the domain X, is called the image of f. In general, the image of a function is a subset of its codomain. Thus, it may not coincide with its codomain [...More...]  "Codomain" on: Wikipedia Yahoo 

Real Number In mathematics , a REAL NUMBER is a value that represents a quantity along a line . The adjective real in this context was introduced in the 17th century by René Descartes René Descartes , who distinguished between real and imaginary roots of polynomials . The real numbers include all the rational numbers , such as the integer −5 and the fraction 4/3, and all the irrational numbers , such as √2 (1.41421356..., the square root of 2 , an irrational algebraic number ). Included within the irrationals are the transcendental numbers , such as π (3.14159265...). Real numbers can be thought of as points on an infinitely long line called the number line or real line , where the points corresponding to integers are equally spaced. Any real number can be determined by a possibly infinite decimal representation , such as that of 8.632, where each consecutive digit is measured in units one tenth the size of the previous one [...More...]  "Real Number" on: Wikipedia Yahoo 

Negative Infinity In mathematics , the AFFINELY EXTENDED REAL NUMBER SYSTEM is obtained from the real number system ℝ by adding two elements: + ∞ and – ∞ (read as POSITIVE INFINITY and NEGATIVE INFINITY respectively). These new elements are not real numbers. It is useful in describing various limiting behaviors in calculus and mathematical analysis , especially in the theory of measure and integration . The affinely extended real number system is denoted R {displaystyle {overline {mathbb {R} }}} or or ℝ ∪ {–∞, +∞}. When the meaning is clear from context, the symbol +∞ is often written simply as ∞ [...More...]  "Negative Infinity" on: Wikipedia Yahoo 

Euclidean Space In geometry , EUCLIDEAN SPACE encompasses the twodimensional Euclidean plane , the threedimensional space of Euclidean geometry , and certain other spaces. It is named after the Ancient Greek mathematician Euclid Euclid of Alexandria . The term "Euclidean" distinguishes these spaces from other types of spaces considered in modern geometry . Euclidean spaces also generalize to higher dimensions . Classical Greek geometry defined the Euclidean plane and Euclidean threedimensional space using certain postulates , while the other properties of these spaces were deduced as theorems . Geometric constructions are also used to define rational numbers . When algebra and mathematical analysis became developed enough, this relation reversed and now it is more common to define Euclidean space Euclidean space using Cartesian coordinates Cartesian coordinates and the ideas of analytic geometry [...More...]  "Euclidean Space" on: Wikipedia Yahoo 

Unicode UNICODE is a computing industry standard for the consistent encoding , representation, and handling of text expressed in most of the world's writing systems . The latest version contains a repertoire of 136,755 characters covering 139 modern and historic scripts , as well as multiple symbol sets. The Unicode Unicode Standard is maintained in conjunction with ISO/IEC 10646 , and both are codeforcode identical. The Unicode Unicode Standard consists of a set of code charts for visual reference, an encoding method and set of standard character encodings , a set of reference data files , and a number of related items, such as character properties, rules for normalization , decomposition, collation , rendering, and bidirectional display order (for the correct display of text containing both righttoleft scripts, such as Arabic and Hebrew , and lefttoright scripts) [...More...]  "Unicode" on: Wikipedia Yahoo 

Miscellaneous Technical MISCELLANEOUS TECHNICAL is the name of a UNICODE BLOCK ranging from U+2300 to U+23FF, which contains various common symbols which are related to and used in the various technical, programming language, and academic professions. * Symbol Symbol ⌂ (HTML hexadecimal code is ) represents a house or a home. * Symbol Symbol ⌘ ⌘ () represents the Command key Command key on Mac keyboard . * Symbol Symbol ⌚ () is a watch (or clock ). * Symbol Symbol ⏏ () is the "Eject" button symbol found on electronic equipment. * Symbol Symbol ⏚ () is the "Earth Ground" symbol found on electrical or electronic manual, tag and equipment.It also includes most of the uncommon symbols used by the APL programming language [...More...]  "Miscellaneous Technical" on: Wikipedia Yahoo 

0 (number) 0 (ZERO; /ˈzɪəroʊ/ ) is both a number and the numerical digit used to represent that number in numerals . The number 0 fulfills a central role in mathematics as the additive identity of the integers , real numbers , and many other algebraic structures. As a digit, 0 is used as a placeholder in place value systems . Names for the number 0 in English include ZERO, NOUGHT (UK), NAUGHT (US) (/ˈnɔːt/ ), NIL, or—in contexts where at least one adjacent digit distinguishes it from the letter "O"—OH or O (/ˈoʊ/ ). Informal or slang terms for zero include ZILCH and ZIP. Ought and aught (/ˈɔːt/ ), as well as cipher, have also been used historically [...More...]  "0 (number)" on: Wikipedia Yahoo 

Microsoft Word MICROSOFT WORD is a word processor developed by Microsoft Microsoft . It was first released on October 25, 1983 under the name MultiTool Word for Xenix Xenix systems. Subsequent versions were later written for several other platforms including IBM PCs running DOS DOS (1983), Apple Macintosh running Classic Mac OS (1985), AT this was Microsoft's first attempt to synchronize version numbers across platforms. Word 3.0 included numerous internal enhancements and new features, including the first implementation of the Rich Text Format (RTF) specification, but was plagued with bugs. Within a few months, Word 3.0 was superseded by a more stable Word 3.01, which was mailed free to all registered users of 3.0. After MacWrite Pro was discontinued in the mid1990s, Word for Mac OS never had any serious rivals [...More...]  "Microsoft Word" on: Wikipedia Yahoo 